Inscriptions about Jats by Col Tod

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Author of this article is Dr Raj Pal Singh
Inscriptions related to Jat History identified by James Tod

People are curious to know the first appearance of the word variously spelled as 'Jat', or 'Jaat',or 'Jit' or 'Jutt' etc. to denote the community largely found in North-Western parts of India. The people belonging to this community have adopted various religious faiths and beliefs and in spite of this divergence in their personal life, believe in kinship theory of unity.

Some historians have over the years tried to dig out literary sources in a bid to find out the lost pedigree of this valiant community and also have enumerated the role of various clans constituting the present Jats. But the origin of the word denoting Jat identity and the first word used to denote the community as 'JAT' still remains far from resolution.

The purpose of the present article is to share the information contained in various inscriptions as sources of history to solve this puzzle.

James Tod assigns place to Jats in 36 royal races

Col. James Tod considers Jits/Jats as a royal race included in the 36 royal races of India since times immemorial. His conclusion is based on the old literary and inscription information which came across his hands while he was collecting material to write his classic: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan in two volumes.

The author has very diligently compared and contrasted the available sources to settle the timeline of various ruling houses and tried to synchronize their migration and genealogies as well as their origin. He has provided very significant clues to further investigate the history of Jats too. To find out the origin of the word ‘Jat’ used to denote Jat community, some of the inscriptions found and translated into English by him definitely shed good bit of light.

A Word on use of Tod's Work in reconstruction of Jat hitory

Col. James Tod in ‘Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan’ uses word 'Jit' to describe the Jats as a race found in various parts of the area of his study. Moreover, all Jat clans which find reference in his book like Mori/Maurya/Mor, Asihag, Poonia/Puni/Pooni, Godara, Nehra et all have also been appended word Jit to give them distinct race/people/community identity. So after the study of his two volume classic work there must be no place for ambiguity for his use of word ‘Jit’ for Jat for the people of Rajasthan of those days. Hence it must be understood in proper perspective in which it has been used i.e. the word has been used to denote Jat people by spelling it universally as ‘Jit’. Whether it was a calculated move or design on the part of Col. Tod to connect Jats as well as Rajput and Gujjars with his pet theory of foreign origin of Indians people, is a separate issue of debate and research.

But none can deny that he has beautifully opened new vistas for research in regional and ethnic history writing. He as a pioneer historian on Jats has to his credit that he thoroughly scrutinized the bardic tales of Rajasthan and Gujarat and also brought to light over a dozen inscriptions on the Jats as well as translated many of them into English. Both of his volumes of Annals and Antiquities reflect his efforts to illuminate the dark patches in History of Jats and as such shed light on our community’s historic contribution in those times in the area of his study.

Could anybody tell us how many more inscriptions on the Jats have emerged after his research work concluded in 1820’s.So his contribution cannot be pushed under carpet by those who suspect his methodology or averments in the light of progress of methodology of research during the last about two hundred years. Even pioneer historians on Jats like K R Qanungo and Thakur Desh Raj also could not resist quoting from his book to advance their own arguments on ancient history of Jats. In fact, his Annals and antiquities, if analysed and appreciated in critical method, it can prove to be a path breaker for the scholars interested in regional history covered by him. Several scholars have done so at the national level history writing in the past with profit.

Therefore, instead of rejecting his work outright is a wrong proposition. It is in fitness of things that those who are interested to study history of Rajasthan and parts of Gujrat and Madhya Pradesh and the role of Jats in this region may follow the sign posts provided by him, scrutinize his data by comparison and contrast with newer finds, use latest research tools and then only reject or accept his hypotheses.

Inscription No I: Kanswa Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD

Translation of an Inscriptions in the Nail-headed character relative to the Takshac (Jit) race

Inscription No I
English Text of Kanswa Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD

Memorial of a Gete or Jit prince of the fifth century, discovered 1820, in a temple at Kunswa, near the Chumbul river, south of Kotah


May the Jit’ha be thy protector ! What does this Jit’h resemble? Which is the vessel of conveyance across the waters of life, which is partly white, partly red? Again, what does it resemble, where the hissing-angered serpents dwell ? What may this Jit’ah be compared to, from whose root the roaring flood descends? Such is the Jit’h : by it may thou be preserved 1.


The fame of Raja Jit I now shall tell, by whose valour the lands of SALPOORA 1 are preserved. The fortunes of Raja Jit are as flames of fire devouring his foe. The mighty warrior JIT SALINDRA 2 is beautiful in person, and from the strength of his arm esteemed the first amongst the tribes of the mighty; make resplendent as does the moon the earth, the dominions of SALPOORI.


The whole world praises the Jit prince. Who enlarges the renown of his race, sitting in the midst of haughty warriors, like the lotos in waters, the moon of the sons of men. The foreheads of the princes of the earth worship the toe of his foot. Beams of light irradiate his countenance, issuing from the gems of his arms of strength. Radiant is his array: his riches abundant; his mind generous and profound as the ocean. Such is he of SARYA 3 race, a tribe renowned amongst the tribes of the mighty; whose princes were ever foes to treachery to whom the earth surrendered her fruits, and who added the lands of their foes to their own. By sacrifice, the mind of this lord of men has been purified; fair are his territories, and fair is the FORTRESS OF TAK’HYA 4. The string of whose bow is dreaded, whose wrath is the reaper of the field of combat; but to his dependents he is as the pearl on the neck; who makes no account of the battle, though streams of blood run through the field. As does the silver lotos bend its head before the fierce rays of the sun, so does his foe stoop to him, while the cowards abandon the field.

From this lord of men (Narpati) SALINDEA sprung DEVNGLI, whose deeds are known even at this remote period.

From him was born SUMBOOKA, and from him DEGALLI, who married two wives of YADU race 5, and by one a son named VIRA NARINDRA, pure as a flower from the fountain.

Amidst groves of amba, on whose clustering blossoms hang myriads of bees, that the wearied traveler might repose, was this edifice erected. May it and the fame of its founder, continue while ocean rolls, or while the moon, the sun, and hills endure. Samvat 597.--- On the extremity of MALWA, this minister [MINDRA] was erected, on the banks of the river TAVELI, by SALICHANDRA 6, son of VIRACHANDRA.

Whoever will commit this writing to memory, his sins will be obliterated.

Carved by the sculptor SEVNARYA, son of DWARASIVA, and composed by BUTENA, chief of bards.

Translation of an Inscriptions in the Nail-headed character relative to the Takshac (Jit) race[1]

Notes by Col. James Tod[2]

[Note 1.]— In the prologue to this valuable relic, which superficially viewed would appear a string of puerilities; we have conveyed in mystic allegory the mythological origin of the Jit or Gete race. From the members of the chief of the gods ISWAR or Mahadeva, the god of battle, many races claim birth: the warrior from his arms; the Charun from his spine; the prophetic Bhat (Vates) from his tongue; and the Gate or Jit, derives theirs from his tiara, which, formed of his own hair, is called Jit’ha. In this tiara, serpents, emblematic of TIME (kal) and DESTRUCTION, are wreathed; also implicative that the Jits, who are of Takshac, or the serpent race, are thereby protected. The “roaring flood” which descends which descends from this Jit’ha is the river goddess, Ganga, daughter of Mera, wife of Iswara. The mixed colour of his hair, which is partly white, partly of reddish (panduranga) hue, arises from his character of ARDHNARI, or Hermaphroditus. All these characteristics of the god of war must have been brought by the Scythic Gete from the Jaxartes, where they worshipped him as the Sun (Balnath) and as XAMOLSCIS (Yama, vulg. Jama), the infernal divinity.

The 12th Chapter of the Edda, in describing BALDER the second son of Odin, particularly dwells on the beauty of his hair, “whence “the whitest of all vegetables is called the eyebrow of Balder, on the columns of whose temples there are verses engraved, capable of recalling the dead to life.”

How perfectly in unison is all this of the Jits or Jutland and the Jits of Rajasthan. In each case the hair is the chief object of admiration of Balnaath as Balder, and the magical effect of the Runes is not more powerful than that attached by the chief of the Scalds of our Gete prince at the end of this inscription, fresh evidences in support of my hypothesis, that many of the Rajpoot races and Scandinavians have a common origin—that origin, Central Asia.

