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Harsha Inscription

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Harshagiri Inscription of Chahamana (961-973 AD) at Sikar Museum
Map of villages around Harsh


Reference - Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 4 By Asiatic Society of Bengal, pp.367-385 :Restitution and Translation of the Inscription found in the Ruins of the Mountain-Temple of Shekhavati. By W. H. Mill, D. D. Principal of Bishop's College.

In a paper read before the Asiatic Society on August 5, 1835, Sergeant E. Dean delivered the inglorious epitaph to an extraordinary tenth-century Indian temple which he,along with Dr. G.E. Rankin had discovered previous year. This site is known as Harshagiri, near the village of Harasnath about 7 miles south of Sikar in Rajasthan.

The inscription is not unworthy of the labour which Dr. G. C. Rankin and Serjeant Dean have severally bestowed on it. Though abounding, like other monuments of the same kind, with much that is little calculated to interest western readers, it is not destitute of philological and historical use, in illustrating the political and literary state of India at the very remarkable period to which it belongs. Its date precedes, by a few years only, the first great invasion of the Mahomedans: who, ever since that period, the close of the tenth century of our era, have so powerfully influenced the civil and social state of the country. The character in which this inscription is executed, joined with the extreme precision of its date, gives it a value beyond that of its own intrinsic information : furnishing, as it does, a definite standard, from which the age of other monuments of similar or more remotely resembling characters may be inferred with tolerable accuracy. The character, though illegible at present to the pandits even of northern India, presents no difficulty after the deciphering of the more ancient inscriptions, whose characters resemble those of the second on the pillar of Allahabad. This stone exhibits the Devanagari in its Btate of transition, from the form visible in that and other yet older monuments, to the writing which now universally bears that name, and which may be traced without sensible variation in inscriptions as old as the 12th century. From the facsimile of Serjeant Dean, I easily transcribed all the legible letters of the inscription into the last-mentioned character: and the circumstance of its being in verse of various measures, (though written according to Indian usage, in unbroken lines like prose,) with the exception of a few prosaic enumerations near the end, helped greatly to the restitution of the reading, where the stone was broken or partially defaced.

Of the 49 verses or stanzas of which the poetical part of this inscription consists, 23 are in the measure the most nearly approaching to the freedom of prose, the Iambic Tetrameter of the Ramayana and Mahabharata : and one is in the ancient description of metre called A'rya, in which, as in the Anapaestic measnrei of the Greeks, the aggregate quantity of feet is preserved, without regard to the number of syllables. The remaining 25 (which the great length of some of the metres causes to be the most considerable portion of the whole inscription,) are in various descriptions of lyrical measure, seven in number, in each of which the number and the quantity of syllables ia regulated with the same rigour and precision as in the greater part of the Odes of Horace. These seven measures are interspersed with the two other metres and with each other ad libitum, as in the drama, and other classical writings of the Hindus.

Purana Mahadeva Temple at Harshagiri (c.961-973 AD)
Kartikeya at Harsh

The subject of the inscription is the erection of the temple, in whose yet splendid ruins it was found, to Siva Mahadeva, under a name by which he is not generally known elsewhere— Sri Harsha: the latter word (joy), being still the name of a village in the neighbourhood, and apparently of the high mountain itself, as we learn from the descriptions of the site now published. The inscription, however, connects this name with an event of great celebrity in the mythology of India,—Siva's destruction of the Asura or demon TriPura, who had expelled Indra and his gods from Svarga or heaven; and his reception of the praises of the restored celestials on this very mountain: whence the name of Joy is stated to have been derived to this hill, and the surrounding region, as well as to the great deity as here worshipped.

After some of the ordinary topics of praise to Siva, in which the mythology of the Puranas and the deeper mystical theology of the Upanishads are blended in the usual manner,—and after the commemoration of this peculiar seat of his worship,—the author begins in the 13th of his varied stanzas, to recount the predecessors of the two princes, to whose liberality the temple was most indebted. A genealogy of six princes, of the same distinguished family whose head then held the neighbouring kingdom of Ajmer, — the family of the Chahumana or Chohans,—is continued regularly from father to son, and terminated in Sinha Raja, in whose reign this work appears to have been commenced, A. D. 961. Then comes a seventh king of a totally different family, being sprung from the solar race of Raghu. The name of this descendant of Rama is Vigraha Raja; but in what character he appears as the successor of the former princes, whether as a conqueror or as a liberator from the power of other conquerors,— and in what manner, if at all, he allied himself to the former race which he is said to have restored, is not distinctly stated in the three verses (19, 20, and 21), where the succession is recorded. We find only that in his liberality to this temple of the god of Joy, he emulated and surpassed the donations of his apparently less fortunate predecessor Sinha Raja, and that in his time it was probably completed, twelve years after its commencement, in A. D. 973. From this list of monarchs, which is not without value as illustrating the discordant and divided state of India at this critical epoch of its history, the author passes in the 28th verse to what is of paramount importance in the Hindu mind—the commemoration of the chief brahmans of the temple and their predecessors. The princes were but donors and benefactors, but these world-renouncing men are represented as the actual builders, whose spiritual genealogy from preceptor to pupil, the author proceeds to trace. The line when apparently degenerating, is described as reformed by the zeal and devotion of one who is an incarnation of the god Nandi' himself, the greatest of Siva's attendant deities,—and who, in his mortal state, received command to erect this magnificent temple in the sacred mount of Harsha, —a work, however, which was not completed by himself, but by his pupil. After some descriptions and panegyrics, in which due mention is made of what excites the admiration of all beholders of the ruins at this day, the conveyance of the huge stones of the building to this mountain height, the poetical part of the inscription ceases : and the minute account of the year, the month and the day, in which the work was begun and ended, is followed by a list of benefactors of various degrees, kings and subjects, with their several donations of lands to the temple. The whole is concluded with a verse eulogizing benefactions of this nature, and adjuring all future princes, in the name of the great Rama, to preserve them inviolate.

