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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)
Kharavela Kingdom map

Kharavela (Khāravela, खारवेल) (?209 - after 170 BC), was the king of Kalinga. He restored the power of Kalinga after it had been devastated in a war with Maurya King Ashoka. He was the third king of the Chedi dynasty. Not much information is known about this king. The only source of information is his famous Hathigumpha inscription. [1]

Clan of Kharvela

Kharavela was the king of Kalinga, in Orissa state of India. He was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in East India. He led many successful campaigns against Magadha, Anga and modern Tamil Nadu state. He restored the power of Kalinga after it had been devastated in a war with Maurya King Ashoka. He was the third king of the Mahameghavahana dynasty. The main source of information about Kharavela is his famous seventeen line Hathigumpha inscription in a cave on Udayagiri Hill near Bhubaneswar in Orissa.

We have many Jat clans associated with Khāravela (खारवेल).

Kharvel (खारवेल) is listed as a gotra of Jats in India. It is derived from Raja Khāravela (खारवेल), who is considered as a Jat king by Jat Historians. [2]

It needs more research to find the exact origin of Kharavela. The author got a chance to visit Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves near Bhubaneswar on 15-2-2007 and saw Hathigumpha inscription personally. The main source of information about Kharavela is his famous seventeen line Hathigumpha inscription in a cave in Udayagiri hill near Bhubaneswar in Orissa.

To arrive at some conclusion we have to find the origin of words mentioned in Hathigumpha inscription. From the very first line we find that

Aireṇa Mahārājena Mahāmeghavāhana Cetarāja vasa Vadhanena xxx Kalimgādhipatinā Siri Khāravelan

Khāra word of Hindi indicates its linkages with northwest India. It means the origin of this clan is from Salt-range area situated in Sindh, which is considered to be the original home of Jats by historians. [3]

Khar (खार) is gotra of Jats[4] Hina Rabbani Khar (हिना रब्बानी खार) is the former Foreign Minister of Pakistan. She was born on January 19, 1977; at Multan, in Punjab (Pakistan), Pakistan.

We agree with scholars who are inclined to take the word’ ‘El’ or ‘Ail’ as dynastic name and connected with the ancestry of Kharavela with the puranic Aila belonging to the lunar Kshatriya dynasty. Chetraja was his father as proved above. It is very important to note the significance of word Mahāmeghavāhana. I did an analysis of Jat gotras in Muzaffarnagar district in Uttar Pradesh and found that Kharav gotra Jats live in village called Meghakheri.

Meghakheri (मेघाखेड़ी) is a village in Sadar tehsil of Muzaffarnagar district in Uttar Pradesh. It is very ancient village. Population of the village is about 3000. It is mainly a village of Kharav Jats. Out of total population 50 percent are Kharav gotra Jats. Other Jats are Malik only four families. [5]

Thus we can conclude that Kharavela was a king of Kharav Jat clan originated from village Meghakheri and got the title of Mahāmeghavāhana on this basis.

Origin of name

Exact origin of Kharavela is not yet known to the historians. Some historians have tried to speculate the origin of Kharavela. Suniti Kumar Chatterji is of the opinion that Kharavela belonged to Dravidian stock, possibly derived from the words kar ("black and terrible") and vel ("lance").[6] Richard N. Frye, however, did not find Chatterji's etymology satisfactory.[7] According to Braj Nath Puri, it is difficult to suggest a Dravidian cultural origin for Kharavela's dynasty or connect it to South India with certainty.[8] N. K. Sahu also doubts this theory, where he interprets "Aira" or "Aila" word in the Hathigumpha inscription as Kharavela must be self identifying himself as an Aryan.[9] But how he came to the conclusion has not been explained.

Sadananda Agrawal[10] writes that It would be better to take Kharavela as the prakrit form of Sanskrit word Ksharavela (Devanagari:क्षारवेल). It is significant to note here that the letter Khā (Devanagari:खा) in the Hathigumpha inscription invariably stands for kshā (Devanagari:क्षा) So, Khāra (Devanagari:खार) has to be taken as Kshāra (Devanagari:क्षार) meaning saltish and Vela means wave or shore. The word Khāra (Devanagari:खार) is still in vogue in many a northwestern Indian language in the sense “Saltish”, and the second component, vela, is also reminiscent of the word vela meaning wave or shore.

Jat Origin: Khāra (Devanagari:खार) word of Hindi indicates its linkages with northwest India. In northwest India, we find mention of Khārvel as a Jat clan originated from samrat Kharavela, in the list of Jat clans given by Jat historians. Similarly in Jat history books Ail (ऐल) has been mentioned as Aryans habitatants in northwest and Air (ऐर) as a Jat clan originated from Nagavanshi ruler named Airawat. [11] It needs more research to find the exact origin of Kharavela.

Period of Kharavela

The kingdom of Kalinga was annexed by Ashoka c. 262-261 BCE. The Hathigumpha inscription implies that Kalinga regained its independence from the Maurya Empire sometime after Ashoka's death, and Kharavela was born in an independent Kalinga.[12]

In 1885, the colonial era eipgraphist Bhagwan Lal Indraji read the 16th line of the Hathigumpha inscription as a reference to Maurya kala and 165th year after this new timeline, which he called the Mauryan era. Indraji concluded that Kharavela was born in 127 BCE and became king in 103 BCE.[13]

According to Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya, the 16th line does not mention Maurya kala ("Maurya era") but reads Mukhya kala ("the main era"). Chattopadhyaya relies on the description of Kharavela's fifth regnal year in the Hathigumpha inscription, which he says implies that Kharavela flourished ti-vasa-sata years after the Nandaraja. Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri identifies Nandaraja with Mahapadma Nanda or one of his sons. The expression ti-vasa-sata can mean 103 or 300 years; Chattopadhyaya does not consider 103 plausible, since it would contradict Ashoka's records. Based on this, he places Kharavela in the second half of the first century BCE or the first half of the first century CE.[14]