[Note 2.]Salpoora is the name of the capital of this Jit prince, and his epithet of Sal-Indra is merely titular, as the Indra, or Lord of Sal-poori, ‘the city of Sal’, which the fortunate discovery of an inscription raised by Komarpal, king of Anhulwara (Neharwalla of D’Anville), dated S. 1207, has enabled me to place “at the base of the Sewaluk Mountains.” In order to elucidate this point, and to give the full value to this record of JIT princes of the Punjab, I append (No.V) a translation of the Neharwala conqueror’s inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt that these princes of SALAPOORI in the Punjab were the leaders of the Yuti from the Jaxartes, who in the fifth century, as recorded by De Guignes, crossed the Indus and possessed themselves of the Punjab; and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs (disciples) of Nanuk are almost all of Jit origin.

[Note 3.]— Here this Jit is called of SARYA SAC’HA, branch of ramification of the Saryas; a very ancient race which is noticed by the genealogists synonymously with the SARIASPA, one of the thirty-six royal races, and very probably the same as the SARWAYA of the Komarpal Charitra with the distinguished epithet “the flower of the martial races” (Sarwaya c’shtrya tyn sar).

[Note 4.]— “The fortress of Tacshac.” Whether this TAKSHAC-NAGARI, or castle of the Tak, is the stronghold if SALAPOORI, or the name given to the conquest in the environs of the place, whence this inscription, we can only surmise, and refer the reader to what has been said of Takitpoora. As I have repeatedly said, Taks and Jits are one race.

[Note 5.]— As the Jits intermarried with the Yadus at this early period, it is evident they had forced their way amongst the thirty-six royal races, though they have again lost this rank. No Rajpoot would give a daughter to a Jit, or take one from them to wife.

[Note 6.]Salichandra is the sixth in descent from the first-named prince. JIT SALINDER, allowing twenty-two years to each descent=132- S.597, date of ins.= S.465-56= A.D. 409; the period of the colonization of the Punjab by the Getes, Yuti, or Jits, from the Jaxartes.


Wiki editors notes on Inscription No. I

1 Note byDrRajpalSingh : The identification of Salpoora, Salpoori has remained a big problem with the historians so far. Their speculation to identify this place with known power centre of Jats has led Tod and Cunningham to Syalkot but our discussion has led us to believe that we must concentrate our efforts to locate the place in the vicinity of the Kansawa as no big kingdom could be imagined in the period mentioned on the inscription itself i.e. it was the period when glory of the Imperial guptas was at the peak. It means, this ruling dynasty was founded by either some petty officer of the Guptas or some adventurer prince in the far off remote corner of the empire. The result of our efforts may be presented as follows.
2. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India (p.348) writes Takas were of Surya family. This gets confirmation from an inscription of Salindra king of Kansawa: We have come to know from inscription discovered by Col Tod (I.A.XIX p.55) from Kanaswa, which is situated at the bank of river Chambal, south of Kota that the King Salindra (409 AD, his capital was Salpur) of Sarya (Surya) family, was king of Takkas (Takhyas). These people of Sarya family were famous among other tribes too. (Tod James II, pp 914-17) Laxman Burdak (talk) 09:48, 12 January 2015 (EST)
3. Note by DrRajpalSingh - Alexander Cunningham also casts doubt on the accuracy of the translation of the Memorial of a Jit Prince of the Fifth Century viz Inscription I which is being discussed here. He does not accept the inclusion of the Jats in the list of 36 royal dynasties and, therefore, suggests an alternate reading of the two words. Why and what according to him should be alternate words, read the extract given below:
"Now, if any dependence could be placed on the perfect accuracy of Colonel Tod's translation, I would at once admit that this inscription proves Rajpoot origin of the Jats beyond all probability of doubt. But the low position which the Jats hold in the social scale is so well known that, without any hesitation whatever, I conclude that the published version must be inaccurate. Perhaps, the word which colonel Tod has read as Jith and Jit, should be Jin or Jina."[3] (Dr Rajpal Singh) 09:42, 13 January 2015 (EST)
5. Note by DrRajpalSingh - In literary sources we find that Word 'Jit' finds place in Komarpal Charit [Gujrati dialect-MSS] and also in the corrected list of Tod. [4]


Another interesting reference in this connection is the clan name i.e. Sarweya "Chatrya tym Sar in the Komar Pal Charit which seems to represent SARAYA of the inscription. [Gujarati dialect-MSS][5]DrRajpalSingh 01:43, 15 January 2015 (EST)
6. Salpuri capital of Jit Salendra = Salera - English Text of Kanswa Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD mentions the capital of Jit Salendra at Salpuri. James Tod in his note-2 identified it with Salpuri in Punjab but has not given convincing evidence. My anticipation is that this Salpuri must be located some where in Malwa itself. I have come across a village named Salera in Chhoti Sadri tahsil in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Shalipura (शालिपुरा). This is clear from following description:
It is Mentioned in Chittor Inscription of Kumarapala year V. 1207 (1150 AD) and Dasharatha Sharma [6]] that Arnoraja attacked Kumarapala Chalukya but got defeated. This defeat of Arnorja and Ballala, his the Malwa ally, is mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti, dated Thursday, the 5th of bright half of ashvina, V. 1208 and that of Arnoraja alone is in Chittor Inscription of V. 1207 which states that after having defeated the ruler of Shakambhari, Kumarapala reached Shalipura (modern Shalera) and fixing his camp there went to have the glorious view of the Mount Chitrakuta. (Lines: 10-13, EI,II,p.421ff) Thence he proceeded to Palari where, according to Tod he placed an inscription in the month of Pausha, V. 1207. Laxman Burdak (talk) 02:03, 27 January 2015 (EST)
7. Identification of Fortress of Takhya with Tokaspura - This Inscription of Jat prince Salendra of the fifth century, discovered by James Tod in 1820, in a temple at Kunswa, near the Chumbal river, south of Kotah.
Its capital was Salpuri which we have identified with Salera village in Chhoti Sadri tahsil in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Shalipura (शालिपुरा).
The Inscription mentions about a FORTRESS OF TAK’HYA that means Takshaka Fort or Takshakapura (तक्षकपुर).
James Tod writes [Note 4.]— “The fortress of Tacshac.” Whether this TAKSHAC-NAGARI, or castle of the Tak, is the stronghold of SALAPOORI, or the name given to the conquest in the environs of the place, whence this inscription, we can only surmise, and refer the reader to what has been said of Takitpoora. As I have repeatedly said, Taks and Jits are one race.
Our research has shown that this is not Takatpur as indicated by Tod but itis Tokaspura (टोकसपुरा) village in Indragarh Bundi tehsil of Bundi district in Rajasthan. PIN:323614. Nerby villages are Nawalpura and Nayagaon. Nearby railway station of Tokaspura is Bundi. Its location in south Bundi near the border of the Chambal matches with the description of Tod. Laxman Burdak (talk) 05:03, 8 February 2015 (EST)
8Note by --DrRajpalSingh (talk) 07:18, 9 February 2015 (EST) If these identifications may be accepted as correct, then this follows that this Jat kingdom which flourished in the Malawa region for about one and half century [c. AD 405 to 540 AD onward when the inscription was established] played an important role in the affairs of the region of Kota-Bundi in those days. It is remarkable that this ruling dynasty came into existence at a time when the Gupta Empire was at the peak of its glory under Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. Another important point emerges that since no other information concerning this dynasty has come to light, it may be presumed that after the death of King Salichandra, it might had been replaced by other ruling dynasty. When did this event happen, is shrouded in the darkness in the absence of any data on the issue.

Time Line of Jat Ruling Dynasty mentioned in Kanaswa Inscription

DrRajpalSingh (talk) 07:28, 10 February 2015 (EST)

King Shalichandra is 6th ruler of this dynasty who got erected the rest house and in whose time the inscription was established in Samvat 597 i.e. A.D. 540.

The other 5 rulers whose names are mentioned on the inscription are in the order of father succeeded by son as :

1. Raja Shailendra, 2. Devangli. 3. Raja Sumbuka, 4. Raja Degali and 5. Vir Narindra/Vir Chandra.

Since no other information about this dynasty has come to our knowledge about these kings, we have to depend upon the available meager information only.

