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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Pandyas (पांड्य) , also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India. The Pandyas ruled extensive territories, at times including the large portions of present-day south India and Sri Lanka (through collateral branches subject to Madurai).[1][2]They fought Mahabharata War in Pandava's side


Jat clans

Jat Gotras Namesake


According to James Todd[4] One great arm of the tree of Yayati remains unnoticed, that of Uru or Urvasu, written by others Turvasu. Uru was the father of a line of kings who founded several empires. Virupa, the eighth prince from Uru, had eight sons, two of whom are particularly mentioned as sending forth two grand shoots, Druhyu and Bhabru. From Druhyu a dynasty was established in the north. Aradwat, with his son Gandhara, is stated to have founded a State : Prachetas is said to have become king of Mlecchhades, or the barbarous regions. This line terminated with Dushyanta, the husband of the celebrated Sakuntala, father of Bharat, and who, labouring under the displeasure of some offended deity, is said by the Hindus to have been the cause of all the woes which subsequenty befell the race. The four grandsons of Dushyanta, Kalanjar, Keral, Pand, and Chaul, gave their names to countries.


The Pandyas were one of numerous kingdsoms of ancient India viz. Dwaraka, Kasi, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandya and the Yadus of Mathura who were allies of Pandavas.

Parva called Karna in Mahabharata narrates the appointment of the wise king of Madra as (Karna's) charioteer. Then the history of the fall of the Asura Tripura. Then the application to each other by Karna and Salya of harsh words on their setting out for the field, then the story of the swan and the crow recited in insulting allusion: then the death of Pandya at the hands of the high-souled Aswatthaman; then the death of Dandasena; then that of Darda; then Yudhishthira's imminent risk in single combat with Karna in the presence of all the warriors; then the mutual wrath of Yudhishthira and Arjuna; then Krishna's pacification of Arjuna. In this Parva, Bhima, in fulfilment of his vow, having ripped open Dussasana's breast in battle drank the blood of his heart. Then Arjuna slew the great Karna in single combat.

The Hathigumpha inscription of king Kharavela at Bhubneswar mentions about a Pandya king in Line 13 as under:

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[5] mentions....If the wind, called Hippalus32, happens to be blowing, it is possible to arrive in forty days at the nearest mart of India, Muziris33 by name. This, however, is not a very desirable place for disembarcation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity, where they occupy a place called Nitrias; nor, in fact, is it very rich in articles of merchandize. Besides, the road-stead for shipping is a considerable distance from the shore, and the cargoes have to be conveyed in boats, either for loading or discharging. At the moment that I am writing these pages, the name of the king of this place is Cælobothras.

Another port, and a much more convenient one, is that which lies in the territory of the people called Neacyndi, Barace by name. Here king Pandion used to reign, dwelling at a considerable distance from the mart in the interior, at a city known as Modiera. The district from which pepper is carried down to Barace in boats hollowed out of a single tree,34 is known as Cottonara.35

None of these names of nations, ports, and cities are to be found in any of the former writers, from which circumstance it would appear that the localities have since changed their names. Travellers set sail from India on their return to Europe, at the beginning of the Egyptian month Tybis, which is our December, or at all events before the sixth day of the Egyptian month Mechir, the same as36 our ides of January: if they do this, they can go and return in the same year. They set sail from India with a south-east wind, and upon entering the Red Sea, catch the south-west or south. We will now return to our main subject.

32 Or Favonius, the west wind, previously mentioned in the present Chapter.

33 The modern Mangalore, according to Du Bocage.

34 Or canoes.

35 The Cottiara of Ptolemy, who makes it the chief city of the Æi, a tribe who occupied the lower part of the peninsula of Hindostan. It has been supposed to be represented by the modern Calicut or Travancore. Cochin, however, appears to be the most likely.

36 Marcus observes that we may conclude that either Pliny or the author from whom he transcribed, wrote this between the years of the Christian era 48 and 51; for that the coincidence of the 6th of the month Mechir with the Ides of January, could not have taken place in any other year than those on which the first day of Thoth or the beginning of the year fell on the 11th of August, which happened in the years 48, 49, 50, and 51 of the Christian era.

Line 13 - [His Majesty] caused to erect towers with strong and beautiful gateways at the cost of two thousand coins. [His Majesty] obtained horses, elephants and jewels losing strange and wonderful elephants and ships. The King of Pandya caused to be brought here (capital Kalinga Nagri) various pearls, jewels and precious stones hundred thousand in number.

