Pundra

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Pundra (पुण्ड्र) were ancient people and Janapada known to Panini and mentioned in Mahabharata/Ramayana. Pundra was an ancient kingdom during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, based in modern-day West Bengal and Bangladesh. The capital of Pundra Kingdom was Pundranagara, which is identified with Mahasthangarh.

Variants of name

Jat clans

Ancestry of Bali

Genealogy of Pundra

Bhagavata Purana provides us the ancestry of Bali. Bali (बलि) was a king in line of Anu son of Yayati as under:

YayatiAnuSabhanaraKalanaraJanamejayaMaha ShalaMahamanasTitikshaRushadrathaHomaSutapasBali

Bali had six sons Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Sambhu, Pundra and Odhra

Mention by Panini

Paundraka (पौंड्रक) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]

History

V. S. Agrawala[2] writes that Panini refers to Nagara (IV.2.142), e.g. Mahanagara and Navanagara as names of towns 'not in the north' but in the east. Mahanagara is to be identified with Mahasthana, the capital of north Bengal or Pundra and Navanagara with the Navadvipa, the capital of west Bengal or Vanga. In between Mahanagara and Navanagara lay Gauḍapura (VI.2.100), modern Gauḍa, an important town in route from Champa to Mahasthana and an important centre of guḍa manufacturing in the Pundra Country.


V S Agarwal [3] writes that Panini takes Bhakti to denote loyalty of the citizen to the State either a kingdom or a republic. The Kashika mentions, as examples of this kind of Bhakti or loyalty, 1. Angaka, 2. Vangaka, 3. Sauhmaka, 4. Paundraka, 5. Madraka, 6. Vrijika.


Pundra (पुण्ड्र) - Mentioned in Geography of Mahabharata (VI.10.56). [4]The Mahabharata Tribe - Pundra (पुण्ड्र) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Pundir (पुन्डीर)

In Ramayana

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 mentions that Sugreeva commissioning Vanara Vinata to search Sita, explains the topography and geography of Eastern side of the Jambu Dwipa.


20b, 21, 22, 23. "Search shall be conducted at the riversides of heartening rivers like River Bhagirathi, another name for River Ganga, and River Sarayu, like that at River Kaushiki, and at the pleasing surrounds of River Yamuna, and on Mt. Kalinda, as well at River Saraswati, River Sindhu and at the river whose waters are lustrous like gems, namely River Shona, and further at River Mahi and River Kalamahi which rivers are brightened by mountains and forests surrounding them. And the kingdoms like Brahmamala, Videha, Malva, Kashi, and Kosala, and in Magadha, which kingdom has grand villages, and in that way, also in the kingdoms of Pundra and Anga, and in the countries of the kings called Koshakara, and in the provinces of silver mines search is to be conducted. [4-40-20b, 21, 22, 23] [5]


Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 41 describes The Empire of Holy Vanaras to the South. Sugreeva sends Vanara-s to southward which troop includes Hanuman, Jambavanta, Nila and others and Angada is its leader. Sugreeva gives a vivid picture of the southern side of Jambu Dvipa up to the south-most part of passable regions.

11, 12. "Like that Vanga, Kalinga territories shall be searched along with Kaushika territories available on their fringes, then cast about the Dandaka forest all over its mountains, rivers, and its caves, then River Godavari that courses through Dandaka forest, and then the provinces of Andhra, Pundra, Chola, Pandya, Kerala are to be searched thoroughly. [4-41-11, 12] [6]

In Mahabharata

Mahabharata mentions in following verses:

  • Paundra (पौण्ड्र) (I.61.41), (1.67),
  • Paundraka (पौण्ड्रक) (I.177.12), (I.188), (II.13.19)
  • Pundarika (पुण्डरीक) (T) (III.81.69),
  • Pundra (पुण्ड्र) (II.13.19), (II.27.20),(II.31.11),(II.48.15),(III.48.18),(VI.10.49), (VI.10.56), (VI.46.49),(VIII.17.2),
  • Pundraka (पुण्ड्रक) (II.48.17),
  • Pundravisha (पुण्ड्राविष) (VI.52.9),

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 61 mentions the Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Paundra (पौण्ड्र) is mentioned in verse (I.61.41). [7]....That best of Asuras who was known by the name of Bali became on earth the monarch Paundra Matsyaka.