Depending on the variant readings, different dates continue to be published in post-colonial era texts. Alain Daniélou, for example, places Kharavela between 180 BCE and 130 BCE, identifying him as a contemporary of Satakarni and Pushyamitra Shunga.[15]

According to Rama Shankar Tripathi, Kharavela reigned during the third quarter of the first century BCE.[16]

Many other scholars, such as D.C. Sircar and Walter Spink, date Kharavela and the Hathigumpha inscription in the 1st-century BCE to early 1st-century CE.[17][18]

Dynasty of Kharavela

In the first line of Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela styles himself as IAST-Aireṇa Mahārājena Mahāmeghavāhana Cetarāja vasa Vadhanena xxx Kalimgādhipatinā Siri Khāravelan (Devanagari:ऐरेण महाराजेन महामेघवाहनेन चेतराज वस वधनेन पसथ सुभलखलेन चतुरंतलुठन गुणउपेनेत कलिंगाधिपतिना सिरि खारवेलेन) While the earliest scholar Prinsep and R L Mitra take the word Aira as the name of the king of Kalinga eulogised in the inscription, other few scholars are inclined to take the word as dynastic name and connected the ancestry of Kharavela with the puranic Aila belonging to the lunar Kshatriya dynasty. Bhagwan Lal Indraji is the first scholar to assert that the King whose activities are glorified in the inscription is named Kharavela.

It is significant to note here that there is also no direct evidence in Hathigumpha inscription to show that Kharavela belongs to Chedi Dynasty. The only meaning conveyed by this expression is that Kharavela was the son of Cetarāja (Devanagari:चेतराज). [19] There is a small crack in the stone above the letter ta (त) giving the impression of medial i. this crack misled some eminent scholars like R.D. Banerji and D.C. Sircar to decipher the word as Cheti (Devanagari:चेति) and this conjectural reading led the renowned scholars to hold the view that Kharavela belongs to Chedi dynasty. But in no way this can be accepted. It is pertinent to note in this context that a small inscription is found engraved in the Mancapuri Cave where King Kudepasiri (one of the successor of Kharavela) styled him self as Aira Maharaja Kalingadhipati Mahameghavahana (Devanagari:ऐरे महाराजा कलिंगाधिपतिना महामेघवाहन).

The King Sada has also been styled as Maharaja Kalinga Mahisika Adhipati Mahameghavahana. Both Kudepasiri and Sada, happen to be the successors of Kharavela, have never been stated in their respective inscription to be belonging to Cedi dysasty. It is significant that the word Aira has not been prefixed with the name of Sada.

The Vahana ending dynastic (and personal) names were quite popular during the few centuries preceding. The meaning of Mahameghavahana is the great one riding on clouds. Dr. Sahu takes Maha as the prefix of Megha and opines: “ Mahameghavahana literary means one whose vehicle is great cloud”.

In line 17 of the Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela claims to have been descended from Rajarsi Vasu Kula. King Vasu recorded in Hathigumpha inscription can not be taken as Chedi king. It is pertinent to note in the context that in Mahabharata, Meghavahana as a dynastic name is found mentioned (Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13) while the same epic preserves detailed accounts regarding the activities of Chedi dynasty (Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 63). Chedi and Meghavahana have been flourished as two distinct dynasties since the early times, so both the dynasties should not be equated. [20] We have already stated earlier that Chetaraja was the father of Kharavela and it seems probable that he was the immediate predecessor of Kharavela, belonging to be the second king in the Mahameghavahana line in Kalinga.

The line-7 of the Hathigumpha inscription indicates that the Queen of Vajiraghara (Chief Queen of Kharavela ?) gave birth to a son. Another inscription in the lower storey of the same caves informs us that it had been executed by the Aira Maharaja Kalingadhipati Mahameghavahana Kudepasiri. In this cave another inscription is incised which reveals the name of Kumara Badukha. It is to be noted here that Kumara Badukha has not assumed any royal title. However, it is difficult to be sure of the relationship between Kharavela and Kudepasir. As no available record speaks any thing more about prince Badukha, he stands an obscure figures, in history but seems to be the son or brother Kudepasiri.

Mahishka country denoted the modern coastal Andhra (Guntur – Krishna region) which was apparently added to the Mahameghavahana kingdom at least during the reign of Maharaja Sada.

The Sada rule came to an end during end first century / early second century A.D. [21]

Jat clans associated with Kharavela

If Kharavela was Jat then there must be other Jat clans to assist him. Now we find from Hathigumpha inscription some clues about other Jat clans also.

Asiagh and Kaswan Jats

It is revealed from Line-4 of the Hathigumpha inscription that Kharavela in the second year of his reign dispatched a strong force comprising cavalry, elephantry, infantry and chariotry to the western quarter without caring for or bothering about Sātakarnī, and Asikanagara was frightened on its reaching the river Kanhavemṇā. Some scholars prefer to read Masikanagara instead of Asikanagara and locate it in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh.

An article about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as [under:

Sanskrit - कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
IAST - “Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”.

This translates that the city of 'Masiknagara' was obtained with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas [22]

According to Sadananda Agrawal interpretation of the city as Masikanagara is not well-supported. Kanhavemṇā is commonly equated with the river Krishna coastal flowing in Andhra Pradesh. However, Krishna lies much to the south of Kalinga, and not west as averred in the epigraph (Devanagari: पछिमदिसं). But there is another stream flowing to the west of Kalinga in Vidarbha and known locally at present as Kanhan which flows about 17 km northwest of Nagpur and joins the river Vena (Wainganga), and it is the combined flow of these two streams that is spoken as Kanhavemṇā in our records. [23]

The recent find of a sealing belonging to the Asikajanapada in course of intensive archaeological excavations at Adam (Nagpur district) has solved also the problem of locating Asikanagara whose king or and people became frightful at the arrival of Kharavela's army at Kanhavemṇā. In view of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam, Prof AM Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara of Hathigumpha inscription. It is worth noting in the present context that a terracotta sealing having a legend, has been discovered from Adam, situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga, which reads Asakajanapadasa (Devanagari: असकजनपदस). [24]

The township of Asikanagara to the west of Nagpur indicates the township of Asiagh or Siyak jats. This is also supported by Thakur Deshraj that Asiagh Jats moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Rajasthan. This must have been migration to Rajasthan of these people when their rule came to an end. After this period their rule is recorded in Jangladesh by the Historians James Tod and Thakur Deshraj.

