Variants of Jat
|Author: Laxman Burdak, IFS (R).|
The Historians have made efforts to find out the prevalent variants of the term 'Jat' in different countries at different periods of time. The innumerable ways in which the word 'Jat' was spoken and spelt in different lands and in different ages is very significant key to understand the historical growth of the people. We enumerate below these variants:
- 1 Hukum Singh Panwar
- 2 Variants of Jat in Central Asia
- 3 Phonetic account of Variants of Jat
- 4 Hukum Singh Panwar: Epilogue
- 5 Abstract from Hukum Singh
- 6 Bhim Singh Dahiya
- 7 Ram Sarup Joon
- 8 Mangal Sen Jindal
- 9 दलीप सिंह अहलावत: जाटों के भिन्न-भिन्न देशों में पुकारे जाने वाले नाम
- 10 List of variants of Jat
- 11 See also
- 12 References
Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes that There are definite indications that wherever and whenever the Jats lived in the countries or in parts thereof in the four continents, the phonemes of foreign languages and dialects naturally influenced and modified the pronunciation and orthography (as well as the connotation) of their name. Some efforts were made to find out the prevalent variants in different countries at different periods of time. The attempts so far made in this respect are important, but they are either insufficient
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or they lack authentication. The innumerable ways in which the name was spoken and spelt in different lands and in different ages is very significant. One European ethnologist12 endeavored to collect as many as twenty variants of the word Jats as they have existed in some ancient and a large number of medieval and modern forms, We propose to enumerate below more than two scores of the variants of this name, popularly used in the chronicles the Asian and the European countries using different periods of their history.
At present, the word Jat is pronounced in the Panjab, Pakistan and Afghanistan as Jatt or Jutt whereas in the rest of India it is spoken with long 'a' as Jaat, but in both cases it is spelt as Jat13, In Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, Jat, the cultivator, is spoken with hard 't' and Jat herdsman or the camel breeder, with soft 't' 14,Sometimes this word was pronounce as Yutia 15 in these countries and Jatia in Rajasthan, where it carries a derogatory sense. In the poetic language in the Panjab and Pakistan16 it is often articulated as Jatta, Jatra is its derogatory form in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh17. In the Persian and Arabic speaking countries this name is spoken with soft 't' irrespective of the occupation it suggests, but with a difference in its spellings18, In the Arabic language it is written as Zut or Zutti19 or as Az-Zut20 and also as Zot or Zott21, but in Persian and Turkish as Jat22. In Baluchistan the Jat is also known as Jatoi or Jatgal or Jagdal23, The Jagdal, the notorious camel drivers, however, were not Jats but some other tribes akin to Jats, A few English writers have spelt it as Jaat or Jit24 also.
The variants beginning with /Z/ were in use in ,ancient period and gained popularity in the Middle East at the hands of the early medieval Muslim geographers like Istakhri, Ibn Hawkal and Mukkaddasi25, Some writers26 believe that Az-Zut27 as an alternative, exhibits the Middle Eastern influence on this ancient Indian name28.
The Muslim accounts of the Middle East relating to the early centuries of the Christian era and the contemporary Greek and Roman classical sources furnish us with more of its variations in the Middle East and European countries. In Arabia, Iraq and Syria Djat or Dyat was a popular nomenclature of the Jats who were ethnologically said
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to be tall, well-built and sturdy with a comparatively dark complexion. Djat, a name given to the Jartas30 ,(who may be the Jartikas of yore, also called Zaratoi31 or Geratae32. Djat was the name given by the Arabs to the Middle Indo-Aryans of the Panjab and Sindh), and is thougt to be of post-Sanskritic Indic origin33.
It is significant that Djat and Zutt were written as one compound word, "Djat-Zut" to represent them as one and the same people. We are informed that a Djat-Zutt physician, who was well-versed in witch-craft, treated Hazarat Mohammad's wife, Aisha, when she fell seriously ill34.
Our well supported investigations, have shown already , that the Jats migrated or were forced to migrate to the Middle East, where from, through Greece and Egypt during fifth and sixth centuries A.D. and even much earlier, they spread as far away as Sweden and the Baltic countries35. While passing through France and the Netherlands they carried with them their Middle Eastern appellations to the countries of their destination and these names, then, underwent further changes. The Swedes called them Thjoth36, a slightly modified version of Djat, in old French and Norse. Those who en route, settled down in the Netherlands were known as the Jutes and gave one of the Islands, Jutland, their name. No less remarkable is the fact that these Jutes, the earliest settlers in Cantware (Kent) in England37 after conquering it in early fifth century A.D. were also described as Djat38 . The Oxford English Dictionary (1977 ed.) gives a very faithful account of the variants available in the old languages of the north-western European countries. In old English they were known as Juti, in early medieval Latin as Jutae, Juti (in plural) and Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar39.
The Djat tribes that entered Germany and the Baltic region through the Greece and Turkey retained more or less the then Latin version of their name. Hence, in old German they were Goth, who ransacked Britain in 395-423 AD. The were described as Gothi (in plural) in later Latin, Gotoi or Gothoi in Greek, and Gutos or "Gothoi" in Greek, and Gutos or Guttones in the Baltic countries40 ,Guta; Gotosor Guts in Germany40a Gotan in Old English40b ,and Gotar in Old Norse40c.
The vestiges of this old race are commonly found in the names of places in the European countries to which they migrated and' where they settled down at different periods41. Thakur Deshraj informs us, on the
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authority of the Edda the sacred book of the Scandanavians that they were Jatt or Jit Aryans originally from Asirgarh of Neemar district in Malwa. He also cites Count Jonsturn, a Scandanavian, to further confirm this fact. 41a These people are said41b to have introduced agriculture in those countries and settled down in villages before 3000 B.C.
Their ethnonyms are unmistakably borne out by unimpeachable geographical evidence42. The Goths are generally thought to be the descendants of the ancient Getae, the earliest Greek name of these people who were divided in two groups, Massagetae and Thysagetae, who became notorious in Europe as Ostogoth (Eastgoth) and as Visigoth (Westgoth) 43 The earliest migratiomns of this race, as recorded by some eminent historians, followed the movement of the sun from the east to west at three different times, i.e. in the fifth millennium B.C. 44, in 2300 B.C. 45 and in 1000 B.C. 46 under pressure of Turks (Sumerians). Their fame seems to have travelled ahead of them, for as in Asia, so in Europe, they were considered as "uncouth and barbarous". The excavations conducted by Gerhard Bersu in Germany (1930) and in Britain in 1940, by W. Buttler and W. Haberey in Germany in 1936, and by Gudmund Hatt in Jutland and Denmark in 1938, (highlighted by Prof. Grahame Clark46a, Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge, in his Sir Mortimer Wheeler Memorial Lectures on Jan. 4-5, 1978 at the National Museum Auditorium, New Delhi), throw a flood of light on the agricultural economy, settlement patterns and social structure of the peasant communities established on the loess of west Germany around six thousand years ago. This evidence conclusively confirms what Deshraj has brought to surface and buttresses out of hypothesis.
Albeit the resemblance of sound among the names Jat, Jut,Goth etc. is not considered by historians. 47 as a sound test for their kinship, yet it may be said that the migrations of the Jats to Europe through Middle East and the transformations in the orthography of their name under influence of the phonemes of the countries they passed through or settled in, firmly establish their kinship and ethnic affinity. The latest researches in anthropology, ethnology and serology corroborate their kinship as a certainty. We may add, to all that, the additional evidence of a large number of Jat got or gotra names which have striking
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resemblance with surnames in those countries. Some of these common family names are: Mann, Gill, More, Sioux or Suevis (Sivis), Schillar (Chhilar), Vilk (Virk, Rastar (Rashtrika or Rishtik-Rathi or Rathika), Roth, Dahl (Dahae or Dahiya), Antal, Cazol, (Kajal), Dillon, Dun or Doon, Dunkar (Dungar), or Dhankhar. Our surmise is that they are European descendants of the Jats, Goths and Getae, for it is otherwise difficult to explain how all these Jat gotras found such remarkable echoes in Europe. These similarities were pointed out to me by Dr. Guenter Tiemann to whom I render my sincere thanks.