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 177 mentions the Kshatriyas who came on Swayamvara of Draupadi. Paundraka (पौण्ड्रक) is mentioned in verse (I.177.12). [8]....Paundraka, Vasudeva, Bhagadatta endued with great energy, Kalinga, Tamralipta, the king of Pattana....


Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 101 describes Bhogavati city and innumerable Nagas dwelling there. Pundarika (पुण्डरीक) is mentioned in verse (V.101.13) [9]...Tittira, Hastibhadra, Kumuda, Malyapindaka, the two Padmas, Pundarika, Pushpa, Mudgaraparnaka,


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 81 mentions names of Tirthas (Pilgrims)....Pundarika (पुण्डरीक) Tirtha is mentioned in verse (III.81.69)[10]


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13 mentions the Tribes fled out of fear of Jarasandha. Pundra (पुण्ड्र) and Paundraka (पौण्ड्रक) is mentioned in verse (II.13.19). [11]....that king of Vanga, Pundra and the Kiratas, endowed with great strength, and who is known on earth by the names of Paundraka and Vasudeva hath also espoused the side of Jarasandha.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 27 mentions mentions the countries subjugated by Bhimasena. Paundra (पौण्ड्र) is mentioned in verse (II.27.20). [12]....And the Pandava then, O king, subjugated in battle those strong and brave heroes of fierce prowess, viz., the heroic and mighty Vasudeva, the king of Pundra and king Mahaujah who reigned in Kausika-kachchha, and then attacked the king of Vanga.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 31 mentions the Kshatriyas who brought tributes on Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. (II.31.11) [13]....and king Vrihadvala; and Vasudeva the king of the Paundrakas, and the kings of Vanga and Kalinga; and Akarsha and Kuntala and the kings of the Malavas and the Andhrakas;....


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Pundra is mentioned in verse (II.48.15) [14]....the Paundrakas, the Kukkuras, the Sakas, the Angas, the Vangas, the Pundras, the Sanavatyas, and the Gayas...


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Pundraka is mentioned in verse (II.48.17) [15]....And the Vangas, the Kalingas, the Magadhas, the Tamraliptas, the Pundrakas, the Dukulas, the Sagarakas, the Patrornas, the Saisavas,...


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 48 describes Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira attended by the chiefs of many islands and countries. Pundra is mentioned in verse (III.48.18). [16]....the Vangas and Angas and Paundras and Odras and Cholas and Dravidas and Andhakas, and the chiefs of many islands and countries on the sea-board...


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Pundra is mentioned in verse (VI.10.49) [17] and (VI.10.56). [18]


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 46 mentions that Pandavas look the war arrangement and wait for battle. Pundra is mentioned in verse (VI.46.49)[19]


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 17 mentions Pundra in verse (VIII.17.2). [20].... Many foremost of combatants skilled in elephant-fight, belonging to the Easterners, the Southerners, the Angas, the Vangas, the Pundras, the Magadhas, the Tamraliptakas, the Mekalas, the Koshalas, the Madras, the Dasharnas, the Nishadas uniting with the Kalingas...


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 52 describes the order of army of the (Kuru) in Mahabharata War. Pundravisha is mentioned in (VI.52.9) [21]...And the Kananas, the Vikunjas, the Muktas, and the Pundravishas, with Vrihadvala, were stationed on the left wing....

जाट इतिहास

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[22] लेख करते हैं: विदर्भ देश पर यदुवंशी शशिबिन्दु का राज्य रहा। यह चक्रवर्ती सम्राट् था जो यदु के पुत्र करोक्षत्री की शाखा में यदु से सातवीं पीढ़ी में हुआ (देखो वंशावली)। इन वंशों तथा प्रदेशों का उल्लेख रामायण एवं महाभारत में है जो निम्न प्रकार से है -

सुग्रीव ने वानर सेना को सीता जी की खोज के लिये ऊपर लिखित देशों में भी जाने का आदेश दिया।

महाभारत सभापर्व पाण्डवों की दिग्विजय - उत्तर दिशा में अर्जुन ने अनेक देशों के साथ चोल देश (अध्याय 27) और उत्तर कुरुदेशों (अध्याय 28) को भी जीत लिया। पूर्व में भीमसेन ने विदेह (मिथिला) (अध्याय 29) और पांडर-पुण्ड्रक तथा वंग देशों को जीत लिया (अध्याय 30)। दक्षिण दिशा में सहदेव ने पाण्ड्य नरेश को जीत लिया। (अध्याय 31)।