From the above description we can interpret that Kaswan Jat was a chieftain who helped Kharavela in his war expedition. Kaswan Jats must also have moved along with Kharavela to Kalinga. It is also confirmed from following inscription:

X- Tatowāgumphā inscription (Cave No -1)

The record of this inscription is incised over one of the entrances to the inner chamber. The Text reads in Sanskrit as

पादमुलिकस कुसुमस लेणं x [।।] (IAST: pādamulikas kusumas lenam x)

Translation: The cave of Kusuma, the padamulika.

Notes:- There is a syllable after the word lenam, which may be read as 'ni or phi,. padamulika literally means, one who serves at the feet [of king].

According to Kishori Lal Faujdar, Here Kusuma seems to be related with Kaswan clan of Jats. He refers an article ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Devanagari as under[3]:

कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
IAST - Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ.

Translation:- This translates that the city of 'Masikanagara ' was obtained with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas.

Burdak Jats

There is one small inscription in Udayagiri caves about Prince Vaḍukha, which has not yet been interpreted by the historians. Had the historians knowledge about Jat clans it would have been easy to interpret it. The inscription details are as under.

III-Manchapuri cave inscription 'B' (Lower storey)'

This inscription has been engraved on the right wall of Veranda, to the right of the entrance to the right-hand side chamber of the main wing, consisting of one line. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

कुमारो वडुखस लेणं (IAST: kumāro vadukhas lenam)

Translation - [This is] the cave of Prince Vaḍukha.

Note:- On palaeographic ground Prof Banergy considers this inscription to be a little earlier than the inscription of king Kudepasiri. According to Sadananda Agrawal, Prince Badukha stands an obscure figure in history, but Badukha seems to be the son or brother of Kudepasiri. Here Badukha is the prakrat form of Barduk or Burdak, where 'r' is missing in inscription. Burdak is again a Jat clan of northwest India.

Chalka Jats

IV- Inscriptions in the sarpagumpha (Over the door way)

This inscription consisting of one line, is incised over the doorway of the sarpagumpha. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

चूलकमस कोठाजेया च (IAST: chūlakamas koţhājeyā cha)

Translation - The chamber and veranda/or side chamber of hūlakama. Note:- However Dr. Sahu interpreted Ajeya being united by a Sandhi qualifying Koṭha there by denoting invincible. But he ignored the conjunction ca (Devanagari: च) which follows Koṭha(Devanagari:कोठा) and Jeya (Devanagari:जेया).

VI- Haridas cave inscription

This inscription contains one line has been incised over one of the three entrances to the main chamber of the cave from the veranda. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

चूलकमस पसातो कोठाजेया च (IAST: chūlakamas pasāto koţhājeyā cha)

Translation :- The chamber and veranda (or side chamber) are the gift of chūlakama.

Note- Historians are unable to interpret it but infact it was the cave of Chalka or Chilka clan Jats.

Queen of Kharavela was Lal Jat

I- Mancapuri cave inscription (Upper storey)

This inscription is engraved on the raised space between the second and third doorways of the cave. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

L.1- अरहंत पसादाय कलिंगानं समनानं लेनं कारितं राजिनो ललाकस
L.2- हथिसिहस पपोतस धुतुना कलिंग चकवतिनो सिरिखारवेलस
L.3- अगमहिसिना कारितं

Translation - By the blessings of Arhats the chief queen of Kharavela, the Cakravarti monarch of Kalinga, the great grand-daughter of Hathisiha (Hasti Simha) and the daughter of Lalāka or Lalārka caused to be excavated the cave for the sramanas of Kalinga.

The Line of Hathigumpha inscription mentions that in the seventh year of his reign [the Queen] of Vajiraghara was blessed with a son attained motherhood. Sometime before his coronation the prince very probably married chief queen as per presence was essentially required in anointation ceremony. The chief queen, whose record has been engraved in the upper storey of Mancapuri Cave, was the great-grand daughter of Hastisimha and the daughter of king Lalaka or Lalarka. It is to be pointed out here that nothing is known abouth Hastisimha and Lalarka from any other source.

Note:- It is to be noted here that historians do not have any idea about queen of Kharavela. Infact she was daughter of Lalaka or Lala gotra Jats found in Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. Lal (लल) gotra Jats live in Muzaffarnagar district in Badhai Kala, Barwala, Chunsa, Fahimpur, Lisad, Moghpur, villages and Muzaffarnagar town .

The famous Panjtar stone inscription, now in (Pakistan), written in the year 122 of Saka ara, refers to one “ Lala, the protector of the Kushana dynasty of Maharaja Kanishka”. This Lala, was a Lalli “Jat” It also refers to the gift of two trees by one Moika in the eastern region of “ Kasua”. That last word Kasua is the same as Kasuan the name of the Kushana clan (and territory) which is still existing. [25]


After the death of Kanishka, his successors continued to rule north-west India, but their empire was much reduced. About the middle of 3rd century Vasudeva, one of Kanishka's successor, was defeated by Shahpur I of the new Sasanian dynasty of Persia, and from now on the north-west came under Iranian influence. Meanwhile new kingdoms had been set up in India. In Orissa a great conqueror, Khāravela, appeared in the latter half of the 1st century BC; he raided far and wide over India and was a great patron of Jainism; but his empire was short-lived, and we know nothing of his successors. [26]

At its height, it extended from Takshashila and Nepal in the North to Tamrapani in the South.

Reference-[1]. [2].

Hathigumpha inscription

The Hathigumpha inscription mentions that:

In the 2nd year of his reign, he attacked the country of the Musikas, "disregarding Satakarni", the Satavahana king.