It is hard to believe that these surnames surfaced in Europe by chance. We are justified in suggesting that they were carried to Europe by the migrant Jat tribe in prehistoric times, who bequeathed them to their successive generations. Ever more remarkable is the fact that not only these names but much more is common, such as their laws, customs and religious beliefs (notwithstanding minor modifications during the course of their stay and journey though various countries and climes), their personal appearance, general habits and brunet complexion, the coincidence of numerous terms of their Gothic language with those of Sanskrit and the identity of many roots of words in both languages. These, in our view indisputably establish the Indian origin of the Goths48 and not their Scandanavian origin as was previously supposed 49. We believe, further, that Suebis, a European version of Sivis or Sibis, a branch of the Massagetae, gave their name to Sweden (Sivi + den) and Scandinavia (Skand-nabhi or Navi)50. That is how it was Known in old English and Norse, Skandia in Latin51 and Scandaanavi or Skandnabhi in Sanskrit after the name of their Massagetae (Maha Jat) leader Skanda (son of Siva), the Ganapati in the remote past.
It may not be out of place to mention here that, as confirmed by N.S. Chaudhry52 on the authority of Siva-Stotra, one of the generals of Kartikeya (Skand) carried the name Jata. It is a well-known fact that in the Deva-Asura war Kartikeya (Skand) commanded the forces of the former, and it is quite plausible to believe that the warriors (later known to Panini as Ayuddhajivi ganas), led by the general called Jata, became famous as Jata in history. We have also every reason to believe that Panini, when he used the phrase jata jhata Samghate (जट झट संघाते) (denoting Union or federation or confederation or binding together, etc.), took
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his cue from the Jata general's role in fomenting unity in the warriors against the Asuras. One of their tribes known as Amal gave their name to America (Kephart, op.cit., pp.468, 473, 521). Another tribe probably Virkas went as far down as Chile an Peru where they popularized the festival of Ramlila which is celebrated there as Rama-Sitva festival (Pococke, Ind. In Greece, pp. 250f).
Notes and References: 12. Mac Ritchie, p. 77. (Zott, Zatt, Zooth, Xanthii (Zanthii), Xuthi, Zuthi, Zuth, Zutt, Dyat, Djall, Jat, Jath, Juth, Jath, Juth, Jath, .lit, Iatii, Iaut, Jatii. Tod has also given many variants.
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13. Tiemann, G.A; The Jats - An Ethnographic Survey. Introduction, p. 1. (An unpublished thesis for the Degree of Bachelor of Lettel1i, Uni. of Oxford, 1962).
14. Ibbetson, Sir Denzil; Panjab Castes, Lahore, 1916, pp. 97-131.
15. Herzfeld, Ernst; Zoroaster, Vol II, Princeton Uni. Press, 1947, p. 733; Westphal and Westphal op. cit., pp. 85,86.
16. 'Pagri Sambhaal, a Jatta' - opening line of a Panjabi song means "take care of your turban or hold your prestige, a Jatta."
17. It is a matter of common experience.
18. The author was informed in this regard by the Iranian, Iraqi and Arab students who studied in the local AI. Jat Heroes Memorial College, Rohtak (Haryana) from 1980 to 1982. Haji Mohammad Sayyad, Lughat-i-Sayyadi, Kanpur, 1248 AH./ 1905 AD., p. 181. I am grateful to them.
19.Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 488.
20. Strange, G.Le; Eastern Caliphate, London, 1966. pp. 244,331; AC Woolner, The Ind. Origin of Gypsies in Europe, JPHS, Vol. II, 1914. p. 119. Westphal-Hellbusch Sigrid and Heinz Westphal; Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Jat, Berlin, 1968, p. 12.
21. Mukerji, AB.; "Jats of the Upper Ganga-Jamuna Doab" in the Deccan Geographer, Vol. VI, No. I, p. 45; Jan., 1968. Yogender Pal Shastry, Jaton Ka Utkarsh (Hind), p. 264; Kankhal, 1962.
22. Haji Mohammad Sayyad, op.cit. As informed by the Iranian Prof. Dr. Javed Payman of the University of Tehran in 1971. Strange op.cit. Westphal & Westphal, op.cit., p. 96.
23. Sigrid Westphal- Hellbusch and Heinz Westphal, op.cit., pp. 138,140. 145.
24. Campbell, Sir G.; 'The Ethnology of Ind,' in JASI3, VI. 35, Supp. No. Pt. 2, pp. 1-152. Baden-Powell, B.H.; Land Sys. of Bri. Ind., Vol.1!, 18n, pp. 613-61-1.
25. Strange, op.cit., pp. 244. 331.
27. This name, as such, is still found in modern Arabia and Damascas. (Woolner. op.cit.).
30. Vaidya, CV.; His. of Med. Hindu Ind.-, Vol. I,. pp. 87-88; Buddha Prakash, Soc. and Pol. Movements in Anc. Pb., pp. 113-114.
31. Anc. Ind. as described by Ptolemy, ed. by McCrindle and reprinted by Surender Nath Majumdar Sastri, 1927, p. 288; Calcutta. Satya Shrava, Sakas in Ind., Delhi, 1981, p. 5.
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32. Majumdar, RC., Class. Accts. of Ind., p. 345.
33. Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 488. Westphal and Westphal, op. cit., pp. 12-13. MJ. De. GoeJe, Memoirs Sur les migrations das Tsiganes a travers Asia, p. 13-17; Lelden, 1903, q. by Westphal and Westphal, op.cit.., pp. 12; f.n., 6 and 7; David Mac Ritchie, op.cit., p. 77. Oxford Eng. Dic. Vol. V, p. 645.
34. Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 489. The author was informed by Col. Dr. L. C. Kajla that when the personal physician of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and other doctors failed to cure the then Education Minister of India who suffered from some throat ailment, he was called on to examine the Maulana and was successful in treating him. On inquiry by Maulana he came to know that Kajla is a Jat of V. Soldha in distt.: Rohtak (Jhajjar now) (Haryana), the Maulana spontaneously remarked that "a Jat physician successfully treated Aisha, the wife of Hazrat Mohammad also".
35. Mac Ritchie, op.cit. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 41-48.
36. Oxford Dic., (1977, p. 1167.
37. Carter, E.H. and Mears, RAF.; His. of Brit., Oxf. Clarendon Pres, 1937 pp. 28-29. H.G. Wells, Outline of His., p. 57. .
38. Oxford Eng. Dic., Vol. V, p. 645.
39. Oxf. Dic. (1977), p. 588, Green and Gardner, q. by Ujagar Singh Mahil, Ant., of Jat Race., pp. 12-13.
40. Oxf. Eng. Dic., Vol. V, p. 462. Pliny, Nat. Hist., XXXVII,I, 11-12. Pytheas q. by C. Kephart, p. 338; Mahil, op.cit., p. 5; Hewitt, J.F., Ruling Races PreeHistoric Times, pp. 681-82.
40a. Twentieth Century Chambers English Dictionary, 1949, p. 394.
40b. Concise Oxford Eng. Dic., 1972, Delhi ed., p. 531.
41. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit.
41a. Jat Itihas, p. 61; Jindal, M.S.; Jat and Jutland, 1982, Agra, pp. 2, 18,91.
41b. Denmark Official Handbook, 1974, Royal Danish, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 21,53,61; q. by Jindal, op.cit., p. 86.
42. Bartholomew, John; Times Atlas of the World, Vol. 11, Index. William Hughes, An Atlas of Classical Geography ed. by George Long, Whitaker and co.,.London, Index and Addenda. 1864. Anderson, RE., The Story of Extinct Civilizations in the East, 1901, London. W. Gordon East, Historical Geogaphy of Europe, London.
43. C. Chockalingam Pillai, The Origin of the Indo-European Races and Peoples, Palamcotteh Pnntlng Press, 1935, p. 753. Gibbon, Decline of Roman Empire Vol. III, pp. 24-40. Calvin Kephart, Races of Mankind, Peter Owen Ltd. London 1961, pp. 263-66. In India they are Deshwali (eastern) and Pacchadai (western) Jats.