The last king Vigraha is very probably the Yaso-vigraha of Capt. Fell's Benares inscription, the head of the family whence sprung the last (Rahtore) kings of Kanyakubja or Kanoj: though Wilson's calculation of only 24 years each for four generations would bring that chief to A.D. 1024, fifty years after the date of this monument, (A. R. vol. xv. p. 461.) But for the same distance of time, deduced from more certain data, I should have been led to identify Vigraha's younger brother, whose name occurs in the 26th verse of the inscription, with a prince who in the same year 1024, in conjunction with another Indian chief called Brahma Deva, nearly turned the tide of victory against Mahmud Ghaznavi, after his rapid march from Ajmer to Somanath, by arriving seasonably to assist his Guzzeratti countrymen ; and whom Mahmu'd, after his reduction of that place, apprehending as a formidable enemy, took prisoner with him to his capital beyond the Indus; whence being sent back to a kinsman of his own, who had been left viceroy of Guzzerat, he succeeded by a most remarkable adventure, in possessing himself of the kingdom of that country. Certainly this prince, whom Farishta calls (as well as his kinsman) Da'bsheli'm(•Dow, vol. i. pp. 74, 79, 82.—Brigqs, vol. i. pp. 70—80.— Atiw Acbery, vol. i. pp. 82, 86.), is called by other authorities, Hindu and Mahomedan, Durlabha, the same name as that here assigned to the warlike brother of Vigraha.

U.P. Shah in his article - "Some medieval Sculpture from Gujarat and Rajasthan" writes of the temple of Harshanatha, which was built in 956 AD and then of Sculpture from Harshagiri datable in c.961-973 AD and finally of the "Purana Mahadeva Temple at Harshagiri (c.961-973 AD). [1]

Harsha Temple

Reference - The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China & Australia, 1936, pp.167-171

[Page-167] The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal contains a notice of the temple, called Seo Byjnauth (Siva Vaidyanath), discovered at Harsha, on the hill of Unchapahar, in Shekawati, by Sergeant E. Dean, with a restitution and translation of an inscription found in the ruins, by Dr. Mill, principal of Bishop's College.

Unchapahar, 'the High Hill,' is about five miles N.E. of Sikar, and a conspicuous object, from its height, for fifteen or twenty miles. The sergeant ascended the hill by a path, or causeway, paved with stones laid flat and on edge, twelve feet wide, which takes a general or zigzag direction to the south ; its length is about a mile and a-half, with an average slope of two feet in ten.

" On the way up, by the side of the causeway," he says, " where the ground will admit, several small chabutras are raised, two or three feet high, on each of which is set a block of stone on end, blackened with smoke and oil; and about a quarter distance from the top, a singular building of cubical form appears, standing on a natural platform ; the length of whose side is about ten feet. It is dedicated by the present generation to Devi. Its singularity consists in the peculiarly massive structure of a building of such a size. Set in the wall, opposite the door-way, are three or four stones, on which are carved in bas-relief, various symbols, among which are three figures of an animal resembling the nyl gao, more than the domestic cow, having no hump, a short tail, and a neck very like the former animal.

" About 100 yards from the upper end of the causeway, on passing the crest of the hill, stands a Binising Mandir, dedicated at present to Ganesha. It is built of about forty-five cubical blocks of stone, without mortar or any connecting body; the side of each cube is about one foot. It forms an inclosure to the N., S. and VV., but open to the E-, and has no roof. The stones are extremely well hewn, and without the slightest ornament. Some mutilated figures are lying on the ground at the inside of the west face.

" The surface of the top of the hill is about one mile long, by 100 yards average breadth, and shews many bare spots, where the secondary sandstone, coming to the surface, checks vegetation ; there are also large masses of felspar scattered in an unconnected manner over it. " The whole surface of the hill, both sides and top, is covered with jungle of Dhau and Soldri, fifteen to twenty-five feet high, and thickly studded with clumps of cactus.

[Page-168]" On arriving at the building which had principally excited my curiosity front the plain below, I found it occupied a site about quarter distant from the southwesterly end of the top of the hill, and on the precipitous verge of the northern face. The guide and officiating brahmans informed me, that it may be distinctly seen from the hills round Jaipur, thirty-five coss S.E. from Sambhar, thirty coss south of Midag, and when standing in relief against the dark background of a rainbow, it has frequently been seen from thence and Baudra, two villages or towns in the said territory, distant forty-five coss N.E. by E. Such is the native account, which I think is entitled to belief, as I have myself seen it from Taen, a distance of about forty miles, at least I imagine so, without taking much trouble to find it out. It is a plain building, of a similar though plainer style of architecture, than the Mandirs of Bindraband, Mathura, &c. It is reported to have been built by Seo Singh, a raja of Sikar, and great grandfather to the present raja, about the year 1718. Many of the stones composing its base are specimens of elaborate and elegant sculpture, the remains of buildings lying in confused heaps near it to the south-west.

" These ruins, which are not visible from below, in their present unpretending state, on being discovered, entirely engross the attention; the only remaining perfect parts of them consist of two rows of columns, of exceedingly beautiful proportions and workmanship, covered with exquisite sculpture, every line and harris of which is as finely preserved as if drawn on paper or executed in alabaster. They are ten in number. These are flanked on either side by square pillars, also beautifully carved, and are brought up through (I must say, for want of a more applicable expression) a ledge, which protrudes two feet in towards the centre of the apartment, from each of its four sides, being only broken by the two door-ways. I have no idea of the use of this ledge, as it forms no necessary part of the building, neither is it at all ornamental, unless it has been used for the reception of offerings made to the deity to whom the building has been dedicated, or for sacrificial purposes; but its presence is entirely conclusive of this compartment of the original building being still complete. These columns and pillars support a stone roof, composed of a first set of ribs, whose ends are supported by four columns, forming a square with a side of about ten feet. Over the point of bisection of each of these sides, another set of ribs are disposed, so that the angles of a second and of course smaller square, rest on the centres of the lower ribs. The interstices of these figures are covered in with slabs, forming between each four columns a beautiful and simple figure, and taken as a whole a roof of the most primeval architecture.

" In the northern face of this apartment, a door-way (relieved by an architrave of most elaborate sculpture, divided into twelve compartments, in each of which a group from the Hindu pantheon occupies a place), communicates with an inner apartment, (the sanctum sanctorum), around which, at a height of about five feet from the ground, are ranged seventeen jogies, about three and a-half feet high, executed in bold demi-relief, in a superior style of sculpture. They are in a very primitive state, as regards their habiliments, and placed in lascivious postures, belonging to Devi, who herself, about six feet high, occupies a corner. This figure has no connexion with the buildings, but merely reclines against one of the walls, and has probably been brought here in latter days, although from its style evidently coeval with the others. In the centre of this room is a Jelahrr, on which stands a Chaumana Mahadeo, worked in marble.

"Near the entrance to the outer apartment lies a large slab of black stone,

[Page-169] about three and a half inches thick, and three feet square, in which is cut an inscription in a fine clear character, in good preservation, of which I have forwarded afac-rimile, taken with ink on paper from the stone.