If it is presumed that all the five rulers preceding the sixth ruler of the dynasty ruled for average 25 years and also that the sixth ruler had been occupying throne for some years before he undertook construction of this welfare place and adjoining temple referred to in the text of the inscription the following time line would emerge:

Year of inscription : A.D. 540 - 10 years rule of Shalichandra - 5 X 25 = A.D. 405 for the accession of Raja Shailendra, the first king and founder of the ruling dynasty.

In this way the day of the foundation of this dynasty may tentatively fixed around A.D. 405.

The other 5 rulers whose names are mentioned on the inscription are in the order of father succeeded by son as :

1. Raja Shailendra, 2. Devangli. 3. Raja Sumbuka, 4. Raja Degali and 5. Vir Narindra/Vir Chandra.

Since no other information about this dynasty has come to our knowledge about these kings, we have to depend upon the available meager information only.

If it is presumed that all the five rulers preceding the sixth ruler of the dynasty ruled for average 25 years and also that the sixth ruler had been occupying throne for some years before he undertook construction of this welfare place and adjoining temple referred to in the text of the inscription the following time line would emerge:

Year of inscription : A.D. 540 - 10 years rule of Shalichandra - 5 X 25 = A.D. 405 for the accession of Raja Shailendra, the first king and founder of the ruling dynasty. Thus in view of meager information at our disposal, the foundation of this dynasty is tentatively fixed around A.D. 405.

But our hypothesis may be challenged as arbitrary in view of some 'imaginative' application of data. But in view of facts of the case, it may tolerably agreed that Jat Raja Shailendra founded the ruling dynasty in the beginning of the 5th Century A.D. or to say in c. A.D. 405, perhaps a little earlier, or possibly a few years later.


Hindi transliteration of Salpura Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD

टाड साहब को यह लिपि कोटा राज्य में कनवास नामक गांव में सन् 1820 ई. में मिली थी। इस प्राप्त शिलालेख को हम यहां ‘टाड राजस्थान’ से ज्यों का त्यों उदधृत करते हैं -

“जटा आपकी रक्षक हों। जो जटा जीवन समुद्र पार की नौका स्वरूप हैं, जो कुछ एक श्वेत वर्ण और कुछ एक लाल वर्ण युक्त हैं, उन जटाओं का विभव न देखा जाता है। जिन जटाओं में कुछ भीषण शब्दकारी सर्प विराजमान है, वह जटा कैसी प्रकाशमान हैं, जिन जटाओं के मूल से प्रबल तरंगे निकल रही हैं, उन जटाओं के साथ क्या किसी की तुलना की जा सकती है। उन जटाओं द्वारा आप रक्षित हों।
जिनके वीरत्व-बाहुबल से शालपुर देश रक्षित होता था, मैं अब उन राजा जिट का वर्णन करूंगा। प्रबल अग्नि-शिखा जिस प्रकार अपने शत्रु को भस्मीभूत करके फेंक देती है, राजा जिट का प्रताप भी उसी प्रकार प्रबल था।
महाबली जिट शालेन्द्र (2) परम रूपवान् पुरुष थे, और वह केवल अपने बाहुबल से वीर पुरुषों के आग्रणी हुए थे। चन्द्र जिस प्रकार पृथ्वी को प्रकाशमान करते हैं, उसी प्रकार वह भी अपने शासित देश, शालपुरी को देदीप्यमान करते थे। सम्पूर्ण संसार जिट राजा की जय घोषणा कर रहा है। वह मनुष्य लोक में चन्द्रमा स्वरूप्प दुर्द्धर्ष, साहसी, महामहा बलिष्ठ लोंगों में पंक के बीच कमल के समान बैठ कर स्वजातीय गौरव गरिमा प्रकाश करते थे। उनकी अमित बलशाली दोनों भुजाओं के मनोहर मणि-माणिक्य के आभूषणों का प्रकाश उनकी मूर्ति को उज्जवल कर देता था। असंख्य सेना के अधिनायक थे और उनका धनरत्न असीम था। वह उदार चित्त और समुद्र के समान गम्भी थे। जो राजवंश महाबली वंशों में विद्यमान है, जिस वंश के राजा लोग विश्वासघातकों के परम शत्रु थे, जिनके चरणों पर पृथ्वी ने अपना सम्पूर्ण धन-धान्य अर्पण किया था और जिस वंश के नरपतियों ने शत्रुओं के सब देश अपने अधिकार में कर लिए थे, यह वही शूरवंश घर हैं। (3) होम यज्ञादि के द्वारा यह नरेश्वर पवित्र हुए थे। इनका राज्य परम रमणीय तक्ष का दुर्ग भी अजेय है। इसके धनुष की टंकार से सब ही महा भयभीत होते थे। यह क्रुद्ध होने पर महासमराग्नि प्रज्वलित कर देते थे, किन्तु मोती जिस प्रकार गले की शोभा बढ़ाता है, अनुगत लोगों के प्रति, इनका आचरण भी वैसा ही था। लाल तरंगों से समर क्षेत्र रंगने पर भी यह संग्राम से नहीं हटते थे। प्रचण्ड मार्तण्ड की प्रखर किरणों से पद्मिनी जिस प्रकार मस्तक नवाती है, उसी प्रकार इनके शत्रु दल इनके चरणों पर नवते थे और भीरू-कायर लोग युद्ध छोड़कर भागते थे।
इन राजा शालेन्द्र से दोगला की उत्पत्ति हुई। आज इतने समय के पीछे भी उनका यश फैला हुआ है। उनसे शाम्बुक ने जन्म लिया, शाम्बुक के औरस से दोगाली ने जन्म लिया। उन्होंने यदुवंश की दो कन्याओं से विवाह किया था। (4) उनमें से एक के गर्भ से प्रफुल्लित कमल के समान वीर नरेन्द्र नामक पुत्र ने जन्म लिया था। आमों के कुंज अर्थात् जिन आमों के वृक्षों की मिली हुई मंजरी में सहस्त्रों मधुमक्षिका विराजमान हैं, जिन वृक्षों के नीचे थके हुए यात्री आकर विश्राम करते हैं, उन आमों के वृक्षों की कुंज में यह मन्दिर स्थापित हुआ। जब तक समुद्र की तरंगें बहेंगी और जब तक चन्द्र सूर्य आ पर्वत माला विराजमान रहेंगी, तब तक मानो इस मन्दिर और मन्दिर-प्रतिष्ठा का यश फैला रहेगा। 597 संवत् में तावेली नदी के तट पर मालवा के शेष सीमान्त में वीरचन्द्र के पुत्र शालिचन्द्र के द्वारा (5) मन्दिर प्रतिष्ठित हुआ।
जो पुरुष इन वचनों को स्मृति पट पर अंकित करेंगे, उनके सब पाप दूर हो जाएंगे।
द्वार शिव के पुत्र खोदक शिवनारायण द्वारा खोदित और बुतेना ने यह कविता निर्माण की है।”

संदर्भ: जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ.208-209


  • Note of caution for the readers of the Translation : A minute attention is to be paid before using the Hindi translation because you will find many differences when you will compare it with the original English text as given by James Tod.

Inscription No. II: Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of Maharaja Kartik

Translation of an inscription in the Nail-headed characters relative to the Jit Race, discovered at Ram Chandrapoora, six miles east of Boondee in digging a well. It was thence conveyed and deposited by me in the Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society.

English Text of Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of Maharaja Kartik (Inscription No. II. )

To my foe, salutation! This foe of the race of Jit Cathida1, how shall I describe, who is resplendent by the favour of the round bosom of ROODRANI 2, and whose ancestor, the warrior TUKHYA 3, formed the garland on the neck of Mahadeva. Better than this foe on the earth’s surface, there is none; therefore, to him I offer salutations. The sparkling gems on the coronets of kings irradiate the nail of his feet.

Of the race of BOTENA 4 Raja THOT was born; his fame extended through the universe.