In the 8th year of his reign, he attacked Rajagriha in Magadha and forced the Indo-Greek king Demetrius (described as the Yavana named Dimita) to retreat to Mathura.

In the 12th year of his reign, he attacked the king of Uttarapatha. He then attacks the kingdom of Magadha, and in Pataliputra, the capital of the Sunga, makes king "Bahasatimita" (thought to be a Sunga king Brhaspatimitra, or Pusyamitra himself) bow at his feet.

An article about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as under:

कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”.
This translates that the city of 'Masika' was obtained with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas [27]

He seems to have abandoned his throne in the 13th year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son Kudeparisi.

Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela of Kalinga

Hathigumpha Inscription
  • (Line 1) Salutation to the Arhats (Arihats = lit. 'Conquerors of Enemies,' i.e., Jinas). Salutation to all the Siddhas. By illustrious Kharavela, the Aira (Aila), the Great King, the descendant of Mahameghavahana, the increaser (of the glory) of the Cheti (Chedi) dynasty, (endowed) with excellent and auspicious marks and features, possessed of virtues which have reached (the ends of) the four quarters, overlord of Kalinga,
  • (L. 2) for fifteen years, with a body ruddy and handsome were played youth some sport; after that (by him who) had mastered (royal) correspondence, currency, finance, civil and religious laws (and) who had become well-versed in all (branches) of learning, for nine years (the office of) Yuvaraja (heir apparent) was administered. Having completed the twenty-fourth year, at that time, (he) who had been prosperous (Vardhman) since his infancy (?) and who (was destined) to have wide conquests as those of Vena,
  • (L. 3) then in the state of manhood, obtains the imperial (maharaja) coronation in the dynasty of Kalinga. As soon as he is anointed, in the first (regnal) year (he) causes repairs of the gates, the walls and the buildings (of the city), (which had been) damaged by storm; in the city of Kalinga (he) causes the erection of the embankments of the lake (called after) Khibira Rishi, (and) of (other) tanks and cisterns, (also) the restoration of all the gardens (he) causes to be
  • (L. 4) done at (the cost of) thirty-five-hundred-thousands, and (he) gratifies the People. And in the second year (he), disregarding Satakamini, despatches to the western regions an army strong in cavalry, elephants, infantry (nara) and chariots (ratha) and by that army having reached the Kanha-bemna, he throws the city of the Musikas into consternation. Again in the third year,
  • (L. 5) (he) versed in the science of the Gandharvas (i.e., music), entertains the capital with the exhibition of dapa, dancing, singing and instrumental music and by causing to be held festivities and assemblies (samajas); similarly in the fourth year, 'the Abode of Vidyadharas' built by the former Kalingan king(s), which had not been damaged before ………..................... with their coronets rendered meaningless, with their helmets (?) (bilma) cut in twain (?), and with their umbrellas and
  • (L. 6) bhingaras cast away, deprived of their jewels (i.e., ratana, Skt. ratna, precious objects) all the Rathikas and Bhojakas (he) causes to bow down at his feet. Now in the fifth year he brings into the capital from the road of Tansauliya the canal excavated in the year one hundred-and-three of King Nanda ................... ......... Having been (re-)anointed (he while) celebrating the Rajasuya, remits all tithes and cesses,
  • (L. 7) bestows many privileges (amounting to) hundreds of thousands or the City-Corporation and the Realm-Corporation. In the seventh year of his reign, his famous wife of Vajiraghara obtained the dignity of auspicious motherhood ………….Then in the eighth year, (he) with a large army having sacked Goradhagiri
  • (L.8) causes pressure on Rajagaha (Rajagriha). On account of the loud report of this act of valour, the Yavana (Greek) King Dimi[ta] retreated to Mathura having extricated his demoralized army and transport.… …………….(He) gives……………..with foliage
  • (L. 9) Kalpa (wish-fulfilling) trees, elephants, chariots with their drivers, houses, residences and rest-houses. And to make all these acceptable (he) gives at a fire sacrifice (?) exemption (from taxes) to the caste of Brahmanas. Of Arhat ..................................
  • (L. 10) ..................(He) causes to be built . . . . a royal residence (called) the Palace of Great Victory (Mahavijaya) at the cost of thirty-eight hundred thousands. And in the tenth year (he), following (the three-fold policy) of chastisement, alliance and conciliation sends out an expedition against Bharatavasa (and) brings about the conquest of the land (or, country) ........ and obtains jewels and precious things of the (kings) attacked.
  • (L.11) .................. And the market-town (?) Pithumda founded by the Ava King he ploughs down with a plough of asses; and (he) thoroughly breaks up the confederacy of the T[r]amira (Dramira) countries of one hundred and thirteen years, which has been a source of danger to (his) Country (Janapada). The Confederation of the Tamil states in the south, consisting of the territories of the Cholas, Pandyas, Satyaputras, Keralaputra, and Tamraparni (Ceylon), Reference-[3]. And in the twelfth year he terrifies the kings of the Utarapatha with .................. thousands of
  • (L.12) .................. And causing panic amongst the people of Magadha (he) drives (his) elephants into the Sugamgiya (Palace), and (he) makes the King of Magadha, Bahasatimita, bow at his feet. And (he) sets up (the image) 'the Jina of Kalinga' which had been taken away by King Nanda .................. and causes to be brought home the riches of Amga and Magadha along with the keepers of the family jewels of ....................
  • (L. 13) .................(He) builds excellent towers with carved interiors and creates a settlement of a hundred masons, giving them exemption from land revenue. And a wonderful and marvellous enclosure of stockade for driving in the elephants (he)...... and horses, elephants, jewels and rubies as well as numerous pearls in hundreds (he) causes to be brought here from the Pandya King.
  • (L. 14) .................(he) subjugates. In the thirteenth year, on the Kumari Hill where the Wheel of Conquest had been well-revolved (i.e., the religion of Jina had been preached), (he) offers respectfully royal maintenances, China clothes (silks) and white clothes to (the monks) who (by their austerities) have extinguished the round of lives, the preachers on the religious life and conduct at the Relic Memorial. By Kharavela, the illustrious, an a layman devoted to worship, is realised (the nature of) jiva and deha
  • (L. 15) ................ bringing about a Council of the wise ascetics and sages, from hundred (i.e., all) quarters, the monks (samanas) of good deeds and who have fully followed (the injunctions) .................. near the Relic Depository of the Arhat, on the top of the hill, ............ with stones .............. brought from many miles (yojanas) quarried from excellent mines (he builds) shelters for the Sinhapatha Queen Sindhula. ................ .........................
  • (L. 16) .................Patalaka(?)………(he) sets up four columns inlaid with beryl…… the cost of twenty-five hundred thousands; (he) causes to be compiled expeditiously the (text) of the seven-fold Angas of the sixty-four (letters). He is the King of Peace, the King of Prosperity, the King of Monks (bhikshus), the King of Religion (Dharma), who has been seeing, hearing and realising blessings (kalyanas)-
  • (L. 17) ................ accomplished in extraordinary virtues, respector of every sect, the repairer of all temples, one whose chariot and army are irresistible, one whose empire is protected by the chief of the empire (himself), descended from the family of the Royal Sage Vasu, the Great conqueror, the King, the illustrious Kharavela.
  • From: Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XX (1929-30). Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1933, 86-89.