Jat History

External links

References

  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.430
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.63-64
  3. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.430
  4. ओष्ट्राः पुण्ड्राः स सैरन्ध्राः पार्वतीयाश च मारिष । अदापरे जनपदा दक्षिणा भरतर्षभ (VI.10.56)
  5. नदीम् भागीरथीम् रम्याम् सरयूम् कौशिकीम्] तथा ॥४-४०-२०॥
    कालिंदीम् यमुनाम् रम्याम् यामुनम् च महागिरिम् ।
    सरस्वतीम्सिंधुम्शोणम् मणि निभ उदकम् ॥४-४०-२१॥
    महीम् कालमहीम् चैव शैल कानन शोभिताम् ।
    ब्रह्ममालान् विदेहान् च मालवान् काशि कोसलान् ॥४-४०-२२॥
    मागधाम् च महाग्रामान् पुण्ड्रान् अंगाम् तथैव च ।
    भूमिम् च कोशकाराणाम् भूमिम् च रजत आकराम् ॥४-४०-२३॥

  6. तथा वन्गान् कलिन्गाम् च कौशिकान् च समंततः ।
    अन्वीक्ष्य दण्डक अरण्यम् स पर्वत नदी गुहम् ॥४-४१-११॥
    नदीम् गोदावरीम् चैव सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत ।
    तथैव आन्ध्रान्पुण्ड्रान्चोलान् पाण्ड्यान् केरलान् ॥४-४१-१२॥

  7. बलवीर इति खयातॊ यस तव आसीद असुरॊत्तमः, पौण्ड्र मत्स्यक इत्य एव स बभूव नराधिपः (I.61.41)
  8. पौण्ड्रकॊ वासुदेवश च भगदत्तश च वीर्यवान, कलिङ्गस ताम्रलिप्तश च पत्तनाधिपतिस तथा (I.177.12)
  9. तित्तिरिर हस्तिभद्रश च कुमुदॊ माल्यपिण्डकः, दवौ पद्मौ पुण्डरीकश च पुष्पॊ मुद्गरपर्णकः
  10. 69 शुक्लपक्षे दशम्यां तु पुण्डरीकं समाविशेत, तत्र सनात्वा नरॊ राजन पुण्डरीकफलं लभेत (III.81.69)
  11. वङ्ग पुण्ड्र किरातेषु राजा बलसमन्वितः, पौण्ड्रकॊ वासुथेवेति यॊ ऽसौ लॊकेषु विश्रुतः (II.13.19)
  12. ततः पौण्ड्राधिपं वीरं वासुथेवं महाबलम, कौशिकी कच्छ निलयं राजानं च महौजसम (II.27.20)
  13. पौण्ड्रकॊ वासुथेवश च वङ्गः कालिङ्गकस तदा, आकर्षः कुन्तलश चैव वानवास्यान्ध्रकास तदा (II.31.11)
  14. 15 शौण्डिकाः कुक्कुराश चैव शकाश चैव विशां पते, अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च शानवत्या गयास तदा (II.48.15)
  15. वङ्गाः कलिङ्ग पतयस ताम्रलिप्ताः सपुण्ड्रकाः, दुकूलं कौशिकं चैव पत्रॊर्णं परावरान अपि II.48.17)
  16. 18 यत्र सर्वान महीपालाञ शस्त्रतेजॊ भयार्थितान, सवङ्गाङ्गान सपौण्ड्र उड्रान सचॊल थरविडान्धकान (III.48.18)
  17. मह्युत्तराः परावृषेया भार्गवाश च जनाधिप, पुण्ड्रा भार्गाः किराताश च सुदॊष्णाः परमुदास तदा (VI.10.49)
  18. ओष्ट्राः पुण्ड्राः स सैरन्ध्राः पार्वतीयाश च मारिष, अदापरे जनपदा दक्षिणा भरतर्षभ (VI.10.56)
  19. पिशाचा दरदाश चैव पुण्ड्राः कुण्डी विषैः सह, मडका कडकाश चैव तङ्गणाः परपङ्गणाः (VI.46.49)
  20. पराच्याश च थाक्षिणात्याश च परवीरा गजयॊधिनः, अङ्गा वङ्गाश च पुण्ड्राश च मागधास ताम्रलिप्तकाः
  21. काननाश च विकुञ्जाश च मुक्ताः पुण्ड्राविषस तदा, बृहथ्बलेन सहिता वामं पक्षम उपाश्रिताः (VI.52.9)
  22. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-264