Pure in mind, strong in arm, and beloved by mankind, such was CHANDERSEN 5. How shall he be described, who broke the strength of his foe, on whom when his sword swims in fight, he appears like a magician. With his subjects he interchanged the merchandise of liberality, of which he reaped the fruits. From him whose history is fair, was born KRITIKA, the deeds of whose arm were buds of renown, forming a necklace of praise in the eyes of mankind. His queen was dear to him as his own existence—how can she be described? As the flame is inseparable from the fire so was she from her lord—she was the light is sung from the Sun—her name GOON-NEWASA 6, and her actions corresponded with her name. By her he had two sons, like gems set in bracelets, born to please mankind. The elder was named SOOKUNDA, the younger DERUKA. Their fortunes consumed their foes: but their dependents enjoyed happiness. As the flowers of Calp-vricsha are beloved by the gods so are these brothers by their subjects, granting their requests, and increasing the glory of the race, whence they sprang. –[A useless descriptive stanza left out 7.

DERUKA had a son, KUHLA, and his was DHUNIKA, whose deeds ascended high—who could fathom the intentions of mankind—whose mind was deep as the ocean—whose ever hungry falchion expelled from their mountains and forests the MEENA tribes, leaving them no refuge in the three words, leveling their retreats to the ground. His quiver was filled with crescent-formed arrows—his sword the climber [vela] 8 of which pearls are the fruits. With his younger brother Dewaka be reverences gods and Brahmins—and with his own wealth perfumed a sacrifice to the sun.

For the much beloved’s [his wife] pleasure this was undertaken. Now the river of ease, life and death, is crossed over, for this abode will devour the body of the foe, into which the west wind wafts the fragrant perfume from the sandal-covered bosom of Lacshmi 9; while from innumerable lotos the gale from the east comes laden with aroma, the hum of the bees as they hang clustering on the flowers of the padhul is pleasing to the ear.

So long as Soomeru stands on its base of golden sands, so long may the dwelling endure. So long as the wind blows on the koonjeris 10, supporters of the globe, while the firmament endures, or while Lacshmi 11 causes the palm ti be extended, so long may his praise and this edifice be stable.

KUHLA 12 formed this abode of virtue, and east thereof a temple to ISWARA. By ACHIL, son of the mighty prince YASOVERMA 13, has its renown, been composed in various forms of speech.

Translation of an inscription in the Nail-headed characters relative to the Jit Race, discovered at Ram Chandrapoora[7]

Notes by James Tod on Inscription II[8]

[Note 1]- Question, if this Jit is from (da, the mark of the genitive case) Cathey? The land of the Cathae foes of Alexander, and probably, of the Cathi of the Saurashtra peninsula, alike, Scythnic as the Jit, and probably the same race originally?

[Note 2]Roodarani, an epithet of the martial spouse of Harar SIVA, the god of war, whom the Jit in the preceding inscription invokes.

[Note 3] –Here, we have another proof of the Jit being of Takshac race; this at the same time has a mythological reference to the serpent [Takhaji|takhya], which forms the garland of the warlike divinities.

[Note 4]— Of this race I have no other notice, unless it should mean the race [cula] was from Butan.

[Note 5]Chandrasen is celebrated in the history of the Pramaras as the founder of several cities, from two of which, Chandrabhaga, at the foot of the central plateau of India, in Northern Malwa, and CHANDRAVATI, the ruins of which I discovered at the foot of the Aravulli near Aboo. I possess several valuable memoria, which will, ere long, confirm the opinions I have given of the Takshac architect.

[Note 6]— The habitation of virtue.

[Note 7]— This shows these foresters always had the same character.

[Note 8]— Vela is the climber or ivy, sacred to Mahadeva.

[Note 9]— Lacshmi, the apsara or sea-nymph, is feigned residing amongst the waters of the lotos-covered lake. In the hot weather the Rajpoot ladies dip their corsets into an infusion of sandal-wood, hence the metaphor.

[Note 10]— Koonjaris are the elephants who support the eight corners of the globe.

[Note 11]- Lacshmi is also dame Fortune, or the goddess of riches, when the image.

[Note 12]— Kuhl is the fifth in descent from the opponent of the Jit.

[Note 13]—Without this name this inscription would have been but of half its value. Fortunately various inscriptions on stone and copper, procured by me from Oojein, settled the era of the death of this prince in S. 1191, which will alike answer for Achil, his son, who was most likely one of the chieftains of KUHLA, who appears to have been of the elder branch of the Pramaras, the foe of the Jit invaders.

रामचन्द्रपुरा शिलालेख का ठाकुर देशराज द्वारा हिन्दी अनुवाद

कर्नल टाड को जिट जाति सम्बन्धी एक शिलालेख बून्दी राज्य के तीन कोस पूर्व में रामचन्द्रपुरा नामक स्थान में कुवा खोदते समय मिला था. यह गाँव वर्तमान में कोटा शहर की सीमा में 'छावनी रामचन्द्रपुरा' नाम से जाना जाता है. यह एक खोदित लिपि है जिसको टाड ने 'रोयल एसियाटिक सोसायटी लंदन' की चित्रशाला में भेज दिया था. उसकी प्रतिलिपि उन्होने ’टाड राजस्थान’ में प्रकाशित की थी जो निम्नानुसार है:

"यूती वंश में राजा थोत ने जन्म लिया, उनकी यश किरण समस्त पृथ्वी मण्डल पर व्याप्त हुई.
राजा चन्द्रसैन पवित्र चित, अमित बलशाली और प्रजा-समूह के परमप्रिय पात्र थे. (१) जिन्होने अपने शत्रुओं को बिल्कुल दुर्बल कर दिया और युद्ध में तलवार चलाते समय ऐन्द्रजालिक की भान्ति विचित्र बाहुबल का परिचय दिया उसका विषय किस प्रकार कहा जा सकता है? प्रजा के प्रति बड़ा उदार व्यवहार करते और उस कारण से शुभमय फल पाते थे. उन विख्यात चन्द्रसैन के औरस से कार्तिक ने जन्म लिया. उन कार्तिक का बाहुबल सर्वत्र विख्यात था. मनुष्य समाज में उनकी बडी प्रशंसा थी. वह अपनी जिन राणी को प्राणों के सरिस चाहते थे उन रानी के विषय में किस प्रकार वर्णन किया जाये? जिस प्रकार अग्नि से शिखा को अलग नहीं किया जा सकता है, उसी प्रकार वह रानी अपने पति के साथ मिलित थी. वह सूर्य-किरण के समान थीं. उनका नाम गुणनिवास था. उनका आचरण उनके नाम के समान था. उन रानी के गर्भ से कार्तिक के माणिक्य के समान भुवनरंजन दो पुत्र उत्पन्न हुये. बड़े का नाम मुकुन्द छोटे का नाम दारुक था. उनके सौभाज्ञ्य को देखकर हृदय विदीर्ण होता था. उनके अनुगामी लोग अनन्त सुख भोगते थे. देवताओं को जिस भांति कल्पवृक्ष प्यारा है, वैसे ही ये दोनों भ्राता अपनी प्रजा के लिये प्रिय थे. वे प्रजा की प्रार्थना पूर्ण करके जिस वंश में जन्म लिया था, उस वंश की गौरव-गरिमा फैलाते थे. (कर्नल टोड ने यहां कई श्लोक निष्प्रयोजन समझकर उनका अनुवाद नहीं किया.)
दारुक के कुहल नामक एक पुत्र उत्पन्न हुआ. कुहल के औरस से धुनक का जन्म हुआ, उन्होने बड़े-बड़े कार्य सिद्ध किये. वह मनुष्य के हृदय के भाव अनुभव कर लते थे. उनका चित समुद्र के समान गंभीर था. उन्होने पहाड़ी मीना जाति को विताड़ित, परास्त और सर्वथा विध्वंश कर दिया. उनको फिर कहीं स्थान नहीं मिला. वह अपने छोटे भ्राता दोक के सहित देवता और ब्रह्मणों की पूजा करते थे. उन्होने अपने धन से अपनी प्राण प्यारी की प्रसन्नता के लिये सूर्य के उद्देश्य से यह मन्दिर स्थापना किया.
जब तक सुमेर सुवर्ण बालूका के ऊपर खड़ा है, तब तक यह मन्दिर विराजमान रहेगा. जब तक लक्ष्मी धन-दान करेंगी, तब तक उनका यश और मन्दिर अक्षय भाव से विराजमान रहेगा.
कुहल ने यह मन्दिर तथा इसके पूर्व पार्श्व में महेश्वर के मन्दिर की प्रतिष्ठा कराई थी. महावली महाराज यशोवर्मा के पुत्र अचल के द्वारा इसकी प्रसिद्धि फैली." (टाड परिशिष्ट -१)