44. Keane, AH.; Man, Past and Present, Cambridge Press, I920,pp.506-09. Calvin Kephart, op.cit., p. 232. He gives 4300 B.c. as the date of migration Ripley W.Z., Races of Europe, 1965, Chs. vi, ix, xii. .,
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45. Calvin Kephart, op.cit., p. 232. V. Chockalingam Pillai, op.cit., p. 755.
46. Calvin Kephart, op.cit., p. 232, Tacitus Germania, Ch. 45. William Z. Ripley, Races of Europe, p. 65. (Suebis or Sivis inhabited Skane and Jutland).
46a. Clark, Grahame; Sir Mortimer and Indian Archaeology, ASI, GOVl of India, N. Delhi, 1979, pp. 50f.
47. Qanungo, Kalika-Ranjan;, His. of the Jats, Reprint, 1982, p. 3, 174.
48. Kephart, op.cit., p. 502. William Z. Ripley, op.cit., p. 68, gives the date as 1500 B.C. (Qanungo, op.cit. p. 2. Taylor P. Issac, Origin of Aryans, Reprint, N. Delhi, 1983, pp. 141-2. He draws a picture of the Goths, later Teutons, which unfailingly matches with the Indian Jats).
49. Scot, S.P.; The Visigothic Code, Preface, pp. vif., q. by C. Kephart, p. 502. fn. 126.
50. Pococke, E.; op.cit., p. 50. (Skand is the name of Kartikeya).
51. Twentieth Century Chambers Dic., 1949, p. 848.
52. Chaudhry, Niranjan Singh. Jat Prasnottari (Hindi), Jat Hitkari Parkashan, Varindavan, n.d., p. 14.
Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes - Continuing our quest for more variants of the word Jat as an ethnic term, we now turn to Central Asiatic countries and their chronicles. In the countries of the Oxus valley we come across the word Jatah or Jeteh75 , Zutt or Az-Zutt76 , Jith or Git77 during medieval and early medieval times, now only as names of various places including villages, towns, canals, rivers and mountains but also those of the Jat people who inhabited them after their deportation78from India.
From classical historians and geographers of the first century BC as well as from those of first century A.D. have come down to us variants like Xanthii or Zanthii or Xandii79 Iatii or Iatii80, used for the people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria,
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Hyrkania and Khorasmia81. Xuthi or Zuthi 82 for those who occupied Karamanian desert and Drangiana 83, One scholar84 suggests that those people gave their name as Zatale or Zothale to the irrigation channel from the Margus river. All these terms are said85 to be variants of the term Jat with their "parental house on the Oxus" and their original seat or colony in Sindh as well as "on the Margus (Zotale or Zothale) river". This reference definitely indicates that the Jats were spread over the region bounded by Indus in the east and the Oxus in the West in Central Asia. This learned scholar seems perplexed in deciding the original habitat of the Jats in spite of the fact that earlier scholars like Pliny, Diodorus Siculus and Megasthenese had claimed that contemporary Indians were indigenous.
Pliny86 found the Indians living in the Indus Valley from the past. Diodorus Siculus87 asserted that the contemporary Indians were evidently indigenous and Megasthenese88 , who was in fact more familiar Width northern India of the fourth and third centuries B.C. than any other of his contemporaries, wrote about the people, inhabiting north-western India, that "none was alien and all of them were India's indigenous citizens". These impartial statements of the classical writers amply expose the fallacy of the assertions of those who assign foreign origin to the Jats. It is a pity that in spite of the corroborative evidence, the Indian origin of the Jats was disputed and repudiated in favour of the Central Asian origin, simply because this theory was propounded by European scholars led by giants like Cunningham and Tod. These theories were readily accepted by their Indian adherents without making any reason or rhyme, simply because of the prestige£ that European scholars commanded.
We now turn to some other forms of the term Jat available us from the Chinese. During this very period in the region under review several variants were current: Yat89 or Yata90, Yeta91 or Yetha92 or Yet93 Yete or Yeti94, Yewti95 or Yuti96, Yuchi97 or Tue-Chie98 or Yue-Chi or Yueh-Chih99. We regard them all as variants of the term Jat. Another term Yuch-Chih, (with its two branches, Siao-Yueh-Chih or little Yueh-Chih and Ta-Yueh-Chih or great Yueh-Chih) is equally noteworthy. This term, variously spelt by scholars, comes from archaic Chinese. It was pronounced from the
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fourth century B.C. to about the first century A.D .. as "ngiwattsic = ngiwattia" which, according to B. Karlgren 100 points to a a foreign word Gut-tia in China. The Chinese adopted this name to designate newly encountered foreigners, probably the Dai or Tai101 (Dahae or Tahae) of the Iranian writers or the Dadicae of Herodotus. Scholars, earlier were doubtful if this was the real import of Yueh-Chih, but the uncertainty was remove by H.W.Bailey, a keen student of Chinese language, who 102 identified the Yueh-Chih with the Jatoi or Iaii, mentioned by Ptolemy and who were the Jats of Cunningham, Tod and Elphinstone etc.103 .
The archaic Chinese pronunciation of Yueh-Chih as nagiwatteh might have been responsible for its vernaculansation as Jatah or Jeteh (Yatah or Yattah) till medieval times and Ywati for other forms prefixed with 'Y'. There is every probability that 'ngiwattia' was transformed into Gut-tia, and was abbreviated as Guti or Gut in course of time. (Guti as a variant will be described in the sequel).
We may also note that what MacRitchie has observed : namely that the form Jaut of Jat, (which he came across in the memoirs of Lord Combermare), appears to offer the best compromise...with the popular English form as a similar word Ghat, viz. Ghaut104 which exactly sounds like Chinese, ngiwat. It is significant, further, that British officers called Jat as Gat but in writing that they spelt it as Gat or Gaut105
What is pertinent to our inquiry is the question of the identity of the foreigners for whom the Chinese use the term Yueh-Chih. Further, from where did these Yueh-Chich penetrate in to China? The term obviously would not indicate the nelghbouring people like the Mongols and the Turks. It is far more plausible to link this term With terms we have already explored at some length, i.e. the getae and with the Iatii of Ptolemy, the Jatii of Pliny and the Jats of Cunningham, who were natives at that period of the countries between the Sindh and Oxus valleys, and whom we have already identified With Sakas.
Some of these adventurous tribes of the Sakas from India at Buddha's time penetrated as far as Kucha, (Kusa in sanskrit106) or Lobnor, where, Chinese gave these aliens the name Yueh-Chih' which came nearest to their original name in sound . These tribes
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derived or we are given a new name in their new home Kucha or (Kusha) and became famous in history as the Kushanas107. Consequently, it was but natural for later historians to regard the Kushanas as a branch the Yueh-Chih108 There is still a tendency among historians to regard the Jats , as the descendants of the Yueh-Chih or to regard them as one of their branches, the Kushanas, but the truth is just the reverse. The names Yueh-Chih and Kushan are later names given to Jats or a branch of them who migrated to Central Asian regions from Sindh in ancient period. Our reading of historical facts pertaining to the tribal movements to and in the Central Asian countries, leads us to the firm conclusion that scholars like Cunningham and Tod, astute and honest though they were, have discovered the Jat horse as well as the Yueh-Chih cart, but have managed only to put the cart before the horse.
This exercise in setting the record straight in this particular instance has served to whet our curiosity to investigate other variants of the term Jat that were extant before the third and fourth centuries B.C. The Getae, highlighted by Herodotus109, may be, as attested by the mid-twentieth century scholars110 of repute, the earliest Greek alter idem of the term "Jat". The 'Father of History' used "Getae" as an appellation for the Sacae or Scythians111 who, we have now proved, were the autochthons or onginal Indian Sakas112 known to the Chinese as Se or Sse or Sai113 and to Iranians as Saka 114. The Masagetae115 and Thysagetae116 were generally regarded as the two famous sections of the SakaGetae. The Frozen Getae117 and Euergetae118 were also their less familiar branches. We have already shown that the Getae came to be known as Gotor, Goth, Gutone or Gutton119, Jaton or Jute or Jut after their migration to Europe. The Massagetae became Ostrogoth or Easterngoth, and the Thysagetae were called Visigoth or Westerngoth. These stand remarkable comparison with the Indian terms like Deshwali (the aboriginal) and the Bagri (Dah or Dhai); "western Jats" and the "Parwa" or "eastern Jat" and the" Pacchade or "western Jats"120.