" About ten yards in front of the entrance lies, or rather sits, Nandi, sculptured in a block of coarse white marble, with an ornamented collar, and bells hang round his dewlap and the back of his hump, and another round his neck, about one-sixth larger than life. How this immense block of stone (in itself a curiosity) was ever brought to the top of this hill, considering the imperfect knowledge of machinery possessed by the natives of the present day, is a matter of astonishment to me.

The site of the main building, if we may judge from the remains of an octagonal chabutra, round the whole base of which are an immense number of elephants, executed in demi-relievo, about a foot high, and each one placed in a different attitude, some of them in the act of destroying a human being, others assisting the mahaut to mount, others again destroying monsters; and from what remain, I have no doubt, the ingenuity of the artist must have been exhausted in typifying the sagacity and different uses to which this wonderful animal may be put. This base is about thirty yards south-west of the part described, and bears every appearance of having belonged to a noble building, of which Nos. 1 and 2 are specimens, being the crowns or upper courses of domes, which have rested on gradually expanding courses, with the carving and style of architecture of which, I am convinced, a most intimate connexion in the buildings surrounding the court in which the Delhi town pillar stands, might be traced. I will by the first opportunity send you a specimen brought thence, and which will give a good idea of the quality of the stone, and, although much mutilated, of the finish of the carving.

"The whole of these remains have been worked in freestone of excellent quality, which is no where procurable in the neighborhood: neither have I met with it any where, but in the buildings before mentioned, at the Kuttab, which are formed of the same sort of stone, but of inferior quality ; and the finish of the sculpture will not bear comparison. The natives could give me no account of whence it had been brought.

"Lying on the extreme edge of the precipice on which these ruins and temples stand, are fifteen or twenty figures, male and female, about one-third larger than life, and, although exposed to the weather, in very good preservation. The numerous (I had almost said numberless) groups, in some of which there are from twenty to thirty figures, consist of processions, dancers, male and female, and musicians. (The instruments used by the latter are generally the sitara, fife or flute, and drum.) These fragments of sculpture are scattered over a space of two or three acres; besides what from accident or design have fallen over the precipice, as well as others built in the modern structure: and I should think that the whole of the Hindu Pantheon must have been here represented in a style, the pecuniary ability to follow which has, I fear, gradually passed away with the genius which was capable of designing and executing such a work cf art.

"Not the very slightest tradition concerning these interesting ruins is in possession of the resident brahmans (three in number), attached to the temples of Siva Baijnath generally, but in particular to that portion of the ancient one now remaining perfect. They say that it is possible that they were contemporary with the palace of the Hursah Murgarie Raja, the site of which is still known, and which is now level with the surface of the earth, but to the existence of which, other than as ruins, no date can be affixed. The elk,

[Page-170] leopard, hog, and nyl-gao, are found in, and in the neighborhood of, this hill."

The etchings in the Journal attest the truth of Serjeant Dean's account of the beauty of the sculpture. The inscription, the date of which precedes, by a few years, the first great invasion of the Mahomedans, has been laboriously restored and translated by Principal Mill, who considers it of some philological and historical value, in illustrating the political and literary state of India at the very remarkable period to which it belongs.

" The character in which this inscription is executed," Dr. Mill observes, " joined with the extreme precision of its date, gives it a value beyond that of its own intrinsic information: furnishing, as it does, a definite standard, from which the age of other monuments of similar or more remotely resembling characters may be inferred with tolerable accuracy. The character, though illegible at present to the pandits even of northern India, presents no difficulty after the deciphering of the more ancient inscriptions, whose characters resemble those of the second on the pillar of Allahabad. This stone exhibits the Devanagari in its state of transition, from the form visible in that and other yet older monuments, to the writing which now universally bears that name, and which may be traced without sensible variation in inscriptions as old as the twelfth century. From the facsimile of Serjeant Dean, I easily transcribed all the legible letters of the inscription into the last-mentioned character: and the circumstance of its being in verse of various measures, (though written, according to Indian usage, in unbroken lines, like prose), with the exception of a few prosaic enumerations near the end, helped greatly to the restitution of the reading, where the stone was broken or partially defaced.*

Here is the English translation of Harsha Inscription of 961 - 973 AD

English translation of Harsha Inscription of Chahumanas 961-973 AD

Source - Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 4 By Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 43, July 1835, pp.367-385

L-1: *आप्तविघ्नशमनं सुराच्चितं पूज्यमेव शिवयास्तितो-
द्भवम् । भक्तिमुक्ति पर्मात्-र्थसिद्धिदं तं नमामि वरदं सदाशिमम ....

L-2:*..ताकुलितमानसै:। स्तूयमानस्तु सद्देवै:

पातु वस्त्रिपुरांतक:....
पादन्यासावनुन्ना नमति वसुमती शेषभोगावलग्ना

L-3:पोष्ट्टज्येष्ठै:सकं[पै:* सहितमपि दिशामीश्वर: सा]र्क्कचंद्रै:।

भिन्नावस्थं समस्तं भवति हि भुवनं यस्य नृत्ते प्रवृत्ते
अयं श्रीहर्षाभिधानो जयति पशुपतिर्दत्तविश्वानुकंप:।। ....
सव्ये शूलं त्रिशिखमपरे दोष्णि [तुंग: कुठारो]

L-4 :भूषा [गंगा शिरसि* भुज]ग:कण्ठिका नीलकण्ठे ।

नेद्दग्वेषस्त्रिनयन मया क्कापी दृष्टोअतिचित्र
इत्थं गौर्य्या प्रहसितहर: सस्मितः पातु युष्मान् ।। ....
वर्षोद्व्हूतार्यमादिग्रहगगणतलं व्याश्रुवाना जलौधै

L-5:र्न्यक्कुर्व्वाणा[पयोधीन् द्रुतचलि*]

तजलानूर्म्मिमालासहस्त्रै:। देयादभ्यर्थितं व: शशधरधवला स्वर्धुनी चन्द्रमौले र्मौलौ लीलां
वहन्ती स्फुटविकटदृढाबन्धने चीरिकाया: ।। ....

L-6:चंचत्त्वग्रेकृतान्तर्भुवननगकनीद्दीपसिं[धु]* प्रपञ्चं

विश्वं सेवाप्ररोहि प्रमथमुनिवरैर्यत्यमत्-र्त्थै: सनाथम् ।
यस्येच्छाशक्तिभावादसदपि सकलं जायते लीयते च
सोअव्याद्दो हर्षदेवो भुवनविरचनासूत्रधारो अप्रमेय: ।। ....