इस शिलालेख के पढ़ने से कम से कम तीन बातें मालूम होती हैं-


पहाड़ी मीना जाति से इनका कब और कहां पर युद्ध हुआ, इसका पता चला


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-589


लेना अवश्य टेढ़ा काम है। यदि हम यह कहें कि मिनण्डर के साथी मीना लोगों से जाट नरेश कार्तिक का युद्ध हुआ, तो मानना पड़ेगा कि वे ईसवी सन् 150 वर्ष पहले बूंदी के आस-पास के प्रदेश पर राज्य कर रहे थे। क्योंकि कई इतिहास लेखकों ने भारत पर मिनण्डर के इस आक्रमण का समय ईसवी पूर्व 155 वर्ष माना है।1 उसने चित्तौड़ तक धावा किया था। बहुत संभव है कि इसी आक्रमण के समय महाराज कार्तिक का उनसे युद्ध हुआ हो। इस तरह से उनके वंशज धनुक का समय पहली शताब्दी का आरम्भिक भाग हो सकता है।

इन लोगों तथा इनके मन्दिर की प्रसिद्धि कराने वाले यशोवर्मा के पुत्र अचल के समय पर जब हम ध्यान देते हैं तो इन लोगों का समय ईसवी सन् की तीसरी, चौथी अथवा इससे भी पीछे की सदी मानना पड़ता है, क्योंकि यशोवर्मा नामक नरेश मौखरी वंश में संभूत आठवीं शताब्दी मे कन्नौज का शासक था। उसने 731 ई. में चीन को एक दल भेजा था।2 किन्तु उसके पुत्र का नाम अचल था, ऐसा लेख इस शिलालिपि के सिवाय कोई दूसरा अब तक नहीं मिला है। यदि यशोवर्मा को यशोधर्मा मान लिया जाये तो इन महाराजाओं का समय उनके समय से कुछ ही समय पहले का रहता है, क्योंकि महाराज यशोधर्मा का समय पांचवी, छठी सदी के बीच का है। यशोधर्मा मन्दसौर के जाट-नरेश थे। निकटवर्ती तथा सजातीय होने से यशोधर्मा के पुत्र अचल ने उनकी प्रसिद्धि फैलाई हो यह संभव ही है, किन्तु सुदूरवर्ती (कन्नौज के) यशोवर्मा के पुत्र ने इनकी कीर्ति का प्रचार किया, इसमें दोनों का कोई खास सम्बन्ध होना चाहिये। मौखरी जाट इस समय जाटों में मौजूद हैं। सम्भव है मौखरी यशोधर्मा और कार्तिक के वंशजों में वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध हुआ हो। यदि यह पिछली बात सही है तो कार्तिक के वंशजों का राज छोटे-मोटे रूप में बूंदी के निकटवर्ती प्रदेश पर ईसा की आठवीं सदी तक होना चाहिये। मीना जाति के साथ कार्तिक का जो युद्ध हुआ था, उसे मिनेण्डर के साथियों के साथ मान कर आगे कोई दूसरा युद्ध मानना पड़ेगा। दसवीं सदी तक जयपुर में हम मीनों के छोटे-छोटे राज्य पाते हैं, बहुत संभव है कि ये ही लोग उन पर चढ़कर गये हों।

ऐतिहासिक सामग्री की कमी और छठी सदी के पहले का इतिहास प्रायः अप्राप्त होने के कारण यह निश्चय करने में बाधा पड़ती है कि कार्तिक व उनके पूर्वज और वंशज किस समय में शासक थे। फिर भी हम कह सकते हैं कि उनका समय चौथी और छठी शताब्दी के बीच का है, क्योंकि यशोधर्मा और यशोवर्मा


1. बौद्ध-कालीन भारत (जनार्दन भट्ट कृत) पेज 271।
2. भारत के प्राचीन राजवंश। भाग 2।


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-590


के समय से कुछ पहले उनका राज रहा होगा। तभी तो अचल के द्वारा उनकी प्रसिद्धि फैलाई गई थी।

संदर्भ - ठाकुर देशराज:जाट इतिहास, 1992, पृ.588-90

Inscription No. II: Notes by Wiki editors

1. Period of Inscription No. II: The following two paras from the Inscription are crucial:
DERUKA had a son, KUHLA, and his was DHUNIKA, whose deeds ascended high—who could fathom the intentions of mankind—whose mind was deep as the ocean—whose ever hungry falchion expelled from their mountains and forests the MEENA tribes, leaving them no refuge in the three words, leveling their retreats to the ground.
KUHLA formed this abode of virtue, and east thereof a temple to ISWARA. By ACHIL, son of the mighty prince YASOVERMA , has its renown, been composed in various forms of speech.
War with Meenas and temple of Ishwara by Achal can be of great help in determining Period of Inscription No. II.
ठाकुर देशराज के अनुसार यशोवर्मा नामक नरेश मौखरी वंश में संभूत आठवीं शताब्दी मे कन्नौज का शासक था। उसने 731 ई. में चीन को एक दल भेजा था। किन्तु उसके पुत्र का नाम अचल था, ऐसा लेख इस शिलालिपि के सिवाय कोई दूसरा अब तक नहीं मिला है। यदि यशोवर्मा को यशोधर्मा मान लिया जाये तो इन महाराजाओं का समय उनके समय से कुछ ही समय पहले का रहता है, क्योंकि महाराज यशोधर्मा का समय पांचवी, छठी सदी के बीच का है। यशोधर्मा मन्दसौर के जाट-नरेश थे। निकटवर्ती तथा सजातीय होने से यशोधर्मा के पुत्र अचल ने उनकी प्रसिद्धि फैलाई हो यह संभव ही है, किन्तु सुदूरवर्ती (कन्नौज के) यशोवर्मा के पुत्र ने इनकी कीर्ति का प्रचार किया, इसमें दोनों का कोई खास सम्बन्ध होना चाहिये। मौखरी जाट इस समय जाटों में मौजूद हैं। सम्भव है मौखरी यशोधर्मा और कार्तिक के वंशजों में वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध हुआ हो। यदि यह पिछली बात सही है तो कार्तिक के वंशजों का राज छोटे-मोटे रूप में बूंदी के निकटवर्ती प्रदेश पर ईसा की आठवीं सदी तक होना चाहिये। (जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-590)
Achalgarh: Now let us search the geography of the region. Achalgarh (अचलगढ़) is a fort situated eleven kilometers north of Mount Abu, a hill station in Sirohi district in Rajasthan, India. It is named after Achala, a name of Shiva.


The Parmaras of Malwa were originally from Achalgarh and Chandrawati. Around 810 AD Upendra or Kerishnaraja left the place and established capital in Malwa. They ruled earlier from Achalgarh for a long period. [Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.11]
Achaleshwar Mahadeva temple is just outside the fort; the toe of Lord Shiva is worshipped there and a brass Nandi is also located there. Near the temple there are three stone buffaloes standing around a pond. It is believed that the Achleshwar temple was built in the 9th century and legend has it that it was built around a toe print of Lord Shiva.
The information provided by Thakur Deshraj and Achaleshwar Mahadeva we can say it was in the 8th century. Laxman Burdak (talk) 03:04, 27 January 2015 (EST)

Inscription No. III: Chittor Inscription of Maan Mori S.V. 770 (=713 AD)

Chittor Inscription of Maan Mori 713 AD English Text of Inscription No. III by James Tod

By the lord of waters may thou be protected! What is there which resembles the ocean? On whose margins the red buds of honey-yielding trees are eclipsed by swarms of bees, whose beauty expands with the junction of numerous streams. What is like the ocean, inhaling the perfume of the Paryata 1, who was compelled to yield as tribute, wine, wealth, and ambrosia 2? Such is the ocean!—may he protect thee.