75. Mahil, Ujagar Singh; Antiquity of Jat Race, Deihi, 1955, p.14; Kephart, op.( It., pp. 262,468. Sykes. Sir Percy; His of Persia, Vol. II. pp. 120, 123. 0' Neal, Cothburn; "Conquests of Tamer Lane, AVON Pubns. inc. 545, Mdison A' e., New York-23, pp. 29, 91 ff, 95, 97, 103f, 106ff, 110, 125, 130, 232.
76. Strange, op.cit. pp. 244, 331.
77. Ibid., p. 454.
78. Cf. Ln. No. 50 above.
79. Strabo. Geog., XL, 8-2 & 3. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 87-88.
80. Pliny, His. Nat., VI, 18. Ptolemy, Geog., VI, 12,14.
81. ASR, Vol., II, (1863-64), p. 55.
82. Ibid. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 87-88.
86. Majumdar, R.C; op.cit., p. 340.
87. Ibid., p. 235.
88. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historiea, II, 220.
89. Deshraj, Thakur, Jat Itihas, Agra, 1934, p. 95.
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90. Dr. Kunudsen, a Norwegian visiting Professor in the Math. Deptt. of the Pb. Univ.in 1970, holds that Yatas are Juts who migrated from the east, probably Ind., to the Scandanavian and the Netherlandic countries in the remote past. Please note that the name Kunudsen is just Indian. Lt. Ram Sarup Joon, His. Jats, p.4, 1967
91. Law, B.C; Some Kshatriya Tribes of Anc. Ind., 1975, p. 270.
92. Gankovsky, Yu. V.; The Peoples of Pakistan (an Ethnic His.), Lahore, 1971, p.91.
93. Law, B.C, op.cit., p. 270.
94. Joon, op.cit., p. 4.
95. Chanda, R.P.; op.cit., 1969, p. 35.
96. Mukerji, AB.; op.cit., p. 39.
98. Mahil, op.cit., p. 48.
99. Taran, W.W.Grks in Bac. and Ind., p.286. It was a very popular name and is found in all standard works. E.J. Rapson, Camb. His. of Ind., Ch. XXII, P 510. Ency. Brit. 13th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 180-81.
100. Mukherjee, B.N.; Kushan Genealogy, Skt. Coll., Calcutta, 1967, p. 37. Karlgren. JAOS, 1945, Vol. LXV, p. 77. B. Karlgren, Analytic Dic. of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, nos. 879 and 1347; Paris, 1923.
101. Mukherjee, B.N.; op.cit., p. 38, Camb. His. Vol.II, pt.I, LVIIIf. JIH, Vol. XII p.6.
102. Mukherjee, B.N., op.cit., p. 39. J. Marquardt, Eranshahr, p. 206, Cf. also E. G.Polleyblank, Asia Major, ns. 1963, Vol. IX, p. 109; Asia Maj., 1964, Vol. XI 6; JRAS, 1966, p. 17. Pulleyblank equates ngiwat-cie + ngiwat-tehy with Iato (= Ywati).
103. Ibettson, Denzil; op.cit., 1916, p. 97.
104. Mac. Ritchie, op.cit., p. 78.
105. Princep, Sett, R. of Sialkot, S. 136; 1865. H.A Rose, Gloss. of Trib. and Castes Vol. III, p. 416.
106. Bagchi, P.C; Ind. and Cen. Asia, Calcutta, 1955, p. 68. Mukherjee B.N., op., cit., pp. 6-7, 11-12, Sakas also were driven to that region from Ind.; Mukherjee B.N.; op.cit., pp. 26-27. For Indian rule and influence in Cen. Asia, Cf. Kalyanraman, Aryatarangini, vol. II, Bombay, 1970. p. 9, A Stein also sopports it.
107. Ibid. Bagchi holds that Kuci or Kuchi or Kusi is the archaic pronunciatio Kucinam of Kucina from which a genetive plural form would be Kusana. Most ancient name of Khotan was Godana (Ibid. p. 49) which proves the existence of Indians there in the remote past.
The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 371
108. Ogel, B.; in Central Asia in Kushan period-Dushanbe Report, vol. II, Moscow, 1975, p. 172. Ali Sami, in Ibid., p. 146, Y. Zuev, in Ibid., Vol. II, p. 277; Y. Zadneprovs],:y, in Ibid., p. 296. Bongard Levin and G. Kotovsky, A His. of Ind., Bk., I, Moscow, 1979, p. 117. K.V. Trever, q. by Gankovsky, op.cit., p. 86.
109. Herodotus, Iv, 93 and 94; I,216 etc.
110. Toynbee, Arnold J.; A Study of His., Vol. XI (His. Atlas and Gaz.), pp. 122-3, Map No.4. Hewitt, J.F.; op.cit., pp. 481-87 and Kephart, op.cit. p. 219.
111. Herodotus, Istoria; O.M., Dalton, Treasures of the Oxus, pp. XL-XLVII, D.C. Sircar, Select Insps. Bearing on Ind. His. and Civil., vol. I, Calcutta, 1942, pp. 4-11.
112. Pargiter, F.E.; Anc. Ind. His. Trad., p. 256. A. Dev; q. in Cen. Asia in Kushana period Vol. II, p. 95, Dushanbe Connference. F.W. Thomas, CHI, Vol. II. (Ch. on Kushanas) B. Puri, "Nationality of Kushanas" in Cen. Asia in Kushans Period, Vol. I, pp. 182-89, Chandra Chakraberty, Anc. Races and Myths, p. 109.
113. Camb. His. of Ind., Vol.I, p. 56S.
114. Sircar, D.C., op.cit., pp. 4-11.
115. Kephart, op.cit., Ch.XI.
116. Ibid., pp. 463-65, 492-93 and 508.
117. Ibid., p. 477.
118. Majumdar. RC.; Class-Accts. of Ind., pp. 98, 101 fn. 7 and 8.
119. Ency. Brit. 9th ed., Vol. X, Article, "Goths", p. 847; Hewitt, op.cit., p. 481.
120. Elliot, Supp. Gloss, N.W. Provinces, pp. 486-90. Cunningham, A.S.R '01. II, 1883-84, p. 57, Hewitt, op.cit., p. 484.
Phonetic account of Variants of Jat
Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes - We may conclude this discussion by commenting on reasons for the proliferation of the variants of the word Jat by consolidating what already lies scattered in the preceding pages on the subject. We add, to our earlier observations, a phonetic/phonemic account of the various transformations in the sound. The aim is show that the words that we claim to be variants of the word Jat are derived according to well recognized linguistic principles and that these derivations are not arbitrary. Jatt and Jhat are roots in Sanskrit and have the same meaning239. These are synonyms. 'H' being almost a vowel in jhat, the pronunciation of jatt is not different from that of jhatt. Jatt invariably becomes Jat, as noted above, following the application of ana suffix.
Getae, too is a root word in Greek. The orthography of Jatt or Jata was corrupted by the absence of 'j' sound in certain languages as well as by the uses of ablaut and umlaut offering different sound values of vowel 'a' in different languages of foreign countries. Let us first deal with 'j' sound in Jat. Jī, g, j and z have close acoustic similarities. 'J' is conspicuous by its absence240 in Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zat, Zete, Zit, Zot, or Zoth, Zothi or Zuti.
It is interesting to note that Zoth or Zot was written as Joth or Jot in old Norse. Semitic influence242 is also visible in Iatii for 'i' is-Semitic 'y', equivalent to ज in Sanskrit, and both 'y' and 'jj' are changeable into J and ज. This is why perhaps Jat was also written as Yat in the past in Central Asia.