L-7:नूनं वाणाग्निदग्धत्रिपुरपुररिपु[र्जा]*हर्ष: सहर्षै

रिंद्राद्दैर्द्देववृंदै: कृतनुतिनतिभि: पूज्यमानोअत्र शैलै ।
योअभुन्नान्नापि हर्षो गिरशिखरभुवोर्भारतानुग्रहाय
सो अस्ताद्दो लिंगरूपो द्विगुणितभवनश्चन्द्रमौलि: शिवात्मा ।। ....


प्रात्नज्वालावलीढहुमबज्डलमहाधूमधूम्रायितासम् ।
खारंभारंभभीमखनमसमशरोच्छेदि यस्याशशंके
द्द्ष्टवा दैवे: सरूपं किमिह सुसमये संहृतिर्बोभवेत्थ[म्] ।।....

L-9:*शंभु:पुरधगध्यासे यमभ्रंकषमस्तक:।

हर्षख्याति सहर्षाख्यो गिरिरेषु पुनातु व: ।।....
शूरस्येदं श्लो
कांगांगं मे निजं यं प्रवहति न शुभा नन्दकोद्यानलक्ष्मी:

L-10:सद्रक्तस्वर्णश्टंगामलविविधरु [*चिर्वोअद्रिरेष प्र]पातु ।

नान्यां धत्ते तथापि श्रियमतिशयिनीमेष शैवोअद्वितीयां
साक्षाच्छम्भुर्यदास्ते तदपि हि परमं कारणं रम्यताया: ।। ....१०
अष्टमूर्तियमध्यास्ते सिद्धष्टकविभु: स्वयम् ।

L-11:न समो भूधरस्यास्य परम:क्कापि [विद्यते*] ।। ....११

प्रात्तप्राभातमालाविरचितविकटापाण्डु पुष्पाभिरामम ।
मेरो: श्टंगोपमानं सुघटितवृषसत्तोरणद्दाररम्यं
नानाहाहाश्रमांकं जयति भगवतो हर्षदेवस्य सद्म ।। ....१२

L-12:*आद्य: श्री गूवकाख्यप्रथितनरपतिश्चाहमानान्वयोभूत्

श्री मन्नागाय्वलोकप्रकरनृपसभालब्धवीरप्रतिष्ठ: ।
यस्य श्री हर्षदेव वरभवनमयी भौतली कीर्तिमूर्ति

L-13:र्लोकेअद्यापि द्दिरेषा प्रतपति परमै:[शंसिता लोकवृंदै:*]।

पुत्र श्री चन्द्रराजोअभ्रवदमलय शास्तस्य तीव्रप्रताप:
सूनूस्तस्याथ भूप: प्रथमइव पुनर्गूवकाख्य: प्रतापी ।
तस्मात्च्छ्रीचंदनोअभूत क्षितिपतिभयदस्तामरांशु सदर्प्पं

L-14:हत्वा रुद्रेन भूय: समरस[मुदये*]-

लाभ्य[कीर्ति]र्जयश्री:।। ....१४
तत: परम तेजस्वी सदासमरजित्वर: ।
श्रीमानवाक्पतिराज्यग्रो महाराजा भवत्सुत: ॥ ....१५
येनादैन्यं स्वसैन्यं कथमपिदधता वाजिवल्गामुमुक्षु ।

L-15:प्रागेव त्रासितेभ: सरसि करिरटडिंडिमैर्डि[बयुद्धै:*]|

विन्द्यक्षमाहर्त्रराजा समदमहिवहन्नागतोअनंतपार्श्वं-
क्षमापालस्तन्त्रपालो दिशिदिशि गमितो हीविषण्ण: प्रसन्न: ।। ....१६
लोकेर्योहि महीतले ननुहरिश्चन्द्रोपमोगीयते

L-16:त्यागैश्वर्यजये प्र[कीर्ति*र]मला धर्मश्च यस्योज्जवल: ।

येनावायि हराय मन्दिरकृते छद्माप्रसूतं वसु:
श्री मद्वाक्पतिराजसूनुरसम: श्रीसिंहराजो अभवत ।। ....१७
हैममा[स्थापितं] येन शिवस्य भवनोपरि ।
पूर्णचन्द्रोपमं स्वीयं मूर्तयंश्चा[वृसंज्ञ] का: ॥ ....१८

L-17:*हत्वातोमरनायकं सलवणं सैनाधिपत्योद्धतं

युद्धेयेन नरेश्वरा: प्रतिदिशं निर्न्नाशिता जिष्णुना ।
कारांवतेभ्यमनि भूरयश्च विधृतास्चारद्दियो बड़ूटे
तनमुक्त्यर्थमुपाश्रितो रघुकुले भू चक्रवर्ती स्वयं ॥ ....१९

L-18:श्रीमान् वि*ग्रहराजोअभूत्तुष्टुवोवासवोपम:।

वंशलक्ष्मीर्जयश्रीश्च यूनैते विधुरोद्धृते ॥ ....२०
श्री सिंहराजरहिता किल चिंतयंती भीतेव संप्रति विभननु को ममेति । येनोच्छ बाहुयुगले चिरसन्निवासं

L-19 :संधीरितेति ददता निज [*रा]ज्य लक्ष्मी: ।। ....२१

येन दुष्ट दमनेन सर्वत: साधिता खिल मही स्वबाहुभि: ।
लीलेयेव वशवर्तिनी कृता किंकरीव निज पादयोस्तले ॥ .....२२
यस्य चारु चरितं सतां सदा श्रृण्वतां जगति कीर्तितं जनै: ।

L-20:दृष्टिजातघनहेमकं[*चुका] जायते तनुरलं

मुहुर्म्मुहु: ॥....२३
मुक्ताहारै: सुतीव्रै: प्रतरलतुरगैश्चारु वस्त्रैश्च शस्त्रै:
कर्पूरे: पूगपूरैर्म्मलयतरुवरैर्हेमभारैरपारै:।
उद्यदान: समानस्थलकुलातिरिभिर्द्दन्तिवारै: सदारै:

L-21:निर्व्याजै: प्राति[*रम्यैर्बह] भिरितिभृतै:

प्राहृतैर्य: सिषेवे ॥....२४
छत्रधारा वरग्रामो द्वितीय: शंकराणक: ।
तेनेमौ हर्षनाथाय स्वभक्त्या दत्तौ सशासनौ ॥ ....२५
श्रीमददुर्लभे राजेन योनुजेन विभुषित:।
लक्ष्मणेनेव काकुस्थो विष्णुनेव हलायुध: ।।....२६

L-22:*महाराजावली चासौ शंभुभक्तिगुणोदया ।

श्री हर्ष:कुलदेवोअस्यास्तस्मात् दिव्य: कुलक्रम: ॥ ....२७
अनन्त गोचरे श्रीमान पंडितश्चोतरेश्वर: ।
पंचार्थलाकुलाम्याने विश्वरूपोअभवद्गुरु: ॥ ....२८