Of a mighty gift, this is the memorial. This lake enslaves the minds of beholders, over whose expanse the varied feathered tribe skin with delight, and whose banks are studded with every kind of tree. Falling from the lofty-peaked mountain, enhancing the beauty of the scene, torrent rushes to the lake. The mighty sea-serpent 3, overspent with toil in the churning of the ocean, repaired to this lake for repose.

On this earth’s surface was Maheswara 4, a mighty prince, during whose sway the name of foe was never heard; whose fortune was known to the eight quarters 5; on whose arm victory reclined for support. He was the light of the land. The praises of the race of TWASTHA 6 were determined by Brahma’s own mouth.

Fair, filled with pride, sporting amidst the shoals of the lotos, is the swan fed by his hand, from whose countenance issue rays of glory: such was RAJA BHEEM 7, a skilful swimmer in the ocean of battle, even to where the Ganges pours in her flood 8 did he go, whose abode is Avanti 9. With faces resplendent as the moon, on whose lips yet marked with the wound of their husband’s teeth, the captive wives of the foes, even in their hearts does Raja Bheem dwell. By his arm he removed the apprehensions of his enemies; he considered them as errors to be expunged. He appeared as if created of fire. He could instruct even the navigator 10 of the ocean.

From him was descended RAJA BHOJ 11. How shall he be described, he, who in the field of battle divided with his sword the elephant’s head, the pearl from whose brain 12 now adorns his breast: who devours his foes as does RAHOO 13 the sun or the moon, who ti the verge of space erected edifices in token of victory?

From him was a son whose name was MAUN, who was surcharged good qualities, and with whom fortune took up her abode. One day he met an aged man: his appearance made him reflect that his frame was as a shadow, evanescent; that the spirit which did inhabit it was like the seed of the scented Kadma 14; that the riches of royalty were brittle as a blade of grass; and the man was like a lamp exposed in the light of day. Thus ruminating, for the sake of his race who had gone before him, and for sake of good works, he made this lake, whose waters are expansive and depth unfathomable. When I look on this ocean-like lake, I ask myself, if it may be this which is destined to cause the final doom 15.

The warriors and chief of RAJA MAUN 16 are men of skill and valour—pure in their lives and faithful. Raja Maun is a heap of virtues—the chief who enjoys his favour may court all the gifts of fortune. When the head is inclined on his lotos foot, the grain of sand which adheres becomes an ornament thereto. Such is the lake, shaded with trees, frequented by birds, which the man of fortune, SHRIMAN RAJA MAUN, with great labour formed. By the name of its lord (Maun), that of the lake (surwur) is known to the world.

By him versed in the alankara, PUSHHA, the son of NAGA BHUT, these stanzas have been framed. Seventy had elapsed beyond seven hundred years (Samvatisir), when the lord of KINGS OF MALWA 17 formed this lake. By SEVADIT, grandson of KHETRI KARUG, were these lines cut.

English Text of Inscription No. III by James Tod[9]


Inscription in the Nail-headed character of the Mori Princes of Cheetore, taken from a column on the banks of the Lake Mansurwur (मानसरोवर), near that city.

Notes by James Tod to inscription III related to Jats[10]

  • (Note 1). —The Paryat (पारिजात) is also called the Har-singar, or ‘ornament of the neck,’ it’s flowers being made into collars and bracelets. Its aroma is very delicate, and the blossom dies in a few hours.
  • (Note 2). -Imrita, the food of the immortals obtained at the churning of the ocean. The contest for this amongst the gods and demons is well known. Vrihspati, or Sookar, regent of the planet Venus, on this occasion lost an eye; and hence this Polyphemus has left the nickname of Sookaracharya to all who have but one eye.
  • (Note 3). —His name Matloi (मातली) .
  • (Note 4). —A celebrated name in the genealogies of the TAKSHAC Pramara, of which the Mori is a conspicuous Sacha or branch. He was the founder of the city of Maheswar, on the southern banks of the Nerbudda, which commands the ford leading from Awinti and Dhara (the chief cities of the Mori Pramaras) to the Dekhan.
  • (Note 5). —The ancient Hindu divided his planisphere into eight quarters, on which he placed the Koonjorries or elephants, for its support.
  • (Note 7). –Raja Bheem , the lord of Avanti or OOjein, the king of Malwa, is especially celebrated in the Jain annals. A son of his led a numerous colony into Marwar, and founded many cities between the Looni river and the Aravulli mountains. All became proselytes to the Jain faith, and their descendants, who are amongst the wealthiest and most numerous of these mercantile sectarians, are proud of their Rajpoot descent; and it tells when they are called to responsible offices, when they handle sword as well as pen.
  • (Note 8). –Ganga-Sagur, or the Island at the mouth of the Ganges, is specified by name as the limit of Bheem’s conquests. His memoria may yet exist even there.
  • (Note 10). —Paaryataca, a navigator.
  • (Note 11). RAJA BHOJ. There is no more celebrated name than this in the annals and literature of the Rajpoots; but there were three princes of the Pramara race who bore it. The period of the last Raja Bhoj, father of Udyadit, is now fixed, by various inscriptions discovered by me, A.D. 1035, obtained at the temple of Nadole, namely S. 631 and 721, or A.D. 575 and 665. [Abu-l fazl Al Baihaki |Abulfazil]] gives the period of the first Bhoj as S. 545; but as we find that valuable MS of the period of the last Bhoj confirmed by the date of this inscription of his son MAUN, namely, S.770, we may put perfect confidence on it, and now consider the period of the three namely S. 631, 721, and 1091 – A.D. 567, 665 and 1035 – as fixed points in Rajpoot chronology.
  • (Note 12). –In the head of that class of elephants called Bhadra, the Hindoo says, there is always a large pearl.
  • (Note 13). –The monster RAHOO of the Rajpoot, who swallows the sun and moon, causing eclipse, is Fenris, the wolf of the Scandinavians. The Asi carried the same ideas West, which they taught within the Indus.
  • (Note 14). –Kadama is a very delicate flower that decays almost instantaneously.
  • (Note 15). – Maha-pralaya.
  • (Note 16) –The MS annals of the Rana’s family state that the founder Bappa, conquered Cheetore from MAUN MORI. This inscription is therefore invaluable as establishing the era of the conquest of Cheetore by the Gehlotes, and which was immediately following the first irruption of the arms of Islam, as rendered in the annals of Mewar.


Notes on Inscription No III: Chittor Inscription of Maan Mori  :

Background of Foundation of Maurya Dynasty at Chitor

James Tod (James Todd Annals/Personal Narrative, pp. 564-565]) visited Morwun village on February 1st, 1820 and has provided us following details:

Morwun, February 1st, 1820 — Yesterday, Maun Sing took up the whole of my time with the feuds of Lawah and their consequences. It obliged me to halt, in order to make inquiries into the alienated lands in its vicinity. Morwun is, or rather was, a township of some consequence, and head of a tuppa or subdivision of a district. It is rated, with its contiguous hamlets, at seven thousand rupees annual rent. The situation is beautiful, upon heights pleasingly diversified, with a fine lake to the westward, whose margin is studded with majestic tamarind trees. The soil is rich, and there is water in great abundance within twenty-five feet of the surface ; but man is wanting ! The desolation of solitude reigns throughout, for (as Rousseau observes) there is none to whom one can turn and say, que la solitude est belle !

I experienced another pang at seeing this fertile district revert to the destroyer, the savage Pat'han, who had caused the desolation, and in the brief but expressive words of a Roman author, solitudinem facit, pacem appellat. Morwun is included in the lands mortgaged for a war-contribution, but which with others has remained in the hands of the Mahratta mortgagees or their mercenary subordinates. But it is melancholy to reflect that, but for a false magnanimity towards our insidious, natural enemies, the Mahrattas, all these lands would have reverted to their legitimate masters, who are equally interested with ourselves in putting down predatory warfare. Justice, good policy, and humanity, would have been better consulted had the Mahrattas been wholly banished from Central India. When I contrasted this scene with the traces of incipient prosperity I had left behind me, I felt a satisfaction that the alienated acres produced nothing to the possessor, save luxuriant grass, and the leafless kesoola or plas.