Chedi Rulers of Balangir

The territory comprising the present district of Balangir was in ancient times a part of the South Kosala. According to tradition, the origin of South Kosala dates back to the time of Rama and scholars like Pargiter believe that Rama's long stay in that region gave rise to the name of South Kosala after his original homeland Kosala. According to Padmapurana, the kingdom of Kosala, after Rama, was divided between Lava and Kusa, his two son. Later Kusa founded the city of Kusasthalipura and ruled over the southern half of Kosala (that included modern day Western Odisha and Chhattisgarh State).

During the time of Grammarian Panini (5th Century B.C), a territory named Taitila Janapada flourished to the west of Kalinga and that territory has been associated by historians with the modern town of Titlagarh in Balangir district. Taitala Janapada was famous for trade in some commodities described by the Grammarian as "Kadru" the meaning of which may be either horse or cotton fabrics.[28]

According to Chetiya Jataka, the capital of the Chedi country was Sothivatinagara which is the same as Suktimatipuri of Harivamsa and Suktisahvaya of the Mahabharata (Vana Parva). The epic (Adi Parva) also states that the capital of the Chedis was situated on the bank of river Suktimati which is the Sukhtel river of Balangir district.[29]

Thus the ancestors of famous King of Kalinga Kharavela were from the Balangir district as they were ruling over the territory drained by the Sukhtel river in Balangir, wherefrom they advanced towards the east and became the master of Kalinga by the 1st Century B.C. In the Hathigumpha inscription, Kharavela refers to one Rajashri Vasu as his ancestor, who is probably the same as Vasu, the son of Abhichandra, the founder of Chedi Kingdom. This Vasu may also be identified with Uparichara Vasu of the Mahabharata (Adi Parva) where he is described as the King of the Chedis who were ruling in the modern district of Balangir and Subarnapur.[30]

Balangir region continued to be under the rule of Chedis during the 1st Century AD but in the 2nd century it came under the possession of the Satavahanas, whose king was Gautamiputra Satakarni. He is said to have built a magnificent vihara for his philosopher friend Nagarjuna on the Po Lo Mo Lo Ki Li or Parimalagiri identified with the modern Gandhamadana hills.

Early History: The earliest noted history of Balangir district dates back to the third century BC. The earliest introduction and spread of Aryan religious practice in Dakhin Kosala came with the initial incursion of the Jain religion. According to Bhagavati Sutra and Harivamsha Purana, Mahavir started his earliest preaching of Dharma at Nalanda, Rajgriha, Paniya Bhumi and Siddharthagrama.

According to some scholars, (D. C. Sircar) Punita Bhumi is a synonym of Paniya Bhumi as per Odra-Magadhi language. It is the same as Paniya Bhumi or Nagoloka, the present Nagpur, and it is further identified as Bhogapura, the modern Bastar, region of Chhattisgarh, Koraput, Kalahandi and Balangir district of Odisha.[31]

In some of the insctiptions found in Balangir and Sonepur district, it has been mentioned that this part of the land was known as Attavika during Ashoka’s invasion of Kalinga in 261 B.C.

The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited Po Lo Mo Lo Ki Li monastery at modern Paikmal in the 7th Century AD. It was then having cloisters and lofty halls and those halls were arranged in five tiers each with four courts with temples containing life-size gold images of Buddha. [32]

Utkal University Archaeology Prof. Dr. Sadasiva Pradhan excavated the Gumagad site under Gudvela block near the Tel river valley in Balangir district, where he found that a strategic military hub existed in the 1st century BC.[33] It was set up by a king contemporary to king Kharavela. Four copper plates were also found at Terssingha village which speaks of the Tel valley civilisation. Those plates had information regarding the two capitals – Udayapur and Parbatadwaraka – which were under the rule of Rashtrakutas and local chieftains belonging to different clans. The Udayapur area, the capital of Rashtrakuta kings, who ruled in the valley, still does have standing structures and also the ruins. These are mostly found at Amathgad. Ruins of a medieval fort is also found there.[34]

According to eminent historian and pigraphist Sadananda Agrawal, copper plates were recently found in Kapsila village near Balangir. The found materials were three copper plates tied together by a circular ring and issued by a king named Khadgasimha. It has been dated to the 8th century AD and it informs about new rulers and history of the Tel valley civilization.[35]

राजा खारवेल का गोत्र

कलिंगराज खारवेल ऐल वंश के चेति या चेदि क्षत्रिय थे। चेदि वंश में महामेघवाहन नाम का प्रतापी राजा हुआ, जिसने मौर्यों की निर्बलता से लाभ उठाकर कलिंग में अपना स्वतंत्र शासन स्थापित किया। महामेघवाहन की तीसरी पीढ़ी में खारवेल हुआ, जिसका वृत्तान्त हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख में विशद के रूप से उल्लिखित है। खारवेल एक महान निर्माता था। उसने राजा होते ही अपनी राजधानी को प्राचीरों तथा तोरणों से अलंकृत करवाया।