L-23:दीक्षेष्टतमलब्ध: सविस्फ़ुर[*न्मंत्रपे]वल: ।

प्रशस्ताख्योअभवच्छिष्यस्तस्य पाशुपत: कृती ॥.... २९
भुवि रक्तोभवतस्य शिष्योद्वि नामतो अल्लट: ।
वार्गाटिकान्वयोद्भूतसद्दिप्रकुलसंभव: ।.... ३०
हर्षस्यासन्नतो ग्राम: प्रसिद्धो राणपल्लिका

L-24:सांसारिककुलान्नावस्ततो यस्य विनि[:स्टति:]* ....३१

अ]थाटच्छद्मना नंदी शिवासक्तस्थितिक्रम:।
श्रीहर्षाराधने नूनं स्वयं मर्त्यमवातरत ।।....३२
आजन्मब्रह्मचारी दिगमलवसन: संयतात्मा तपस्वी

L-25:आसीद्दो लब्धजन्मा नवतरवपुषां[सत्तम:*] श्रीसुवत्सु

स्तेनेदं धर्म्मविते: सुघटितविकटं कारितं हर्षहर्म्म्यम ।।....३३
अस्मिंश्चण्डांकशैले गगनपथिलिहोतुंगश्टंगेअप्रमेयं
हर्म्म्यं श्रीहर्षनामप्रथितपशुपते:सद्दिमानोपमानम् ।

L-26:भूषासद्भोगयुक्तं वहसुरभवनं कारितं येन[रम्यं*]

नासाध्यं किंचिदस्ति स्फ़ुटमिति वपुषोनि:स्प्टहाणांकवीनाम् ....३४
आसीनैष्ठिकरूपो यो दीप्तपाशुपतव्रत:।
ऐधतोग्रतपोअजातपुण्यापुण्यमलत्रय: ।।....३५

L-27:भवद्योतोअभवच्छिव्य: संदीपितगु[ण्-र्म्महान्*] ।। ....३६

गुरोराज्ञामयं प्राप्य प्रतिष्ठासो: शिवालयम्
यथाप्रारब्धकार्याणामंगीकृतहरो अभवत ।।....३७
पुरस्तात्त्वर्श्वितस्याधस्त्रितयं येन धारितम् ।
सतपोवाटिकं दिव्यमाप्रपा घटितोपलै: ।।....३८
सदैव नद्धमानेन तत्स्थेन स्वादुवारिणा ।

L-28:वाटिकासेच[नं* कृत्यं तत्]प्रपाहरणन्तथा ।।....३९

सुपुव्पैरर्च्चनं शंभो: पय:पानं गवामपि ।
कार्यद्दयमिदं सारेणाश्रितं पुण्यकांक्षिणाम् ।।....४०
दिगंबरजठाभष्म तथाच त्रिपुरंतपे ।
निष्ठावृत्ति: कर: पात्रं यस्यैतानि परिग्रह: ।।....४१

L-29:शिवभवनपु[रस्ता*द्दार्यपा]रं यदासीत्

तदखिलमुपलोधै: पूरयित्वा गदेलम्
समतलसुखगम्यं प्रांगणं तेन कांतं
मास्टणतरशिलाभि: कारितं बंधयित्वा ।। ....४२
वाररुद्रसुत: ख्यातः सूत्रधारो[अभवद्धि]स:

L-30:विश्वकर्मेव सर्व्वज्ञो वास्तुविद्या[विशारद:*] ....४३

येन निर्म्मितमिदं मनोहरं शंकरस्य भवनं समंडपम् ।
पूर्व्वदेवगयचारुतोरणं खगखंडमिव वेधसा स्वयम् ।।....४४
गंगेश्वरभवने का चंडिकथउरुकसुतेन भक्तेन ।
अक्रियतेद्धा सुगमा प्रशस्तिरिह धीरनागेन ।।....४५


यावल्लक्ष्मीमुरारेणरसि किल भुवि द्योतते अर्क्कोअपि भं च ।
गायत्री यावदास्ते सततमुपनता प्रेयसी ब्राह्मणोने ।
अर्क्के लक्ष्माहारमुद्दत्प्रतपतु भवनं हर्षदेवस्य तावत् ।।....४६

L-32:ता[*वत्कालग]त: शंभु: कथं कालस्य गोचर: ।

हर्म्म्यनिर्म्माणकालस्तु यथादृष्टो निबध्यते ।।
संवत १०१८ आषाढ सुदि १३
भी प्राष्टति द्दयी क्कय ।....४७
जाते अब्दानां सहस्रे द्विगुणनवयुते सिंहराशौ गते अर्क्को

L-33:शुभ्रा यासीत्तृ[तीया*]शुभकरसहिता सोमवारेण तस्याम् ।

आदिष्ट: शंभुनासौ [निजवि]मलपदं दित्सुना शुद्धसत्त्वं
लब्धवारेभेह सर्व्वं शिवभवनमभिप्रस्थितोद्यल्लयस्य ।।
स्वस्ति संवत १०३० आषाध सुदि १५ निबद्धं यथालब्धशा

L-34:समनं[तर*]मत्रावलिख्यते ।

महाराजाधिराजश्रीसिंहराज: स्वभोगैरनद्ध यूकद्दादशके
सिंहप्रौष्ठं । तथा पट्टबड़क विषये च एकलक-कृशानूकूप-उरुसर: कोह विषये

L-35: कशहपल्लिकामेवं ग्रामांश्चतुरश्चंद्रांक-

पुण्ये अहनि श्रीमत्पुष्करतीर्थं स्मृत्वा स्वपनदेहविलेपनोपहारधूपदीपपर्व्वयात्रोत्सवार्थमाशशांक- तपनार्णवस्थितेर्यावच्छास नत्वने प्रददौ ।

L-36: तथैतदभ्राता श्रीवत्सराज: स्वभोगावाप्तं जय[लब्ध*]ये

कर्द्दमखातग्राममदाच्छासनेन |तथा श्रीविग्रराजे शासनदत्तग्रामद्दयमुपरिलिखितमास| तथा श्री-
सिंहराजात्मजौ श्रीचंद्रराजश्रीगोविन्दराजौ स्वभोगा-

L-37:वाप्तपट्टबड़कविषयोदर्ककथनं [कृत्व*]ा संख्यान-

स्वहस्तांकितशास नौ गृ[हीत उ]दके
पाटकद्दयपल्लिकाग्रामौ भक्तया वितेरतु:।
श्रीसिंहराजीयदु:साध्यश्रीधंधुक: खड़्गकूपविषये स्वभुज्यमान मयूरपुरग्रामम स्वाम्यनुमत: प्रदत्तवान्