In Mahabharata

Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.13.20), (II.28.10)/(2-32-17b), (II.28.48), (3-255-14a), (III.86.10),(VI.46.50)

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13 mentions the Kshatriyas in support of Jarasandha. Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.13.20) [6].... And, O king of kings, Bhishmaka, the mighty king of the Bhojas--the friend of Indra--the slayer of hostile heroes--who governs a fourth part of the world, who by his learning conquered the Pandyas and the Krathakaishikas, whose brother the brave Akriti was like Rama, the son of Jamdagni, hath become a servitor to the king of Magadha.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's march towards south: kings and tribes defeated. Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.10)/(2-32-17b).[7].... ....After Avanti, the hero (Sahdeva) marched towards the town of Bhojakata and there, a fierce encounter took place between him and the king of that city for two whole days. But the son of Madri (Sahdeva), vanquishing the invincible Bhismaka, then defeated in battle the king of Kosala and the ruler of the territories lying on the banks of the Venwa, as also the Kantarakas and the kings of the eastern Kosalas. The hero (Sahdeva) then defeating both the Natakeyas and the Herambakas in battle, and subjugating the country of Marudha, reduced Ramyagrama by sheer strength. And the son of Pandu then vanquished the mighty monarchs of the Nachinas and the Arbukas and the various forest king of that part of the country. Endued with great strength the hero then reduced to subjection king Atavika. And defeating in battle the Pulindas, the hero then marched southward. And the younger brother of Nakula then fought for one whole day with the king of Pandya.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's march towards south: kings and tribes defeated. Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.48).[8]....The hero (Sahadeva) brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from the Pandyas and the Dravidas along with the Udrakeralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas, and also the delightful city of Atavi (Roma) and that of the Yavanas.

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 86 mentions the sacred tirthas of the south. Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.86.10). [9]....O Bharata! And, O son of Kunti, in that spot is the tirtha called Asoka (अशॊक तीर्थ) (III.86.10) abounding in woody retreats of ascetics. And, O Yudhishthira, in the country of the Pandyas (पाण्ड्य) (III.86.10) are the tirthas named Agastya (अगस्त्य) (III.86.10) and Varuna (वारुण) (III.86.10).

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 255 describes Karna's victory march and countries subjugated. Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (3-255-14a).[10].... Having met with Rukmi (रुक्मि) (3-255-14a), Karna (कर्ण) (3-255-14a), repaired to Pandya (पाण्ड्य) (3-255-14a) and the mountain, Shri (Shrishaila) (श्रीशैल) (3-255-14a). And by fighting, he made Kevala (केवल) (3-255-15a), king Nila (नील) (3-255-15a), Venudari's (वेणुदारि) (3-255-15b) son, and other best of kings living in the southern direction pay tribute.

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 46mentions Krishna, Yudhisthira and his brothers looking for arrangements of the war. Pandya (पाण्ड्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.46.50).[11]....Balhikas, Tittiras, and Cholas Pandya. ....


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[12] ने लेख किया है ...पांड्य (AS, p.539): प्राचीन समय में पांड़्य देश सुदूर पश्चिम का एक राज्य था। कृतमाला और ताम्रपर्णी पांड़्य देश की मुख्य नदियाँ थी। महाभारत सभा पर्व 31,16 में पांड़्य देश के राजा का सहदेव द्वारा परास्त होने का वर्णन है‌‌‌‌ - 'पुलिंदाश्च रेणे जित्वा ययौ द्क्षिणत: पुर:, युयुधे पांड़्य राजेन दिवसं नकुलानुज:।' महाभारत,सभा पर्व 31,16

टॉलमी (लगभग 150ई.) ने पांडुदेश को 'पांडूओयी' लिखा है और इसको पंजाब से सम्बद्ध बताया है। सम्भव है सुदूर दक्षिण के 'पांड़्य देश' और उत्तर के 'पांडुदेश' का कुछ सम्बंध रहा हो। प्राचीन साहित्य से ज्ञात होता है कि शूरसेन या मथुरा, जो पांडवों के प्रिय सखा श्रीकृष्ण की जन्मभूमि होने के नाते टॉलमी द्वारा उल्लिखित 'पांडुदेश' हो सकता है, से दक्षिण भारत का कुछ सम्बंध अवश्य था जैसाकि मेगस्थनीज़ के वृतांत से भी सूचित होता है। जिस प्रकार शूरसेन देश की राजधानी मथुरा थी, उसी प्रकार 'पांड़्य देश' की राजधानी भी 'मधुरा' या वर्तमान 'मदुरा' या 'मदुरै' थी। सम्भवत: उत्तर के 'पांडु' लोग ही कालांतर में दक्षिण भारत में जाकर बस गये होंगे।

कात्यायन ने पांड़्य शब्द की उत्पत्ति पांडु से बतायी है। अशोक के 13वें शिलाभिलेखों में 'पांड़्य' को चोल और सतियापुत्त के साथ मौर्य साम्राज्य के प्रत्यंत देशों में माना गया है। कालिदास ने रघुवंश 6,60-61-62-63-64-65 में इंदुमती स्वयंवर के प्रसंग में पांड़्यराज तथा उसके देश का मनोहारी वर्णन किया है जिसका एक अंश यह है- 'पांड़्योS यमंसार्पितलंबहार: क्लृप्तांमरागोहरिचंदनेन, अभाति बालातपर्क्तासानु: सनिर्झरोद्‌गार द्‌वादिराज:। तांबूलवल्ली परिद्ध्पूगास्वेलालतालिंगिंतचंदनासु, तमालपत्रास्तरणासुरंतुं प्रसीद शश्वन्‌ मलयस्थलीषु।'