Morwun has some claims to antiquity ; it derives its appellation from the Mori tribe, who ruled here before they obtained Cheetore. The ruins of a fort, still known by the name of Chitrung Mori's castle, are pointed out as his residence ere he founded Cheetore, or


[p.565]: properly Cheetrore. The tradition runs thus: Chitrung, a subordinate of the imperial house of Dhar, held Morwun and the adjacent tract, in appanage. One of his subjects, while ploughing, struck the share against some hard substance, and on examination band it was transmuted to gold. This was the paris-puttur or philosopher's stone,' and he carried it forthwith to his lord, with whose aid he erected the castle, and enlarged the town of Morwun, and ultimately founded Cheetore. The (dhoollcote, or site of Mori-ca-puttun, is yet pointed out, to the westward of the present Morwun.

It was miraculously destroyed through the impieties of its inhabitants by fire, which fate recalls a more celebrated catastrophe ; but the act of impiety in the present case was merely seizing a rishi, or ' hermit,' while performing penance in the forest, and compelling him to carry radishes to market ! The tradition, however, is of some value ; it proves, first, that there were radishes in those days ; and secondly, that volcanic eruptions occurred in this region. Oojein- Ahar, in the valley of Oodipoor, and the lake of which is said in some places to be a'tac, ' deeper than plummet sounded,' is another proof of some grand commotion of nature. Morwun boasts of three mindras, or temples, one of which is dedicated to Schesnag, the thousand-headed hydra which supports the globe. Formerly, saffron was the meet offering to this king of reptiles ; but he is now obliged to be content with ointment of sandal, produced from the evergreen, which is indigenous to Mewar.


Notes by Wiki editors

1. Raja Maun mentioned here is the same as Raja Maan looking to James Tod's style of writing names as he has mentioned Raja Maun for Raja Man Singh of Amber. (See -James Todd Annals, p.143) Laxman Burdak (talk) 02:22, 12 January 2015 (EST)
2. Inscription mentions Samvarsar 770 = 713 AD Laxman Burdak (talk) 02:25, 12 January 2015 (EST)
3. Inscription mentions Sevadit, grandson of Khetri Karug. It is to be noted that Karag is a Jat clan. Laxman Burdak (talk) 22:37, 18 February 2018 (EST)


3. मानमोरी के लेख पर डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा का नोट : चित्तौड़ के पास मनसरोवर झील के तट पर एक स्तम्भ पर खुदा यह लेख कर्नल टाड[11] को मिला था. संभवत: इंगलैण्ड ले जाते समय भारी होने के कारण समुद्र में फ़ेंक दिया. केवल इसक अनुवाद बच रहा जिसको उसने अपनी पुस्तक ’एनाल्स अण्ड अन्टिक्विटीज’ में प्रकाशित किया. पार्थिव स्थिति में यह लेख उपलब्ध नहीं होने से उसके द्वारा दिये अनुवाद पर ही निर्भर रहना पड़ता है.
प्रस्तुत लेख में पहले समुद्र और तालाब का वर्णन करते हुये अमृत-मंथन तथा उस के सम्बन्ध में कर का उल्लेख है. इसके अनन्तर इसमें चार राजाओं का वर्णन मिलता है. ये हैं - महेश्वर, भीम, भोज और मान. महेश्वर को शत्रुहन्ता तथा सम्पन्न शासक बतलाया गया है और उसके सन्दर्भ में त्वस्थ (तक्षक) वंश की प्रशंशा की है. भीम को अवन्तिपुर का राजा बतलाया है. उसने अपने अनेक शत्रुओं को कारागार में डाल दिया और उनकी स्त्रियों का फिर भी वह प्रिय बना रहा. उसके बारे में लिखा है मानो वह अग्नि से उत्पन्न हुआ हो और समुद्र के नाविकों को शिक्षा देने की क्षमता हो. उसका पुत्र भोज भी बड़ा प्राक्रमी था जिसने युद्ध क्षेत्र में हस्ती के मस्तक को विदीर्ण किया. उसका पुत्र मान था जो साधन-सम्पन्न, ईमानदार, सद्चरित्र और समृद्ध था. उसने संसार को क्षणभंगुर समझकर अपनी संपत्ति के सदुपयोग के लिये मानसरोवर झील का निर्माण करवाया. लेख में मान के योद्धाओं और सरदारों को भी योज्ञ और चतुर बताया है जो सदा मान की कृपा के आकांक्षी रहते थे. इस प्रशस्ति का लेखक नागभट्ट का पुत्र पुष्य और उत्कीर्णक करुग का पौत्र शिवादित्य था.
डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा के अनुसार यह लेख ऐतिहासिक दृष्टि से बड़ा उपयोगी है. इस वंश का इसमें तक्षक वंश का तथा अग्नि वंश से उत्पन्न होने का उल्लेख महत्वपूर्ण है. संभवत: इस वंश का सम्बन्ध गोरी वंशीय अथवा ओलिकरों से रहा हो जिनका प्रभाव मंदसोर, उज्जैन आदि भागों पर था. मान का बसन्तपुर आदि प्रान्तों के शत्रुओं का विजेता लेख करना भी यह प्रमाणित करता है कि इस वंश के शासकों के राज्य में मध्य भारतीय तथा दक्षिण पश्चिम राजस्थान के भाग भी रहे हों और उनका अधिकार चित्तौड़ पर भी रहा हो. चित्तौड़ के शंकरघट्टा से प्राप्त वि.सं. 770 के लेख में 5वीं पंक्ति में राजा ’मानभंग’ का वर्णन आता है जो इस वंश के शासकों का चित्तौड़ पर अधिकार होना प्रमाणित करता है. चित्तौड़ से प्राप्त एक अन्य वि.सं. 811 ई. के लेख से इसी वंश में कुकड़ेश्वर नामक राजा के होने का उल्लेख मिलता है. इस लेख के संदर्भ में यह भी ठीक प्रतीत होता है कि बापा रावल ने मोरियों से, प्रचलित कथा के अनुसार, चित्तौड़ नहीं लिया था. कुकड़ेश्वर का वि.सं. 811 ई. का लेख इस सम्भावनाओं को समाप्त कर देता है.

Atpur (Ahar Udaipur) Inscription of Shaktikumara of 977 AD

Inscription No. V of James Tod[12]

Text of Atpur Inscription of Shaktikumara 977 A.D.

Inscription from the ruins of Atpur--

In Samvatsir 1034, the 10 of the month Bysak, was erected dwelling of Nanukswami.

From Anaunpoor came he of Brahmin [Vipra cula] race (may he flourish), Muhee Deva Sri Goha Dit, from whom became famous on the earth the Gohil, tribe:

2. Bhoj.
3. Mahindra.
4. Naga.
5. Syeela.
6. Aprajit.
7. Mahindra, no equal as a warrior did then exist on the earth’s surface.
8. Kalbhoj was resplendent as the sun (Arc).
9. Khoman, an unequalled warrior; from him
10. Bhitrpad, the Tiluk of the three worlds; and from whom was
11. Singji; whose Ranee Maha Lakmee, ‘of the warlike race of Rashtra (Rahtore), and from her was born:
12. Sri Ullut. To him who subdued the earth and became its lord, was born Haria Devi: her praise was known in Hurspoora; and from her was born a mighty warrior in whose arm victory reposed; the Khetri of the field of battle, who broke the confederacy of his foes, and from the tree of whose fortune riches were the fruit: an altar of learning, from him was
13. Nirvahana. By daughter of Sri Jaijah, of Chauana race, was born
14. Salvahana. Such were their (the princes whose names are given) fortunes which I(related. From him was born
15. Secti Koomar. How can he be described ?—He who conquered and made his own the three qualifications (sacti Priboo, Ootccha and Muntri); whose fortunes equaled those of Bhitarpad. In the abode of wealth Sri Aitpoor, which he had made his dwelling, surrounded by crowd of princes; the kulpdroom to his people; whose foot-soldiers are many; with vaults of treasure—whose fortunes have ascended to heaven—whose city derives its beauty from the intercourse of merchants; and in which there is but one single evil, the killing darts from the bright eyes of beauty, carrying destruction to the vassals of the prince.
Atpur Inscription of Shaktikumara 977 A.D.[13]