In Latin language the Greek alphabet 'Z' is substituted243 by 'G' for (J), as its original sound, proximates to that of 'Z'. Hence Jat was spelt with 'G' in the Latin world, mainly Europe, in all its alternatives from Italy to Sweden.
In the Arabic and Persian Languages, since 'j' and 'z' sounds are available, Jat was written as Jat (जात) or Zat (जात) with soft 't' (त) because sound of hard 't' (ट)244 is not there in these languages. It is worthy of mention here that in Persian, because of its closest affinity with Sanskrit, Jata (जट) was written as (?), but with soft 't' (त) and in Indianised Persian it was (?), still with soft 't'.
In the Arabic speaking countries it was also, as noted before, written as Djat and as Thjoth or Thjot in old Norse. As I do not possess any knowledge of these languages, I fail to explain the why and wherefore of these variants. However, one thing is sure that 'D' and 'Th' are silent in Djat and Thjoth (like 'k' in know, 'p' in 'Ptolemy' and in psychology' and 'd' in 'djereed' and djinn and djetun'245).
We have also come across another form, Az-Zutt in the Arab countries. This is explained by the fact that 'a' used to be prefixed in Middle East with Sanskrit words beginning with a consonant246, viz. Akkad, Amorite, Assyrian etc. Az-Zutt was derived accordingly.
The Jats are frequently identified with Yueh-Chih which was pronounced in Chinese as ngawat. 'W' has sometimes the value of vowel as in 'awkward', 'awl', 'awn', and 'awry'247. so ngwat becomes 'ngaat' and when the nasal 'n' is dropped, it becomes Gat or Jat. "Xanthi" and Zanthi are also Zianthi' are also variants. When 'X' occurs at the beginning of a word, it gives the sound of 'Z'248, hence, Xanthi' and Zanthi are one and the same which are nasalized forms of "Iatii" or "Jatii".
The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 361
239. Apte, Vaman Shivram; Sk. Eng. Die., pp. 445, 459. Monier-Williams, Skt.Eng. , Dic., pp409,428
240. Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, Calcutta, Alphabet Table, p. 26 .
241. Buschmann, Dr. Karl-Heinz and Sri Rajkumar Mukerji, German for Indians World Press, Cal., 1957, p. XVII. The pronunciation of g and j in borrowed words is like 'J' of Hindi; hence Got or Goth is spoken as Jot or Jut,
242. Chamber's Twentieth Century Dic., Reprint 1949, p. 451
243. Ibid., P 372.
244. Steingass, Persian-Eng. and Eng-Persian Dictionaries.
245. Cr. Twentieth Century Chambers, Oxford and Websters dictionaries.
246. Pococke, E.; op.cit., p. 397.
247. Chamber's Dic. op,cit., p. 66.
248. Ibid. p. 1140.
Hukum Singh Panwar: Epilogue
Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes - We have shown further, that just as the native writers consider "Jata" as the root of "Jat", to the Greek and German classical writers "Gete" accounts for the root of "Getae", changing later into "Gots" or "Goths", all these being variants of "Jat", In the home region of Panini, the descendants of these ancient Aryan Republican warrior tribes still go by the original term, "Jat".
We have shown, too, how the term had to undergo plethoric transformations in its orthography and pronunciation in different climes and countries according to the phonemes of their local dialects and languages at different times, We may repeat how, in addition to phonemes, the hard and soft sound of 'T', and the use of D as prefix in Jat made it into "Djat" or the addition of Az "made it into "Az-Zat", while in certain other areas where the letter 'J' did not exist, it was substituted by, 'G' or 'I' or 'Z' or 'X. Finally, we have shown how the different sound values of the vowels 'A,E,I,O & U' in various languages and dialects of countries other than India, have given rise to variants of the word "Jat" which seem, at first glance, to be entirely unrelated to the original sounds that form the word "Jat",
We have listed the Asian and European, the ancient, medieval and modern variants of this word as "Jat", "Jath", "Jat", "Jaut", "Jit", "Jet", "Gat", "Get", "Getae", "Gete", "Git", "Gut", "Guti", "Gutia", "Gutton"; "Djat", "Djoth"; "Az-Zat", "Zaut", "Zot", "Zut", "Zuthii"; "Xanthii", "Iatii", etc. We have also shown why and how the Chinese used the term "Yueh-Chih" for this group of tribes. This wide variation has, naturally caused much doubt in the mind of scholars on the origin and urheimat (cradle land) of Jats.
Abstract from Hukum Singh
- Jatt - Jat is pronounced in the Panjab, Pakistan and Afghanistan as Jatt or Jutt
- Jutt - Jat is pronounced in the Panjab, Pakistan and Afghanistan as Jatt or Jutt
- Jaat - in the rest of India it is spoken with long 'a' as Jaat
- Jāț - In Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, Jat, the cultivator, is spoken with hard 'ț' and Jat herdsman or the camel breeder, with soft 't'
- Yutia - Sometimes this word was pronounce as Yutia in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran
- Jatia - in Rajasthan in a derogatory sense
- Jatta - In the poetic language in the Panjab and Pakistan it is often articulated as Jatta
- Jatra - Jatra is its derogatory form in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh
- Jat - In the Persian and Arabic speaking countries spoken with soft 't'
- Zut - In the Arabic language it is written as Zut
- Zutti - In the Arabic language it is written as Zutti
- Az-Zut - In the Arabic language it is written as Az-Zut
- Zot - In the Arabic language it is written as Zot
- Zott - In the Arabic language it is written as Zott
- Jat - in Persian and Turkish as Jat
- Jatoi - In Baluchistan the Jat is also known as Jatoi
- Jatgal - In Baluchistan the Jat is also known as Jatgal
- Jagdal - In Baluchistan the Jat is also known as Jagdal
- Jaat - A few English writers have spelt it as Jaat
- Jit - A few English writers have spelt it Jit
- Az-Zut - as an alternative, exhibits the Middle Eastern influence on this ancient Indian name
- Jatoi - in Sindh and Baluchistan.
- Djat - In Arabia, Iraq and Syria Djat or Dyat was a popular nomenclature of the Jats
- Dyat - In Arabia, Iraq and Syria Djat or Dyat was a popular nomenclature of the Jats
- Jartas - Djat, a name given to the Jartas
- Jartikas - Jartikas of yore also called Zaratoi or Geratae
- Zaratoi - Jartikas of yore also called Zaratoi or Geratae
- Geratae - Jartikas of yore also called Zaratoi or Geratae
- Djat-Zut - Djat and Zutt were written as one compound word, "Djat-Zut" to represent them as one and the same people.
