Kumbha Ram Arya
Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya (10 May 1914 - 26 October 1995) (चौधरी कुम्भाराम आर्य) was a freedom fighter, parliamentarian and popular leader of farmers in Rajasthan, India. He was born at village Khaira-Chhota of princely state Patiala on 10th May 1914 in a Jat Hindu family of Sunda gotra. His father's name was Bhairaram and mother's name was Jivani. His ancestors belonged to village Kudan in Sikar District. His family migrated to village Saudanpur and finally settled at village Phephana or Fefana (फेफाना) of Nohar Tehsil of district Hanumangarh. 
Early political movements
Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya got primary education at village school Phephana (फेफाना/Fefana) and joined Forest department Hanumangarh at the age of 14 years. Arya Samaj was spreading its activities in rural areas in those days. Brahmanical dominance and untouchability prevalent in the society forced him to follow the principles of Arya Samaj. He became strong follower of Swami Dayanand. He took part in the Lahore Congress Adhiveshan in 1930, due to which he was removed from service of Forest department. Later on he joined Police department to. He came in contact with two politicians of democratic thinking namely Mukta Prasad Vakil and Raghuvar Dayal Goyal. With their help he founded a political organization “Praja Parishad”. He resigned from police service to support the freedom movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. He became active in politics and started taking part in political movements. He took part in “Akhil Bharatiy Deshi Rajya Parishad Adhiveshan” in 1945.
Reformist moves for farmers
Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya united farmers of princely state Bikaner against the exploitation by Jagirdars. He was arrested by the ruler of Bikaner and imprisoned till independence. The Jagirdars in Bikaner state were exploiting farmers. Before independence the state of Rajasthan was a union composed of several princely states of Rajputana, which came into existence on 30th March 1949. The farmers were tenants of the land and their condition was deplorable under the exploitation of landlords called Jajirdars, Zamindars and Bishwedars etc. The tenant had no right over the land cultivated by him. He was only the tiller of the soil, but was under the whimsical mercy of those landlords. But the farmers as a class were awakening in Bikaner state under the leadership of Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya and there was turmoil of the tiller demanding, “Land to tiller”. This hostile state of affairs led the newly formed state government to take immediate steps to reconcile the situation. The pressure of protection of the tenants was so immense that the government had to take immediate steps and with this aim “The Rajasthan Protection of Tenants Ordinance, 1949” was promulgated to meet the burning need of the time. The Rajasthan Land Reforms and Resumption of Jagirs Act, 1952 was the landmark in the legal history of land reforms in Rajasthan. The pressure of farmers united under the leadership of Chaudhari Kumbharam Arya forced the state government to promulgate The Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 which became applicable to the whole of Rajasthan. The overriding effect of this Act provided relief to the existing tenants and the rights accrued to tenants accordingly. He also amended the rules of felling trees in favour of farmers. Farmers were not allowed to fell trees from his land. This caused great difficulty. It was he who pressurized the state government to amend the rules and permit the farmer to fell trees from land of his ownership for his own use.
Panchayat-Raj and cooperative movement
The first popular government in Rajasthan was formed in 1949 under the leadership of Hiralal Shastri. A new government was formed in 1951 under the leadership of Jaynarayan Vyas. Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya was made home minister in it. Later on in Mohanlal Sukharia government in 1954 and in 1964 also he was twice health minister. He formed Panchayat Raj Federation of which he was chairman from 1957-1958. He is the founder member of Panchayat Raj in Rajasthan. The rules of Panchayat Raj of Rajasthan are considered to be ideal ones in the country. He was member of Rajya Sabha from 1960-1964. In 1966 he resigned from the Congress government and formed a new political party “Janata Party”. In 1968 he was elected to Rajya Sabha and was member of Rajya Sabha from 1968-74. He was Member of Parliament elected from Sikar (1980-84) from Lokdal Party.
Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya formed Kisan Union in the interest of farmers in 1974. He believed that the key to success of rural development was in Panchayati Raj and Cooperative movement. He was founder of cooperative movement in Rajasthan. He was Chairman of Rajasthan Apex Cooperative bank. He was Chairman of Rajasthan Marketing Federation “RAJFED”. He was Chairman of Rajasthan Cooperative Federation. His role in cooperative movement in Rajasthan was unparallel.
Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya was a great social reformer and a radical thinker. His ideology was not based on traditions. He was strong follower of Arya Samaj. He tried throughout his life to remove social evils from the society. He stoutly opposed untouchability. As the proverb goes, charity begins from home. So he appointed his butler who belonged to scheduled caste. His bodyguard was a Rajput. He arranged marriage of his Rajput bodyguard with a Muslim girl after adopting her as a sister.
He was the author of two books namely, “Kisan Union Kyon” and “Varg Chetana”. He started a weekly magazine “Kisan” in Hindi in 1978. He started a number of schools and hostels for girls in Bikaner region. He served for about 50 years in various capacities starting from Lok Parishad, National Congress, Janata Party, Bhartiy Krantidal, Bhartiy Lokdal and Janata Party with the interest of a common man in mind.
He passed away on 26th October 1995.
Bio Data at Lok Sabha website
7th Lok Sabha
ARYA, SHRI KUMBHA RAM (Janata (S)— Rajasthan, Sikar, 1980] s. of Shri Bhaira Ram Chaudhari; b. at Phephana Village Nohar Tahsil, Shri Ganganagar District, June, 1914; Matriculate; m. Smt, Bhudevi Ji; 2 s. and 5 d.; Agriculturist; previously associated with Akhil Bharatiya Deshi Raj Lok Parishad-before independence and thereafter with Indian National Congress; Janata Party; (Rajasthan), 1967; Bharatiya KrantiDal; Bharatiya Lok Dal, Janata Party; presently with Lok Dal (Janata-S); Minister of revenue Bikaner State, 1948; Minister of Health, Police, Minerals and Industry, 1951, Minister of Health and Local Self Government 1954-55 and Minister of Revenue, 1964-67 Government of Rajasthan; Founder, Rajasthan Panchayat Raj Sangh 1957-58; vice President, Akhil Bharatiya Panchayat Parishad, l957-58; Member, (i) Rajasthan Legislative Assembly, 1952-57, 1964-66, (ii) Rajya Sabha, 1960-64 and again, 1969-74.
Social activities: (i) Education, (ii) Social reforms, (iii) Cow Production, (iv) Uplift of Harijans, and (v) Creating class consciousness.
Special interests: To awaken and organise the workers and peasants on the basis of class consciousness; propagation of People's democracy for the establishment of Panchayat Raj.
Publications: "Kisan Union Kyon".
Travels abroad: Germany, U.S.S.R. and U.K.
Permanent address: Arya Niwas, Durga Pura, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
Books published on him
- मरू माणक कुम्भाराम: लेखक मनसुख रणवां, कल्पना पब्लिकेशन जयपुर, 2006, ISBN 81-89691-08-7
Swami Keshwanand's Shradhanjali by Kumbha Ram Arya-15.9.1972
- डॉ पेमाराम व डॉ विक्रमादित्य चौधरी: जाटों की गौरवगाथा, जोधपुर, 2004, पेज 170
- डॉ पेमाराम व डॉ विक्रमादित्य चौधरी: जाटों की गौरवगाथा, जोधपुर, 2004, पेज 180
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