इन पद्यों में पाड़्य देश के चंदन, तांबूल, एला (इलायची) तथा तमाल वृक्षों तथा लताओं का वर्णन है और मलय पर्वत की स्थिति इस देश बताई गयी है। रघुवंश 6,65 में पांड़्यराज को 'इंदीवर स्यामतनु' कहा जो सुदूर दक्षिण के भारतीयों का स्वाभाविक शारीरिक रंग है। श्री रायचौधरी के अनुसार प्राचीन पांड़्य देश में वर्तमान मदुरा, रामनाद और तिन्नेवली ज़िले और केरल का दक्षिणी भाग सम्मिलित था तथा इसकी राजधानी कोरकई और मदुरा (दक्षिण मधुरा) में थी। ( रायचौधरी, पोलिटिकल हिस्ट्री ऑफ एंशेट इंडिया,पृ.270) (दे. कोरकई और मदुरा)

पाण्ड्य वंश

पाण्ड्य - यह भी एक प्राचीन वंश है जिसका महाभारत, मैगस्थनीज के वृत्तान्त और अशोक के शिलालेखों तथा अन्य ग्रन्थों में, उल्लेख मिलता है। इनका राज्य दक्षिण भारत में आज के केरल प्रान्त क्षेत्र पर था। चोल, पांड्य आदि राज्यवंशों का वर्णन “दक्षिण भारत में जाटवीरों का राज्य” अध्याय में लिखा जायेगा। आज भी विदेह, पुण्ड्र, पाण्ड्य, चोल, वंग गोत्र के जाट कई स्थानों पर बसे हुये हैं।[13]

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[14] लेख करते हैं:

विदर्भ देश पर यदुवंशी शशिबिन्दु का राज्य रहा। यह चक्रवर्ती सम्राट् था जो यदु के पुत्र करोक्षत्री की शाखा में यदु से सातवीं पीढ़ी में हुआ (देखो वंशावली)। इन वंशों तथा प्रदेशों का उल्लेख रामायण एवं महाभारत में है जो निम्न प्रकार से है -

सुग्रीव ने वानर सेना को सीता जी की खोज के लिये ऊपर लिखित देशों में भी जाने का आदेश दिया।

महाभारत सभापर्व पाण्डवों की दिग्विजय - उत्तर दिशा में अर्जुन ने अनेक देशों के साथ चोल देश (अध्याय 27) और उत्तर कुरुदेशों (अध्याय 28) को भी जीत लिया। पूर्व में भीमसेन ने विदेह (मिथिला) (अध्याय 29) और पांडर-पुण्ड्रक तथा वंग देशों को जीत लिया (अध्याय 30)। दक्षिण दिशा में सहदेव ने पाण्ड्य नरेश को जीत लिया। (अध्याय 31)।

उत्तर मथुरा

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[15] ने लेख किया है ...उत्तर मथुरा (AS, p.92) बौध्दकालीन भारत के मथुरा या मधुरा नाम की दो नगरियों में से एक है। एक उत्तर की प्रसिद्ध मथुरा, दूसरी वर्तमान मदुरा (मद्रास) जो पांड्य देश की राजधानी थी। हरिषेण ने बृहत्कथा-कोश कथानक-21 में उत्तर मथुरा को भरत-क्षेत्र या उत्तरी भारत में माना है। घटजातक (सं. 454) में उत्तर-मथुरा के राजा महासागर और उसके पुत्र सागर का उल्लेख है। सागर श्रीकृष्ण का समकालीन था।

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Tonk district

Pandya (पंड्या) Gotra Jats live in Tonk district in Rajasthan.

Bhanwati (1),

Notable Persons

External Links


  1. Karashima, Noburu. 2014. 'The Fall of the Old States', in A Concise History of South India: Issues and Interpretations, ed. Noburu Karashima, pp. 172–73. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  2. Pandya dynasty | Indian dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.341
  4. James Todd Annals/Chapter 4 Foundations of States and Cities by the different tribes, p.52
  5. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 26
  6. चतुर्युः स महाराज भॊज इन्द्र सखॊ बली, विद्या वलाद् यॊ व्यजयत् पाण्ड्य क्रथकैशिकान् (II.13.20)
  7. पुलिन्दांश्च रणे जित्वा ययौ दक्षिणतः पुरः। 2-32-17a युयुधे पाण्ड्यराजेन दिवसं नकुलानुजः।। 2-32-17b
  8. पाण्ड्यांश च द्रविदांश चैव सहितांश चॊद्र केरलैः, अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)
  9. अशॊक तीर्थं मर्त्येषु कौन्तेय बहुलाश्रमम, अगस्त्यतीर्थं पाण्ड्येषु वारुणं च युधिष्ठिर (III.86.10)
  10. समेत्य रुक्मिणा कर्णः पाण्ड्यं शैलं च सोगमत् (3-255-14a)
  11. बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत, एते जनपदा राजन दक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः
  12. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.539
  13. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.265
  14. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-264
  15. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.92

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