L-38:[*तथा युवरा]ज: श्रीजयश्रीराज

भक्तया हर्षदेवाय शासनेन दत्तवान् ।
तथा समस्तं श्रीहर्म्महतेश्या शाकंभर्या लवणकूटक प्रतिविंशा अपहर्षकं दत्तं ।

L-39:तथोत्तरापथीयस्ताविकाना[न्म्या श्री*]हर्षकं प्रति प्रेम्न

एको दत:। पुण्यात्मभिर्दत्तानि देवभुज्यमानक्षेत्राणि पश्यामेहासुरिकायां पिप्पलवालिकाछत्रं
निंबटिकाट्वांठउदर्भटिकाछत्रं चारुपल्लिकायां

L-40:नाटत्रयं हर्षेलाटत्सेतुं[*]गवर्णंदेभीकांकछत्रं तथात्वेव

द्दिह लिकानं विसोमकवृहदलमिति ।....४८
सक्तानेतान्भाविनो भूमिपालन् भूयो भूयो याचते रामभद्र: ।
सामान्योअयं धर्म्मसेतुर्न्नृपाणां काले काले पालनोयो भवद्भि: ।। ....४९
Harshagiri Inscription of Chahamanas 961-973 CE [2]

Verse 1-12

Verse-1.—To him who has effected the destruction of all obstacles—who is worshipped by the celestial gods,—who is to be adored even by Siva herself [his female counterpart or energy],—whose birth is from abstract essence alone,—the giver of religious devotion, of liberation from worldly things, and perfection in what is of paramount and eternal concernment,—to him I reverently bow, the granter of petitions, the ever-blessed Siva.

Verse-2.—May lie who is thus praised even by the pure gods, their minds disturbed by his awful power the destroyer of the demon Tripura, protect you !

Verse-3.—He at whose dancing the earth bows, moved by the rapid tread of his feet, though fixed to the hood of her supporting serpent, and even the whole system of the world, though joined with its chief guardians, the lords of the several regions of space, together with the sun and moon, is displaced—he, under the name of Sri Harsha, conquers all, the bestower of compassion on the universe.

Verse-4.—" The three-forked spear in thy left hand, the extended axe in thy right; thy head-dress the celestial Ganga herself; a serpent the necklace about thy blue throat; never was so wondrous vesture as thine, O three-eyed one, seen any where by me." May Hara, who smiling was thus addressed sportively by his fair consort Gauri, protect you!

Verse-5.—May the river of heaven, fair as the moon, which, agitated by rains, pervades with her masses of waters in thousands of lines of waves the region of the sun and planets, looking down even upon the rapidly-flowing seas,—may she grant your petition, bearing gentle sport, cricket-like, on the crest of the moon-crowned Siva, fast bound with its shining horrid ornament [of clotted hair (Jata].

Verse-6.—May he, by whose will the movable universe with its varied expanse of worlds, mountains, rivers, islands and oceans, all long before made internally, yet germinant with adoration, with its lords, the Pramathis [attendant deities of Siva], the most excellent Munies, the Yaties, and other immortals ;—he. by whose will and active power, this universe, while yet non-existent, is produced, and by whom it is destroyed; may he, even Harsha-deva, the incomparable architect in the fabrication of the worlds, protect you!

Verse-7.—May Siva, crowned with the moon, the foe of Tripura,—who after consuming that demon with his fiery darts, when with joy springing thence, he was adored by the glad troops of liberated gods, Indra and the rest, on this very mountain, was thence called Harsha or Joy, the name both of this mountain peak, and of the country [adjacent], for the benefit of Bharata [or India universally],—may he be yours in the form of his phallic emblem, and with bis mansion doubled.

Verse-8.—Whose form, essentially illumined with the fiery light of the immense conflagration, that oft issues from the evil glance of his eye, audibly flashing, darkening even the bow of heaven with the multiplied dense smoke of trees consumed by that long-standing flame,—and which, uttering a tremendous sound at the commencement of the fiery onset, destroyed even him of the incomparable arrows [Cama or Cupid], and thus became a subject of doubt to the gods beholding it, whether his great periodical destruction of the universe was not perpetually repeated, even in this tranquil time.

Verse-9.—May this sacred mountain, possessed of the glory of the joy [above-mentioned], and thence called Harsha, on which thus sat the eternal Sambhu, destroyer of Tripura, with the breeze of heaven on his head, protect you!

A hero speaks the following verse.

Verse-10.—" May this mountain protect you, with pure and varied splendour resting on its peak as of reddened gold, which the beauty—ah, what, is not that beauty ?—of its pleasant gardens, brings delightfully to my ravished bodily sense! Yet has this mount of Siva no other transcendent and incomparable felicity, but this, that the eternal Sambuu sat there: that is the paramount cause of its loveliness."

Verse-11.—To that mountain on which the Eight-formed one, the Eternal endued with eight infinite perfections, chose to sit,—no one of equal excellence exists in the world.

XVerse-12.—This temple of the blessed Harsha-Deva, splendid by reason of its complement of open chapels around, whose structure is embellished with eggs of gold, delightful for the sweet yellow flowers appended to it, formed into garlands gathered for morning offerings; a temple vying in loftiness with the peak of Meru itself; adorned with a door and sacred porch, on which is a finely wrought effigy of the bull of Siva; distinguished, moreover, as the frequent resort of various celestial songsters —surpasses all others.

Verse 13-30

Verse-13.—The first prince was celebrated by the name of Guvaka I, the blessed, of the Chahumana (or Chauhan) family, and obtained heroic eminency amidst the multitude of kings in the several worlds, from the infernal world of the blessed Nagas upward : the earthly effigy of whose glory shines forth doubly in this excellent house erected to Harsha-Deva, and is celebrated by the most excellent of beings.

Verse-14.—His son was Chandra Raja, the blessed, of glory pure as the sky, arrayed in fervid splendour. And his son was again a splendid king, named like the first, Guvaka II. From him sprung Chandana, the blessed, inspiring terror into kings, of rays which [like the sun's] produced showers, who, having once without repetition proudly smitten his foes in the fearful onset of war, obtained glory by this act, and was worthily possessed of the full felicity of conquest.

Verse-15.—Then came his son, the great king, the fortunate Vakpati, supremely glorious, perpetually victorious in war, foremost in battle.