The earliest epigraphic record containing a full genealogy of the family is inscription dated 977 AD found at Atpur. It gives the names of 20 kings in an unbroken line of succession beginning from Guhadatta and ending in Shaktikumara. Allowing five reins in a century Guhadatta may be placed in second half of the sixth century AD. This view is corroborated by other epigraphic evidences, but goes against the bardic tradition that the Guha, the founder of the family , was the son of Siladitya, the last ruler of Valabhi, as the later was on the throne till at least 766 AD.[14]

The inscription of Atpur (Ahar Udaipur) of V.S 1034 has mentioned the first king's name as Guhadatta meaning gift of Guha or Sadanana, the first son of God Shiva, the family deity of this family.[15]


The inscription dated 977 AD carries names of 15 first princes of Gohil dynasty founded by Muhee Deva Sri Goha Dit Vipra. Its contents mention nothing on the issue related with the fall of Chitor ruled by Mauryas. Hence to understand the history of Maurya rule in the region and their relation with the ruling princes of the region, the inscription is very significant.

आहड़ का शक्तिकुमार का लेख 977 ई.

यह लेख टोड को मिला था.[16] सम्भवत: वह इसे इंगलैण्ड ले गया. यह वि.सं. 1034 वैशाख सुदी 1 का है. इसमें शक्तिकुमार को प्रभुशक्ति, मंत्रशक्ति और उत्साह शक्ति से सम्पन्न बताया गया है. इसमें यह भी उल्लेखित है कि शक्तिकुमार का निवास स्थान आहड़ था. इस लेख से शक्तिकुमार की राजनीतिक प्रभुता तथा आहड़ की आर्थिक सम्पन्नता का बोध होता है. इस लेख में अल्लट की माता महालक्ष्मी का राठौड़ वंश की होना तथा अल्लट की राणी हरियदेवी का हूण राजा की पुत्री होना और उस राणी का हर्षपुर गांव बसाना अंकित है. इस लेख में गुहदत्त से शक्ति कुमार तक पूरी वंशावली दी है जो मेवाड़ के प्राचीन इतिहास के लिये बड़े काम की है. इस लेख में वर्णित शक्तिकुमार की राजनीतिक प्रभुता आहड़ के देवकलिका वाले शिलालेख से प्रमाणित होती है. एक अन्य लेख द्वारा हमें यह सूचना मिलती है कि राजा नरवाहन के अक्षपटलिक श्रीपति के दो पुत्र मत्तट और गुंदल थे. ये दोनों भाई शक्तिकुमार की दोनों भुजाओं के समान थे. यह राजधानी एक प्रकार से सैनिक छावनी थी. इसलिये प्रशस्तिकार ने इसके लिये ’कटक’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया है. ये दोनों बन्धु इस कटक के भूषण बताये गये हैं. इससे इनके सैनिक उपयोगिता का आभाष होता है. एक अन्य जैन मन्दिर के सीढी के लगे हुये अपूर्ण शिलालेख से मत्तट का शक्तिकुमार का अक्षपटलाधिपति होना सूचित होता है. उसने राजा की आज्ञा से एक सूर्य मन्दिर के लिये प्रतिवर्ष 14 द्रम देने की व्यवस्था की थी. यह अपूर्ण लेख उदयपुर संग्रहालय में सुरक्षित है.


Jhalrapatan inscription dated S. 748 (A.D. 691) of Raja Durgangul

The oldest inscription, dated S. 748 (A.D. 691), bore the name of Raja Doorgangul, or ' the bar of the castle'. It is very long, and in that ornamented character peculiar to the Buddhists and Jains throughout these regions.

Text

It contains allusions to the local traditions of the Pandu Arjoon, and his encounter with the demon virodhi under the form of Baraha, or the boar ; and states, that from the spot where the baraha was wounded, and on which his blood fell, a figure sprung, originating from the wound (khhet), whose offspring in consequence was called Khetrie : of his line was Crishna Bhut Khetrie, whose son was Takyac, What did he resemble, who obtained the fruits of the whole earth, conquering numerous foes ? He had a son named Kyuc, who was equal to the divinity which supports the globe : in wisdom he was renowned as Mahadeo: his name sent to sleep the children of his foe : he appeared as an avatar of Boodh, and like the ocean, which expands when the rays of the full moon fell upon it, even so does the sea of our knowledge increase when he looks upon it: and his verses are filled with ambrosia (amrtto).

From Cheyt to Cheyt, sacrifice never ceased burning : Indra went without offspring.* The contributions from the land were raised with justice, whilst his virtues overshadowed the three worlds. The light which shines from the tusks of his foe's elephant had departed ; and the hand which struck him on the head, to urge him on, emitted no sound. Where was the land that felt not his influence ? Suck was Sri Kyuk ! when he visited foreign lands, joy departed from the wives of his foe : may all his resolves be accomplished !

" S. 748 (A.D. 691), on the full moon of Jeyt, this inscription was placed in the mindra, by Goopta, the grandson of Bhat Ganeswar, lord of the lords of verse of Moondal, and son of Hur-goopta : this writing was composed, in the presence of Sri Doorgangul Raja, to "whom, salutation ! that forehead alone is fair which bows to the "gods, to a tutor, and to woman ! Engraved by Oluk the stone- " cutter."


Jhalrapatan inscription dated S. 748 (A.D. 691) of Raja Durgangul[17]

Remarks by James Tod:

[p.673]: On this curious inscription we may bestow a few remarks. It appears to me that the wild legion of the creation of this Khetri, from the blood of Baraha, represented as a danoo, or demon in disguise, is another fiction to veil the admission of some northern race into the great Hindu family. The name of Baraha, as an ancient Indo-Scythic tribe, is fortunately abundantly preserved in the annals of Jessulmer, which state, at the early periods of the Yadu-Bhatti history, opposed their entrance into India ; while both Takshac (or Tak) and Kyuk are names of Tatar origin, the former signifying 'the snake,' the latter ' the heavens.' The whole of this region bears evidence of a race whose religion was ophite, who bore the epithet of Takshac as the name of the tribe, and whose inscriptions in this same nail-headed character are found all over central and western India. If we combine this with all that we have already said regarding Raja Hoon of Bhadraoti, and Ungutsi the Hun, who served the Rana of Cheetore at this precise period* when an irruption is recorded from Central Asia, we are forced to the conclusion, that this inscription (besides many others), is a memorial of a Scythic or Tatar prince, who, as well as the Gete prince of Salpoor, was grafted upon Hindu stock.


James Tod writes:We crossed the confluent streams of the Aou and Amjar, which , flowing through the plains of Malwa, have forced their way through the exterior chain into the antri of Gagrown, pass under its western face, dividing it from the town, and then join the Caly Sinde.

Location of Chandrabhaga near Jhalrapatan


Until you approach close to Gagrown, its town and castle appear united, and present a bold and striking object; and it is only on mounting the ridge that one perceives the strength of this position.


Note by--DrRajpalSingh (talk) 03:03, 11 February 2015 (EST)* Tod has given A.D. 692 which we have substituted with 691 on the basis of calculation viz., S. 748-57= A.D. 691.]

References

  1. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 621-22
  2. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 622-23
  3. Archaeological Survey of India. Vol II, 919720, Indological Book House, Varanasi, pp. 58-59
  4. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, p. 69.
  5. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, p. 69.
  6. Early Chauhan Dynasties by Dasharatha Sharma, p. 60.
  7. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 623-24
  8. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 624-25
  9. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 625-26
  10. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 625-26
  11. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.51-52. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities, Part1, pp.625-626
  12. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vo. 1, pp. 628-29
  13. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vo. 1, pp. 628-29
  14. Ancient India By R.C. Majumdar, pp. 288-299
  15. Origin Guhilas
  16. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.67 E.I. Vol. 39,p.191
  17. James Todd Annals/Personal Narrative, Vol.II,pp.672-673