- Thjoth - The Swedes called them Thjoth
- Jutes - Those who en route, settled down in the Netherlands were known as the Jutes
- Juti - In old English they were known as Juti
- Jutae - in early medieval Latin as Jutae, Juti (in plural)
- Juti - in early medieval Latin as Jutae, Juti (in plural)
- Geta - in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar
- Jota - Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar
- Jut - Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar
- Jotar - Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar
- Goth - in old German they were Goth
- Gothi - They were described as Gothi (in plural) in later Latin
- Gotoi - in Greek
- Gothoi - in Greek
- Gutos - in Greek
- Gothoi - in Greek
- Gutos- Baltic countries
- Guttones - Baltic countries
- Guta - in Germany
- Gotos - in Germany
- Guts - in Germany
- Gotan - in Old English
- Gotar - in Old Norse
- Jatah - In the countries of the Oxus valley
- Jeteh- In the countries of the Oxus valley
- Zutt- In the countries of the Oxus valley
- Az-Zutt- In the countries of the Oxus valley
- Jith- In the countries of the Oxus valley
- Git- In the countries of the Oxus valley
- Xanthii - people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria, Hyrkania and Khorasmia
- Zanthii - people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria, Hyrkania and Khorasmia
- Xandii - people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria, Hyrkania and Khorasmia
- Iatii - people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria, Hyrkania and Khorasmia
- Iatii - people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria, Hyrkania and Khorasmia
- Xuthi - who occupied Karamanian desert and Drangiana
- Zuthi - who occupied Karamanian desert and Drangiana and people gave their name as Zatale or Zothale to the irrigation channel from the Margus rive
- Yat - Chinese
- Yata - Chinese
- Yeta - Chinese
- Yetha - Chinese
- Yet - Chinese
- Yete - Chinese
- Yeti - Chinese
- Yewti - Chinese
- Yuti - Chinese
- Yuchi - Chinese
- Tue-Chie - Chinese
- Yue-Chi - Chinese
- Yueh-Chih - Chinese, H. W. Bellew identified the Yueh-Chih with the Jatoi or Iaii, mentioned by Ptolemy and who were the Jats of Cunningham, Tod and Elphinstone etc
- Yuch-Chih - Chinese
- Siao-Yueh-Chih - or little Yueh-Chih, Chinese
- Ta-Yueh-Chih - or great Yueh-Chih, Chinese
- Gut-tia - Chinese
- Jatah - Chinese
- Jeteh - Chinese
- Yatah - Chinese
- Yattah - Chinese
- Jatoi- Chinese
- Iaii- Chinese
- Nagiwatteh- Chinese
- Yatah - Chinese
- Yattah- Chinese
- Ngiwattia- Chinese
- Gut-tia- Chinese
- Guti - Chinese
- Gut - Chinese
- Jaut- Chinese
- Ghat - Chinese
- Ghaut- Chinese
- Gat - Chinese
- Gaut- Chinese
- Getae - highlighted by Herodotus
- Gotor - Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Goth - Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Gutone - Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Gutton -Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Jaton - Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Jute - Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Jut - Getae changed after their migration to Europe
- Ostrogoth - Massagetae became Ostrogoth or Easterngoth, and the
- Visigoth - Thysagetae were called Visigoth or Westerngoth.
- Jhat = Jatt, are roots in Sanskrit and have the same meaning
- Jhatt - is not different from that of Jatt
- Jatt - invariably becomes Jat, following the application of ana suffix.
- Zat - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zat,
- Zete - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zete
- Zit - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zit
- Zot - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zot
- Zoth - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zoth
- Zothi - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zoth
- Zuti - Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zoth
- Joth - Zoth was written as Joth old Norse
- Jot - Zot was written as Jot in old Norse
- Iatii - 'i' is-Semitic 'y', equivalent to ज in Sanskrit,
- Yat - Jat was also written as Yat in the past in Central Asia.
- Gat - Latin language the Greek alphabet 'Z' is substituted by 'G' for (J), as its original sound, proximates to that of 'Z'. Hence Jat was spelt with 'G' in the Latin world, mainly Europe, in all its alternatives from Italy to Sweden.
- Jata (जट) - Persian has closest affinity with Sanskrit so it is Jata (जट)
- Djat - in old Norse.
- Thjoth - in old Norse
- Thjot - in old Norse.
- Jats - in India, Iran and USSR
- Jits - in India, Iran and USSR
- Juts - in India, Iran and USSR
- Jats - in Pakistan and Afghanistan
- Jatts - in Turkey and Egypt
- Jotts - in Arabian countries
- Zotts - in Arabian countries
- Jattehs - by the later Mongols
- Gots - by Swedes and the Danes
- Goths - in Germany and European countries
- Gots - in Germany and European countries
- Yueche - pronounced as Guti) by the Chinese
- Guti - by the ancient Sumerians
- Djati - by the Pharaohs of Egypt
- Getae - by the ancient Greeks
- Jatti - by Pliny and Ptolemy
- Gut - by many others
- Get - by many others
- Jit - by many others
Ram Sarup Joon
Ram Sarup Joon writes - Jat is in fact only another name of Chandravanshi branch of Aryans which, at one time, extended in the entire area from Northern India to Central Asia and Central Europe. At different times, and in the ancient histories of various countries they have been known by one of the derivatives of word Jat like Yayat, Yat, Yet, Yeti, Yates, Yuchi Jat, Jati, Jutes, Juton, Gat, Gatae, Gatak, Goth etc.
Mangal Sen Jindal
Jats, their Different Names:
Jats according to the language and philosophy of various countries in Eurasia and their dialect are known by different names with different spellings, having almost the same pronunciation though with different accent.
- Jat- They are called Jats in Haryana, U.P. and some other parts of India.
- Jut - They are called Juts in Punjab and Jits in Rajasthan (India).
- Gota -In Germany they are called Gotas.
- Juts - In Jutland (Denmark) they are Juts;
- Got - in Sweden Gots;
- Goth - in Gothland (an island in Baltic sea) they are Goths;
- Jat- in Persia and Uzbekistan and the rest of USSR, they are known as Jats;
- Jaiti - in Greece Jaiti;
- Jott - in Arabia Jott ;
- Giate - in Latin they were called Giate ;
- Jatah - in Mongolia Jatah;
- Jatt - in Turkey and Egypt Jatt ;
- Uchi - in China they were known as Uchi etc. etc.
Please refer to the following authorities in this connection as also reference will be found in other chapters of this work.
The Jat Itihas on page 42 refers to Cunningham, Herodotus and Strabo who said that "Jats in India are descendants of Gaths, Jaiti, Gatti, Juti, Schuchi, are European tribes." Page 44 says that in Persia there were Jut (जत), in Greece Jaiti, in Latin Giate, in China Uchi (यूती) in Rome Geoth. The book at
History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.1
page 44 further refers to a research work viz., 'Portholan' by Ch. Dhanraj Singh B.A., P.C.S., Banda page 108 to his works where the scholar has referred to cities established by Jats in European Countries, e.g.,
- (1) Jata (Jativa) in Spain,
- (2) Jatendal in Sweden,
- (3) Jatingan in Persia,
- (4) The land of Jata in Greece,
- (5) Jaton in Dalmatia,
- (6) The Jathingilanbs in Germany.
Longman's Senior Atlas for India 1934 Edition on page 33 names the Southern portion of Sweden as 'Gotland' wherein the name of a city is 'Goteborg'. In Baltic Sea, there is a big island which used to be a trade centre of importance sometime back is named 'Gothland', The words are definitely connected with Jats or Goths.
'Jat' is a modern pronunciation of 'Jut'. The original word is 'Jut' which is so pronounced in majority of the clan'. Refer to page 43 of Jat Kshatria Itihas. We hear such terms as 'Jut Devta' and 'Jut Brain'. In Punjab and amongst Sikhs, the word used is 'Jut'. Jat is primarily a martial race who later on adopted to agriculture in India and elsewhere.
History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.2
Pronunciation of a word in various forms is corroborated by the following quotations:
"There is no greater improbability in deriving Jat, Jaat or Jut, as the tribal name is pronounced in various forms in the different provinces from the Indian Yadava than from the Chinese Yuti of Ye-ta-ll-to" History of Jats by Qanungo, page 19.
"The race is variously designated. It is called Yati, Get, Jaut, Jhat, Jit, Jaat and Jat. It is very numerous in the Punjab and Rajasthan and in both places is known as 'Jit'. Its traditions state that its ancient home was to the west of the Indus." Hindu Tribes, Castes, Vol. 1, page 233.
History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.3
In the Punjab they still retain their ancient name of Jit. On the Jumna and Gangas they are styled Jats, of whom the chief of Bharatpur is the most conspicuous. On the Indus and in the Saurashtra they are termed Juts.
The kingdom of the great Gete, whose capital was on the Jaxartes, preserved its integrity and name from the period of Cyrus of the fourteenth Century, when it was converted from idolatry to the faith of Islam. Herodotos informs us that the Getes were theists and held the tenet of the souls immortality and De Gui Gnes from Chinese authorities asserts that at a very early period they had embraced the religion of Fo or Boodha .... Of the first migration from central Asia of this race within the Indus, we have no record; it must have been simultaneous with the Takshac,
History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.4
"The Getes had long maintained their independence when Tomyris depended their liberty against Cyrus. Driven in successive wars across the Sutledge, we shall elsewhere show them preserving their ancient habits, as desultory cavaliers, under the Jit leader of Lahore, in pastoral communities, in Bikaner, the Indian desert and elsewhere, though they have lost sight of their early history. The transition from pastoral to agricultural pursuits is but short, and descendant of the nomadic Gete of Transoxana is now the best husband man on the plains of Hindustan." Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan Vol. I, page 53.