जाट इतिहासकार खारवेल को जाट मानते हैं जिसके निम्न प्रमाण हैं:

  1. कलिंगराज खारवेल ऐल वंश के चेति या चेदि क्षत्रिय थे। ऐल और चेदि दोनों ही जाट गोत्रों में सूची बद्ध हैं।
  2. जाटों में खारवेल नाम से एक गोत्र है।[36][37][38]
  3. खारवेल ने अपने राज्य विस्तार के लिए जिन राजाओं का सहयोग लिया अथवा जिनको विजित किया वे जाट गोत्रों के थे यथा - कसवां, सिहाग, बुरड़क, चल्का, लल, बरया, नकई, राठी, भोज, चेदि , मोर, वसु, बैंस, टांक
  4. खार एक हिन्दी शब्द है जिसका अर्थ है खारा या खार भूमि। यह पाकिस्तान में है और यहाँ खर या खार एक जाट गोत्र भी है। पाकिस्तान की पूर्व विदेश मंत्री हिना रब्बानी खार मुल्तान की जाट थीं।
  5. मेघाखेड़ी उत्तर प्रदेश के मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर जिले में एक बहुत प्राचीन गाँव है जहाँ खारव और लल्ल गठवाला जाट आबाद हैं। खारवेल के दादा महामेघवाहन थे। मेघवाहन संभवत: इनकी पदवी थी जिससे प्रतीत होता है कि इस क्षेत्र से कोई संबंध रहा है। लल्ल ऋषि ने ऋषिक-तुषारों का एक मजबूत संगठन बनाया जो लल्ल ऋषि की उपाधि संगठित के नाम से एक गठन या गठवाला संघ कहलाने लगा। अपने महान् नेता लल्ल के नाम से यह जाटों का गण लल्ल गठवाला कहा जाने लगा। यह नाम सम्राट् कनिष्क के शासनकाल के समय पड़ा था। सम्राट् कनिष्क महात्मा लल्ल को अपना कुलगुरु (खानदान का गुरु) मानते थे। महाराज कनिष्क ने महात्मा लल्ल के नेतृत्व में इस लल्ल गठवाला संघ को गजानन्दी या गढ़गजनी नगरी का राज्य सौंप दिया। यहां पर मुसलमानों के आक्रमण होने तक लल्ल गठवालों का शासन रहा। इस तरह से अफगानिस्तान के इस प्रान्त (क्षेत्र) पर लल्ल राज्य की स्थापना हुई जो कि जाट राज्य था (लेखक)।[39]
  6. लल/लल्ली गोत्र : उदयगिरि के ऊपरी मंजिल में गुफा के दूसरे और तीसरे द्वार के रास्ते में उठे हुये स्थान पर तीन पंक्तियों का अभिलेख (I- मंचापुरीगुफा शिलालेख) खुदा हुआ है। यह शिलालेख राजा खारवेल की प्रमुख रानी आगा-महिसी द्वारा जैन भिक्षुओं के लिए अर्हतों के मंदिर के निर्माण और गुफा की खुदाई का उल्लेख करता है । देवनागरी लिपि का पाठ इस प्रकार है : L.1- अरहंत पसादाय कलिंगानं समनानं लेनं कारितं राजिनो ललाकस, L.2- हथिसिहस पपोतस धुतुना कलिंग चकवतिनो सिरिखारवेलस, L.3- अगमहिसिना कारितं । अर्थात जैन अर्हतों के आशीर्वाद से कलिंग के चक्रवर्ती महाराजा खारवेल की प्रमुख महारानी, हाथीसीह (हस्ती सिंह) की परपौती और ललाक अथवा ललार्क की पुत्री, अगा-महिसी ने यह अभिलेख कलिंग के श्रमणों के लिए खुदवाया। यह लल राजा लल्ली गोत्र का जाट था। भीमसिंह दहिया [40] ने शक वर्ष 122 के पंतजर (पाकिस्तान) शिलालेख का संदर्भ दिया है जिसमें राजा लल को कुषाण सम्राट कनिष्क का संरक्षक लिखा है। ("Maharajasa Kanesh-Kasa Gushana Vasa Samvardhaka Lala".)[41] इसमें पूर्वी क्षेत्र के कसुआ राजा को मोइका द्वारा दो वृक्ष भेंट करने का उल्लेख है। यह कसुआ शब्द वस्तुत: जाट गोत्र कसवां के लिए प्रयोग किया गया है जो कुषाण का ही एक रूप है। [42]
  7. खारवेल की प्रमुख महारानी अगा-महिसी: तत्समय की परंपरा के अनुसार रनियों की पहचान अपने नाम के साथ पिता के गोत्र के साथ की जाती थी। खारवेल की प्रमुख महारानी अगा-महिसी के नाम पर विचार किया जावे तो स्पष्ट होता है कि वह 'अगा' नाम की 'महिषी' गोत्र की रानी थी। भीमसिंह दहिया[43] ने लिखा है कि यह संभव है कि महिषक जिनको हाथीगुंफा अभिलेख में मुसिक लिखा है, बैंस का संस्कृत रूप हो क्योंकि भारतीय भाषाओं में बैंस को भैंस बोला जाता है। [44]

हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख

मौर्य वंश की शक्ति के शिथिल होने पर जब मगध साम्राज्य के अनेक सुदूरवर्ती प्रदेश मौर्य सम्राटों की अधीनता से मुक्त होने लगे, तो कलिंग भी स्वतंत्र हो गया। उड़ीसा के भुवनेश्वर नामक स्थान से तीन मील दूर उदयगिरि नाम की पहाड़ी है, जिसकी एक गुफा में एक शिलालेख उपलब्ध हुआ है, जो हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है। इसे कलिंगराज खारवेल ने उत्कीर्ण कराया था। यह लेख प्राकृत भाषा में है और प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास के लिए इसका बहुत अधिक महत्त्व है। इसके अनुसार कलिंग के स्वतंत्र राज्य के राजा प्राचीन ऐल वंश के चेति या चेदि क्षत्रिय थे। चेदि वंश में महामेघवाहन नाम का प्रतापी राजा हुआ, जिसने मौर्यों की निर्बलता से लाभ उठाकर कलिंग में अपना स्वतंत्र शासन स्थापित किया। महामेघवाहन की तीसरी पीढ़ी में खारवेल हुआ, जिसका वृत्तान्त हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख में विशद के रूप से उल्लिखित है। खारवेल जैन धर्म का अनुयायी था और सम्भवतः उसके समय में कलिंग की बहुसंख्यक जनता भी वर्धमान महावीर के धर्म को अपना चुकी थी।

हाथीगुम्फा के शिलालेख (प्रशस्ति) के अनुसार खारवेल के जीवन के पहले पन्द्रह वर्ष विद्या के अध्ययन में व्यतीत हुए। इस काल में उसने धर्म, अर्थ, शासन, मुद्रापद्धति, क़ानून, शस्त्रसंचालन आदि की शिक्षा प्राप्त की। पन्द्रह साल की आयु में वह युवराज के पद पर नियुक्त हुआ और नौ वर्ष तक इस पद पर रहने के उपरान्त चौबीस वर्ष की आयु में वह कलिंग के राजसिंहासन पर आरूढ़ हुआ। राजा बनने पर उसने 'कलिंगाधिपति' और 'कलिंग चक्रवर्ती' की उपाधियाँ धारण कीं।

राज्याभिषेक के दूसरे वर्ष उसने पश्चिम की ओर आक्रमण किया और राजा सातकर्णि की उपेक्षा कर कंहवेना (कृष्णा नदी) के तट पर स्थित मूसिक नगर को उसने त्रस्त किया। सातकर्णि सातवाहन राजा था और आंध्र प्रदेश में उसका स्वतंत्र राज्य विद्यमान था। मौर्यों की अधीनता से मुक्त होकर जो प्रदेश स्वतंत्र हो गए थे, आंध्र भी उनमें से एक था।

अपने शासनकाल के चौथे वर्ष में खारवेल ने एक बार फिर पश्चिम की ओर आक्रमण किया और भोजकों तथा रठिकों (राष्ट्रिकों) को अपने अधीन किया। भोजकों की स्थिति बरार के क्षेत्र में थी और रठिकों की पूर्वी ख़ानदेशअहमदनगर में। रठिक-भोजक सम्भवतः ऐसे क्षत्रिय कुल थे, प्राचीन अन्धक-वृष्णियों के समान जिनके अपने गणराज्य थे। ये गणराज्य सम्भवतः सातवाहनों की अधीनता स्वीकृत करते थे।

खारवेल की विजय यात्रा

अपने शासनकाल के आठवें वर्ष में खारवेल ने उत्तर दिशा की ओर विजय यात्रा की। उत्तरापथ में आगे बढ़ती हुई उसकी सेना ने बराबर पहाड़ियों (गया जिले) में स्थित गोरथगिरि के दुर्ग पर आक्रमण किया और उसे जीतकर वे राजगृह पहुँच गई। जिस समय खारवेल इन युद्धों में व्यस्त था, बैक्ट्रिया के यवन भी भारत पर आक्रमण कर रहे थे। भारत के पश्चिम चक्र को अपने अधीन कर वे मध्य देश में पहुँच गए थे। हाथीगुम्फा के लेख के अनुसार यवनराज खारवेल की विजयों के समाचार से भयभीत हो गया और उसने मध्यदेश पर आक्रमण करने का विचार छोड़कर मथुरा की ओर प्रस्थान कर दिया। अनेक ऐतिहासिकों ने यह प्रतिपादित किया है, कि खारवेल से भयभीत होकर मध्यदेश से वापस चले जाने वाले इस यवनराजा का नाम दिमित (डेमेट्रियस) था। अपने शासनकाल के ग्यारहवें वर्ष में खारवेल ने दक्षिण दिशा को आक्रांत किया और विजययात्रा करता हुआ वह तमिल देश तक पहुँच गया। वहाँ पर उसने पिथुण्ड (पितुन्द्र) को जीता और उसके राजा को भेंट उपहार प्रदान करने के लिए विवश किया।

हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख में खारवेल द्वारा परास्त किए गए तमिल देश संघात (राज्य संघ) का उल्लेख है। अपने शासनकाल के ग्यारहवें वर्ष में खारवेल ने एक बार फिर उत्तरापथ पर आक्रमण किया और अपनी सेना के घोड़ों और हाथियों को गंगाजल स्नान कराया। मगध के राजा को उसने अपने पैरों पर गिरने के लिए विवश किया और राजा नन्द कलिंग से इस युग के प्रथम जैन तीर्थंकर भगवान ऋषभदेव की मूर्ति (जोकि कलिंगजिन नाम से प्रसिद्ध थी) जो मूर्ति वह पाटलिपुत्र ले गया था, उसे सम्राट खारवेल फिर से कलिंग वापस ले आये। इस मूर्ति के अतिरिक्त अन्य भी बहुत—सी लूट खारवेल मगध से अपने राज्य में ले गया और उसका उपयोग उसने भुवनेश्वर में एक विशाल मन्दिर के निर्माण के लिए किया, जिसका उल्लेख ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण की उड़ीसा में प्राप्त एक हस्तलिखित प्रति में भी विद्यमान है।