Verse-16.—By whom, possessing a fierce army that loosed the reins altogether from their coursers, even Tantrapala, the possessor of conquered regions from the Naga that bears the whole earth, the well-pleased governor of earth with its innumerable regions,—even he, having his elephant terrified and driven into a lake by the sounding cymbals of the hostile war-elephants, was forced to wander through various countries, overwhelmed with the shame of defeat.

A hero speaks the following verse.

Verse-17.—The son of this fortunate king, Vakpati, was the incomparable Sinharaja, who is sung, in this terrestrial world, as equal to the great Harischandra, whose fame was spotless in the surpassing excellency both of liberality and dominion, and whose justice was resplendent; by whom money procured without deceit was spent upon Kara (or Siva) for this sacred temple.

Verse-18.—By whom was placed on the top of the house of Siva, his own appropriate emblem, the golden figure of a full moon, and also his eight proper forms.

Verse-19.—By whom,—when he had slain Salavana ), the leader of the Tomars , proud of the command of armies,— the kings of men in every direction were annihilated in war through his victorious might, and many also, who had opposed his messengers, were detained in a capacious prison of stone :—yet for the liberation of this very king (Sinharaja) a conqueror of the world of the race of Raghu voluntarily interposed.

Verse-20.—This was the fortunate Vigraharaja, resembling Vasava, [or Indra], when he had performed his adoration [on this same mountain, to the same deity]; by this young prince were the wealth of the race, and the prosperity of victory, both rescued from destruction.

Verse-21.—[For he it was] by whom, when the wealth of the kingdom, deprived of [her husband] Sinharaja, inquired, as in terror, " Who now will be my Lord ?" She was peacefully answered—" Dwell thou in my two arms :"—thus affording her a lasting resting-place.

Verse-22.—By whom also, having effected the conquest of his enemies, the whole earth on every side being overcome, as in sport, with his mighty arms, was, as a servant beneath his feet, subjected to his will.

Verse-23.—Whose glorious exploits, when good men hear perpetually celebrated by Mankind through the world, their body becomes repeatedly encompassed as with a panoply of solid gold, arising from their extreme delight.

Verse-24.—Who worshipped Sri Harsha with strings of pearls without end; with wanton steeds, and gorgeous garments and weapons; with camphor, with cakes mixed with the fruit of the Areca; with the best sandal-wood of Malabar; with immense ingots of gold; with conspicuous gifts composed of the birds of every country and species, of herds of elephants with their mates; gifts without deceit, delightful and most numerous, brought hither by his liege servants.

Verse-25.—By him, through his exemplary devotion, two villages were presented with suitable deeds of gift to the deity called Harsha, the best of these called Chhatradhārā, the second Sankarānaka.

Verse-26.—Who also was adorned by his younger brother, the fortunate prince Durlabha, even as was Rama by Laxmana, and Balarama by Vishnu, [i. e. by Krishna].

Verse-27.—This series of great kings had the origin of all their other virtues in devotion to Sambhu [or Siva]. Sri Harsha was the tutelary god of their race ; hence was their genealogy illustrious.

Verse-28.—The spiritual teacher Visva-rupa was a happy and learned master of replies, on an infinite variety of subjects, according to the received discipline of the Pancharthala tribe of brahmans.

Verse-29.—His disciple was called Prasasta; who had attained the choicest mystic formulie, and was skilled in the interpretation of all that were produced to him ; an accomplished devotee of Siva, lord of beings.

Verse-30.—His disciple, twice received as such, was one attached to the earth, named Allata, sprang from a holy family of brahmans of the Vargatika tribe;

Verse 31-40

Verse-31.—Whose origin was from the place which is known as a village in the neighbourhood of Harsha, called Rana-pallika, the received discipline of which is that of the worldly tribe.

Verse-32.—Then came in disguise Nandi, he whose rank among the votaries of Siva is most eminent. He of his own accord descended to the state of mortality for the worship of Sri Harsha.

Verse-33.—A brahmanical student from his birth—with mere space for his pure covering, [i.e. a pure gymnosophist], with subdued spirit, addicted to self-torturing exercises, with his excellent mind singly bent with eagerness on the worship of Sri Harsha, having forsaken the infatuation of the external world—by him thus living, having assumed birth under the name of Suvastu, the best of youthful corporeal beings,—and through his discernment of religious duty,—was this ample well-compacted temple of Harsha caused to be built.

Verse-34.—Seeing thus by whom, on this mountain, bearing the symbol of Chanda [the female energy of Siva], with its lofty peak kissing the path of heaven, an incomparable temple has been raised to that Lord of Creatures, as celebrated under the name of Sri Harsha,—a temple resembling the rapid car of the pure gods, encompassed with ornaments and excellent delights, the habitation of many immortals—it is clear, that nothing is impracticable even to the bodily power of sages who have renounced all selfish desire.

Verse-35.—Of him [Nandi or Suvastu], who was thus of the form of a Naisthika or perpetual student, a splendid devotee of Siva, and who multiplied his exercise of severe self-torment to that degree, that the triple quantity of holiness, unholiness [or passion], and defilement no longer existed within him—

Verse-36.—Of him [I say], thus similar in splendour to the great deity himself, the disciple was the eminent religions teacher Sandipita, who was likewise conformed to the eternal Siva, and endued with his splendour.

Verse-37.—This [Sandipita], having received command from his preceptor [Suvastu], who desired to consecrate this house of Siva, obtained the consent of the deity himself, Hara, to the works as they were already commenced.

Verse-38.—By whom also, in front of what was already dedicated, a third ground-floor, including a ball for self-torturing exercises, and extending as far as the place for distributing water, was splendidly covered with well-compacted stones.

Verse-39.— With the sweet water there contained, the sprinkling of this sacred ball is ever to be performed, as well as the whole of the duty attached to the watering place.

Verse-40.—For the worship of Sambhu by the offering of beautiful flowers; and also the giving of water to the cows to drink ;—these two works are alike regarded as meritorious by the choice band of men ambitious of sanctity.

Verse 41-49

Verse-41.—Ethereal vesture (i. e. nudity), clotted hair (Jata) , and ashes; also habitual adherence of mind to the destroyer of Tripura, and the hand used as the only drinking vessel—to whom these things were held dear and sacred—

Verse-42.—by that man was the ornamental area caused to be made, level and pleasant for walking, in front of the house of Siva, having for this purpose filled up with stony heaps what was before impassable water mixed with unwholesome earth, and firmly bound the whole with the smoothest stones.

Verse-43. —For that architect was the famed son of Vārarudra, all-knowing and skilled in house-building craft, even as Visvakarma.

Verse-44.—By whom was built this soul-ravishing house of Sankara (Siva),—with its chapels, and its fine portico, graced with the presence of Gaya, the holy Asura,— even as it were a fraction of heaven by the will of the Creator Vedhas [or Brahma].