"Darius (Dara) had an ambition to conquer Europe, as Cyrus had subdued Asia and Cambyses Africa; but the Scythians and other war-like races there were more powerful than any brabaric tribes whom the Persians had already encountered. There were numerous people, whose half savage habits are described by contemporary historians, including the Getae in modern Bulgaria, the Sauromatae (men of the north) to the west of the Caspian; and between to Don and Volga, the Budini, 'a numerous race with blue eyes and red hair', according to Herodotus. The last were celebrated for their religious rites, and lived by herding and farming; and some ethnologists find them to be the ancestors of the Norse race who afterwards settled in Scandinavia, and in due time had a good share in making up the early English and Scottish population. The name of this Aryan race suggests, Woden or Odin, the great Gods of our forefathers. Having crossed the Bosphorus by a bridge of boats, Darius and his Persians Overran Thrace, conquered the Getae, and then passed to the left bank of the Danube."....The story of Extinct Civilization of the East, page 187."
History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.5
दलीप सिंह अहलावत: जाटों के भिन्न-भिन्न देशों में पुकारे जाने वाले नाम
दलीप सिंह अहलावत लिखते हैं कि जाटों की उत्पत्ति कब और कैसे हुई इसका वर्णन करने से पहले यह बताने की आवश्यकता है कि जाट को भिन्न भिन्न देशों में किस किस नाम से पुकारा जाता है। यूरोप, एशिया, चीन आदि देशों में जाट लोग भारत से गये थे और वहां पर भाषाभेद के कारण उनको भिन्न-भिन्न नामों से पुकारा गया। वे सब जाटवंशज हैं। अलग अलग देशों में जाटों को जिन जिन नामों से पुकारा जाता है, उसका ब्यौरा इस प्रकार से है -
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-85
रिसाला जिहाद के लेखक और आर्यसमाज के प्रकांड विद्वान् पं० लेखराम जी ने यदु से यादव, यादव से जादव (जादू) फिर जात और फिर जाट होना सिद्ध किया है और ज्ञात से हिन्दी जात होने के नियम से साधारण लोग भी जानकार हैं। वैसे भी ज्ञ अक्षर ज् + ञ् का संयोजन ही तो है। जाट के भिन्न-भिन्न नाम ज्ञात और जात से ही बने हैं। रोमन लिपि में ज्ञात शब्द को Giota अथवा Giate अक्षरों से लिखा जाता है जो पढ़ने में गेटा, जेटा, गियाट (गात), जिओटी और जिआती सहज ही हो सकता है। उच्चारणभेद से वे सब शब्द इसी Giote के पढे जा सकते हैं जो कि देसी विदेशी इतिहासों में पाये जाते हैं। जैसे भारत में जाट शब्द को लोग जट, जट्ट और जाट नाम से बोलते हैं। वैसे ही इस शब्द को अरबी लोगों ने जत, चीनी लोगों ने यूती-यूची, यूरोपियन लोगों ने जेटी, जेटा और रोमन लोगों ने गात, गाथ नामों से पुकारा है। ईरानी और अरबी लोग जिनका पड़ौसी होने के कारण गांधारी और सिंधी जाटों से काफी सम्बन्ध था, जात शब्द की जगह जत शब्द का प्रयोग करते थे और यूरोपियन लोग जिनका कैस्पियन और जगजर्टिस नदियों के किनारों से जाने वाले जाटों से पाला पड़ा था उन्हें ज्ञात, जात अथवा जाट की अपेक्षा उच्चारण भेद से जेटा, गेटा और गाथ आदि नामों से पुकारा1।
चीनियों ने श्यूची, यूहची, अथवा यूती नाम से पुकारा है। श्यूची शब्द भारतीय जाटों की शिवि शाखा के कारण प्रसिद्ध हुआ क्योंकि इनका गिरोह मानसरोवर और कश्मीर के पार काफी दूर तक पहुंच गया था। प्राप्त ब्यौरा इस प्रकार है2 -
|1||जाट, जट जट्ट||Jat, Jat Jatt||भारत, पाकिस्तान, अफगानिस्तान|
|2||जाट, जिट, जुट, जट, जट्ट||Jàts, Jits, Juts, Jàt,||ईरान और रूस|
|3||जट्ट||Jàtts||मिश्र और तुर्की|
|4||जोत, जोद, जत||Jotts, Zotts||अरब देश|
|5||जट्टे, जट्टेह||Jattehs, Jetteh||मंगोलों में (मंगोलिया देश) मध्य देश|
|6||गोट, गोथ||Got, Goths||स्वीडन गाटलैंड (बाल्टिक सागर)|
|7||गाथ, गेटे, गेटी, जेटी, जेटा||Got, Goths, Gotas||जर्मनी और यूरोप|
|9||गेटा, जेटा, गिट, गाथ||Getai, Gatae||यूनान, लेटिन (Latin), थ्रेश मध्य एशिया|
|10||गाथ, गात, गोथ||Gooths, Goth||रोम, इटली, गाटलैण्ड (स्वीडन)|
|11||जट्टी||Jatti||(Pliny and Ptolemy) पलिनी और पटोलेमी (इतिहासकार)|
|12||ज्याती||Djati||Pharaohs of Egypt|
|13||यूची, यूति, जुट्टी||Yueche (Gut-ti) Yetha, Yeta.....||चीन|
|14||जुट, जूट||Jutes||Jutland (Denmark) जुटलैंड (डेनमार्क)|
|15||गुट, गेट, जिट||Gut, Get, Jit||कई अन्य देशों में|
- 1. जाट इतिहास : लेखक ठाकुर देशराज। पृ० 71-72।
- 2. जाट्स द एन्शेन्ट रूलर्स लेखक बी० एस० दहिया आई० आर० एस० पृ० 1, 4, 5, 6, 25, 55 और जाट इतिहास लेखक ठाकुर देशराज पृ० 65।
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-86
जाट शब्द को चीनी लोग यूची (Yue che) बोलते हैं। कर्ल-ग्रीन (Karl Gren) के अनुसार यूची (Yue che) शब्द का उच्चारण गुट-टी (Gut-tia) होता है। इनकी एक शाखा (भाग) का नाम "ता-यूची" (Ta Yue-che) पड़ गया जिसका अर्थ है "महान् जूट-टी" (Great Guttia) या महान् जाट (Great Jats)। "ता-यूची" शब्द ठीक वही है जो कि यूनान और फारस (Persians) में बोले जाने वाला शब्द "महान् जेटा" (Massa Getae) है। उसका अर्थ भी महान् जाट है। यूची (Yue-che) की यह बड़ी शाखा पश्चिम की ओर बढ गई और Dahia (दहिया) (या Tahia - तहिआ, बल्ख, बैक्ट्रिया) पर अधिकार कर लिया। यूची की दूसरी शाखा दक्षिण की ओर तिब्बत तक बढी जो कि "Siao Yue-che" (सियो सूची) कहलाई जिसका अर्थ "Little Yue-che" (या घटिया यूची) या घटिया जाट है। जाटों की इन शाखाओं को ऊपर बताये हुए ये नाम बेशक दिये गये, इसकी कोई बात नहीं। उनकी केवल एक ही नाम संसार में है और वह है जट या जाट1।