मगध के जिस राजा को खारवेल ने अपने चरणों पर गिरने के लिए विवश किया था, अनेक इतिहासकारों के अनुसार उसका नाम बहसतिमित (बृहस्पतिमित्र) था। उन्होंने हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख में इस राजा के नाम को पढ़ने का प्रयत्न भी किया है। पर सब विद्वान इस पाठ से सहमत नहीं हैं। श्री जायसवाल ने हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख में उल्लिखित मगध के राजा के नाम को बहसतिमित (बृहस्पतिमित्र) मानकर उसे पुष्यमित्र शुंग का पर्यायवाची प्रतिपादित किया है और यह माना है कि कलिंगराज खारवेल ने शुंगवंशी पुष्यमित्र पर आक्रमण कर उसे परास्त किया था। पर अनेक ऐतिहासिक हाथीगुम्फा में आये नाम को न बहसतिमित स्वीकार करने को उद्यत हैं और न ही पुष्यमित्र के साथ मिलाने को। पर इसमें सन्देह नहीं कि हाथीगुम्फा शिलालेख के अनुसार खारवेल ने उत्तरापथ पर आक्रमण करते हुए मगध की भी विजय की थी और वहाँ के राजा को अपने सम्मुख झुकने के लिए विवश किया था।

खारवेल की शक्ति के उत्कर्ष और दिग्विजय का यह वृत्तान्त निस्सन्देह बहुत महत्त्व का है।

राजा खारवेल और कुसवां

किशोरी लाल फौजदार ने जाट समाज पत्रिका आगरा (Jan/Feb-2001. p.6) में कुसवां गोत्र के इतिहास में लिखा है कि इस वंश का नाम कुशन, कुसवान-कुसवां भी मशहूर हुआ है। राजा खारवेल के एक लेख में विक्रम की दूसरी शताब्दी में कुसवांओं का उल्लेख है। जिसको 'हाथीगुंफा एंड थ्री अदर इन्स्क्रिप्शंस' (Hathigumpha and three Other Inscriptions) के पृष्ठ 24 पर इस प्रकार लिखा है- 'कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्'। इस वंश ने राज्यविहीन होकर पश्चिमोत्तर भारत से राजस्थान में आकर बीकानेर की प्राचीन भूमि पर अपना प्रभुत्व प्रजातंत्री रूप से कायम किया था। बीकानेर स्थापना से पहले इनका राजा कुंवरपाल था।

खारवेल के निर्माण-कार्य

खारवेल एक महान निर्माता था। उसने राजा होते ही अपनी राजधानी को प्राचीरों तथा तोरणों से अलंकृत करवाया।अपने राज्याभिषेक के 13वें वर्ष उसने भुवनेश्वर के पास उदयगिरि तथा खंडगिरि की पहाङियों को कटवा कर जैन भिक्षुओं के आवास के लिये गुहा-विहार बनवाये थे। उदयगिरि में 19 तथा खंडगिरि में 16 गुहा विहारों का निर्माण हुआ था। उदयगिरि में रानीगुंफा तथा खंडगिरि में अनंतगुफा की गुफाओं में उत्कीर्ण रिलीफ चित्रकला की दृष्टि से उच्चकोटि के हैं। इन चित्रों में तत्कालीन समाज के जनजीवन की मनोरम झांकी सुरक्षित है। उसके द्वारा बनवाया गया महाविजय प्रसाद भी एक अत्यंत भव्य भवन था।[45]

See also


  1. Text of Hathigumpha inscription
  2. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  3. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  4. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.298
  5. Interview dated 21-4-2007 with Shri Rishipal Singh, Bachan Singh Colony, Muzaffarnagar (UP). Mob-9412110179
  6. Suniti Kumar Chatterji (1966). The People, Language, and Culture of Orissa. Orissa Sahitya Akademi.
  7. K. D. Sethna (1989). Ancient India in a new light. Aditya Prakashan. p. 279. ISBN 978-81-85179-12-4.
  8. Baij Nath Puri, Pran Nath Chopra, Manmath Nath Das and AC Pradhan (2003). A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India. Sterling. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4.
  9. N. K. Sahu; Kharavela (King of Kalinga) (1984). Khâravela. Orissa State Museum.
  10. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000
  11. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  12. Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
  13. Bhagwanlal Indraji (1885). "The Hâtigumphâ and three other inscriptions in the Udayagiri caves near Cuttack". Proceedings of the Leyden International Oriental Congress for 1883. pp. 144–180.
  14. Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1974). Some Early Dynasties of South India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 44–50. ISBN 978-81-208-2941-1.
  15. Alain Daniélou (2003). A Brief History of India. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 139–141. ISBN 978-1-59477-794-3.
  16. Rama Shankar Tripathi (1942). History of Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 199–201. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2.
  17. D. Sircar (1965), Select Inscriptions Volume 1, Calcutta University Press, page 213–214 footnote 1
  18. Spink, Walter (1958). "On the Development of Early Buddhist Art in India". The Art Bulletin. 40 (2): 98–100, context: 95–120. doi:10.2307/3047760. JSTOR 3047760.
  19. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000
  20. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000
  21. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000
  22. Kishori Lal Faujdar:Jat Samaj Monthly Magazine, Agra, January/February (2001) page-6
  23. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000
  24. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000
  25. EI, Vol.XIV, p-134
  26. AL Basham: The wonder that was India, 2004, Page 62, ISBN 0 330 43909 X
  27. Kishori Lal Faujdar:[Jat Samaj]] Monthly Magazine, Agra, January/February (2001) page-6
  28. Panini's Ashtadyayi VI. 2. 42
  29. D. C. Sircar Ancient Geography of India Pg.55
  30. D. C. Sircar Ancient Geography of India
  31. D. C. Sircar, Inscription of Orissa, Pg. 263
  32. Yuan Chawng 'Journey of the West'
  34. "Riverside kingdom traced in copper plates". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India
  36. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 234,
  37. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ-695
  38. Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu/Jat Gotras List,p.33, sn.455
  39. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-271
  40. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats, p.32
  41. JRAS, 1909, p. 666, IA, Vol. X, 1881, p. 215.
  42. EI, Vol.XIV, p-134
  43. Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 195
  44. ASI, 1971-73, Vol. VI, P. 47.

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