कुछ लोगों को भ्रम है कि शब्द Jats/ Gaetae/ Goths एक दूसरे से भिन्न हैं और एक नहीं हो सकते। उनके एक होने का उदाहरण इस प्रकार से है। चीनी और कुछ यूरोपियों की भाषा में पहले अक्षर जे (J) के स्थान पर अक्षर जी (G) का प्रयोग होता है। यह "Grimm's Law of Variation" (गरिम्ज के परिवर्तन के सिद्धान्त) के अनुसार है। इसी सिद्धान्त के अनुसार संस्कृत का अक्षर स (S), फारसी में ह (H) और जर्मनी का अक्षर एफ (F) लैटिन में पी (P) बन जाते हैं। इसी तरह से संस्कृत भाषा का शब्द हंस (Hans) का अक्षर 'H' (ह) जर्मनी भाषा 'G' बन जाता है जैसे (Gans या Goose) गूज। दोनों का अर्थ हंस ही है। बिल्कुल साफ है कि इसी सिद्धान्त के अनुसार जाटों को चीनियों ने Yue-che, Gut-ti (जुट-टी) यूनानियों ने Getae (जेटा) और जर्मनी ने Got/Goth (जेटा-जेटी) कहा है। किन्तु डेनमार्क के डेन लोगों ने जाटों को जुट (Jute) ही कहा और अपने देश को जट्लैंड (Jutland) कहते हैं, क्योंकि यह देश जाटों ने ही आबाद किया था। इसी तरह से यूरोप के शब्द George और Georgia का उच्चारण, अक्षर G (जी) से नहीं परन्तु J (जे) से किया जाता है2।
इसी तरह सम्राट् उशनायाट से जाट नाम प्रचलन का सिद्धान्त लिखा है3।
जट से जाट शब्द - जिस समय भाषा-क्षेत्र में अन्धकार छा गया था, उस समय युधिष्ठिर से लगभग 800 वर्ष पश्चात् आज से लगभग साढे चार हजार वर्ष पूर्व सिन्ध के अधीन प्रान्त गांधार में व्याकरण-सूर्य महर्षि पाणिनि का जन्म हुआ। उन्होंने अपने समय तक की संस्कृत-भाषा के सम्पूर्ण शब्दों की व्युत्पत्ति एवं अर्थबोधक एक व्याकरण की रचना की जिसका नाम अष्टाध्यायी है। यह देखने में एक छोटी सी पुस्तक है, परन्तु आपकी रचना-शैली इतनी विचित्र है कि इसका श्री महर्षि पतञ्जलि ने भाष्य किया है जो एक पूरा ग्रंथ हो गया। इसीलिए उसका नाम महाभाष्य रखा गया। पाणिनि ने अपने समय के प्रचलित शब्दों और प्रायः प्रत्येक राजनैतिक संघ का अनेक
- 1, 2. जाट्स द एन्शेन्ट रूलर्स - लेखक बी० एस० दहिया। पृ० 25, 55।
- 3. जातीय लेखक चौ० रामलाल हाला।
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-87
स्थलों पर वर्णन किया है। इसी कारण विद्वानों का मत है कि “पाणिनि धार्मिक की अपेक्षा राजनैतिक बुद्धि का ऋषि था।” तदनुसार अष्टाध्यायी के भ्वादिगण में एक परस्मैपदी धातु लिखी गई - जट झट संघाते अर्थात् जट शब्द समूह के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है। इस धातु के “जट” शब्द का अर्थ है कि “जिसके द्वारा या जिसमें बिखरी हुई शक्तियां एकत्र हो जायें।” जट का ही दूसरा रूप जाट है और यह दोनों शब्द एकार्थवाची हैं अर्थात् जिसके द्वारा बिखरी हुई शक्तियां एकत्रित हो जायें अथवा जिसमें बिखरी हुई एकत्रित हो जायें, ऐसे संघ व जाति और प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को “जट” या “जाट” कहते हैं1। जट शब्द से जाट इस प्रकार बन जाता है - अष्टाध्यायी के अध्याय 3, पाद 3, सूत्र 19 अकर्त्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् से जट धातु से संज्ञा में घञ् प्रत्यय होता है। जट् + घञ् प्रत्यय के घ और ञ् की इत्संज्ञा होकर लोप हो जाता है। 'अ' रह जाता है अर्थात् जट् + अ ऐसा रूप होता है। फिर पाणिनीयाष्टकम् के अध्याय 7, पाद 2, सूत्र 116, अतः उपधायाः से उपधा अर्थात् जट में के 'ज' अक्षर के 'अ' के स्थान पर बुद्धि अर्थात् दीर्घ आ हो जाता है। जाट् + अ = जाट ऐसा शब्द बन जाता है2।
यह अन्तिमरूप से सिद्ध हो चुका है कि स्वयं 'जट' शब्द अत्यन्त प्राचीन एवं शुद्ध है। यदि ऊपर कहे शब्दों का अपभ्रंश होता तो उन शब्दों की भांति उसका अर्थ भी सीमित होता और 'जट' शब्द की व्यापक अर्थशक्ति प्रायः नष्ट हो जाती। इसलिए 'जट' शब्द को किसी भी अन्य शब्द की परम्परा में अपने कई पूर्व रूप देखने नहीं पड़े। यही कारण है कि 'जट' शब्द के प्राचीन अर्थ का महत्त्व आज भी अक्षुण्ण है3।
शब्द माता पिता का भिन्न-भिन्न भाषाओं में उच्चारण तो अलग अलग है परन्तु अर्थ एक ही है4।
'जाट' शब्द को प्राकृत भाषा से मिलती-जुलती सिन्धी और पंजाबी आदि भाषाओं में 'जट' ही लिखा और बोला जाता है। परन्तु हिन्दी भाषा बोलने वाले प्रान्तों में जैसे राजस्थान, हरयाणा, मध्यप्रदेश और उत्तरप्रदेश आदि में 'जाट' बोला जाता है। कुछेक ऐसे शब्दों के उदाहरण जो भिन्न
- 1. क्षत्रिय जातियों का उत्थान, पतन एवं जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 259-260 (लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री); जाट इतिहास उर्दू पृ० 33 लेखक ठाकुर संसारसिंह।
- 2. क्षत्रियों का इतिहास प्रथम भाग पृ० 264 लेखक परमेश शर्मा तथा राजपालसिंह शास्त्री।
- 3. प्राचीन राज्यवंश एवं जाट क्षत्रिय इतिहास और क्षत्रिय जातियों का उत्थान, पतन एवं जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 258 लेखक कविराज योगेन्द्र शास्त्री।
- 4. अन्टिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस लेखक उजागरसिंह माहल पृ० 11.
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-88
इसी सिद्धान्त से संसार की सबसे आदि भाषा संस्कृत से ही सारी दूसरी भाषाओं की उत्पत्ति हुई है। 'जट' शब्द का दूसरे देशों में परिवर्तन कैसे हुआ, इसका उदाहरण संसार की चार प्रसिद्ध भाषाओं के कुछ शब्दों से दिया जाता है।
|1. ओ३म्||आमीन (Amin)||अल्म||परमेश्वर, ईश्वर|
|2. अस्ति||इस (is)||अस्त||है|
|3. नाम||नेम (Name)||नाम||नाम|
|4. तारकम्||स्टार (Star)||सतारा||तारा|
|5. दुहितृ||डॉटर (Daughter)||दुखतर||पुत्री|
|6. मातृ||मदर (Mother)||मादर||माता|
|7. पितृ||फादर (Father)||पिदर||पिता|
|8. भ्रातृ||ब्रादर (Brother)||ब्रादर||भाई|
|9. अभ्यन्तर||अंडर (Under)||अन्दर||भीतर|
इसी तरह संस्कृत का 'जट' शब्द प्राकृत भाषा में 'जत्थ' या जट्ट, अरबी-फारसी में जात, चीनी में यूति-यूची, यूरोप में जेटी-जेटा, रोम में गात-गाथ, लेटिन में गिटी (Giate) और हिन्दी में जाट नाम प्रसिद्ध हुआ।
ययात और याट शब्द से 'जाट' शब्द बन जाना बिल्कुल साधारण है। प्राचीनकाल में जिन शब्दों का उच्चारण 'य' से होता था, आधुनिक समय में 'ज' से होता है।
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-89
- Etymology of Jat
- Jat people & Noun Etymology of Jat
- Etymology of Jat
- Origin of the Jats
- Variants of Jat
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.338-343
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.344-347
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.361
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Epilogue,p.384
- Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.1
- History of the Jats/Chapter I,p.4
- History of Origin of Some Clans in India/Jat From Jutland/Jats, their Different Names,pp.1-6
- Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter II,pp.84-89