Verse-45.—In the house of the Lord of Ganga, what glorious easy-flowing praise, interspersed with the histories of his consort Chandi, was uttered by the prince of learned men, the religious son of Uruka !

Verse-46.—As long as the lords of earth [i.e. the brahmans], the earth itself and sky, die river of the gods [Ganga], the lunar varying disk, and the holy occupation of the Yaties, subsist;—as long as Laxmi rests on the bosom of Mura's foe [Vishnu], or as the sun and stars shine upon the earth;—as long as Gayatri, the best beloved wife, remains most closely united with Brahma; so long may this house of Harsha-deva shine in orient light, its sign not removed from sight, when the sun is shorn of its splendour!

Verse-47.—He who subsists when even such duration has elapsed, even Shambhu the eternal, how can he be defined by time? The time, however, of the building of this his temple is consigned to writing, as now seen.

In the Samvat year 1018, in the month of Ashadha, the first division of the month, the 13th day

Verse-48.—When a thousand years, with twice nine added, were elapsed, the sun approaching the sign of Leo, on a lunar day, which was the third of the waxing moon, accompanied with a fortunate conjuncture of planets, and on a Monday— then did the builder aforesaid, being commanded by the eternal Shambhu, who desired to give an undented site and endued with essential holiness to his own sacred name,—and having obtained the site accordingly,—commence the whole work of erecting this house to Siva,—who bestows absorption on those who devoutly approach it.

L-33:Hail ! in the Samvat year 1030, in the month of Ashadha, the first division of the month, the 15th day, the deeds of conveyance, as they were severally received, are written in the following order.
L-34: The great king, the king of kings, the blessed Sinharaja, in the 12th day of the sun's mansion in the sign of Libra, attached [to this temple the village of] Sinhaprostha, with its revenues and produce, which were his own.
He likewise made over by deed of gift, as long as moon, sun, and ocean should endure, Ekalaka (Akwa ?), Krisānu-kūpa (? Kari + Sandau) and Urusara (Rewasa), in the district Patta-Badaka, together with the hamlet of
L-35: Kashahapallika (Kasli) in the Koha district) , being four villages in all, to Sri Harsha-deva, the all-sufficient protector, seated on the hill whose sign is the moon—on a holy day, remembering the sacred resort of pilgrims Pushkara, near Ajmer] for the sake of the solemn celebration of festive journies thither, accompanied with ablutions, bodily unctions, burning of incense and lamps ; [that the same may be performed by the brahmans of Harsha without lose].
L-36: Likewise, his brother, the blessed Vatsaraja, made over by deed of gift the swabhoga village of Karddamakhata (Kadma Ka Bas), whose revenues had been possessed by himself, for the purpose of obtaining victory.
Likewise, two villages (Chhatradhara & Sankaranaka) were made over with a deed of gift, by the blessed Vigraharaja, as it is written above- [See verse-25].
Likewise, the two sons of the blessed Sinharaja, i.e. the blessed Chandraraja and Govindaraja,
L-37: did religiously convey Patakaddaya (Patauda ?) and Pallika villages from svabhoga district Pattabadaka , whose revenues were possessed by themselves, with a deed of gift entirely written with their own hand, even to the prescribed formal enumeration [of name, family, date, etc], having first taken the holy water; thus having made a record to all future times.
The blessed Dhandhuka, though unconquered by the subjects of Sinharaja, did, nevertheless, by permission of his liege lord, make over the village of Mayūrapura, whose revenues were received by himself, in the district of Khadgakupa.
L-38: Likewise, the young prince, the blessed Jaya-Sri-raja, religiously bestowed on Harsha-deva, the village of Kolikupaka (Kolida), whose revenues were received by himself.
Likewise, the whole of [the villages called] Shakambhari (Sambhar), Lavanakutaka (Kochhor), Prativinsha (Parasrampura), and Apaharshaka (Palasara), were bestowed in the same manner.
L-39: Likewise, by a lady named Tāvika, one village, in a northern direction, was given through divine love to Sri-Harsha.
Let us behold likewise, here, the Villages bestowed by holy-minded personages, the revenues of which are now enjoyed by the gods Pippalavalika (Piprali), Nimbatika (Neem Ki Dhani), Twantha (Tatanwa), Udarbhatika (Udaipurwati)...
L-40: under the shade of holy trees in a beautiful hamlet ......... causeway to those who approach the sacred soil of Harsha .......a mighty force. ......... (?)

Verse-49.— Rama, the splendid, thus in treats all devout kings of the earth that are to come after him : " This common causeway of virtue and religion to princes, [viz. the endowment of temples with land] is at all times to be carefully observed by your highnesses. (?)

N. B. — 1. The star * throughout the Sanscrit slokas, denotes the commencement of the line on the stone, the number of which is placed in the opposite margin. 2. The brackets denote the spaces where the stone is broken or defaced. Whatever letters or words are found between these are restored by conjecture.

Places mentioned in Harsha inscription

The Harsha inscription tells us names of villages which were donated by nearby Chauhan rulers or chieftains from their controlled area to the temple of Harshadeva. It gives name of donor, which include Sinharaja, his brothers and and his two sons, Vigraharaja and his two wives, Sākā-baḍī and Tāvikā. [3] The names of places around Sikar[4] mentioned in inscription with their present names are:

Other villages mentioned:

The ruins of the place indicate its antiquity. Local tradition reveals that Harshanatha village in ancient times was a well developed township surrounded by a wall. A hindi poem reveals as under[6]:

जगमालपुरा हर्ष नगरी,
बोम तालाब छतरी,
एक बाजार मंडी गुदड़ी,

From one other source we get following poem prevalent in the area:[7]:

जगमालपुरा हर्षनगरी,
बीमै हाठ हजार मढ़ै गुदड़ी,
बमै तालाब बड़ी छतरी ।

It is said that in space between he big tank of Harsh and Jagmalpura tomb was a market place. There were 900 wells. The old city was spread over about 38 miles and constituted of four villages, namely

  • Katrathal, which was Katala Bazar,
  • Kasali which was founded by Kasania people,
  • Bajor which was market and
  • Jagmalpura which was a weekly market place or gudari. A river named Chhatradhara flowed through the town and drained water in to Rewasa lake. [8]

The architect of temple construction was Virabhadra's son Chandashiva.[9] The inscription names a brahman Suvastu, who motivated Vigraharaja to construct temple at Harsha. It is said that this brahman belonged to a nearby village Ranoli, earlier known as Rana-palika or Ranapadika. Sandeep, son of Suvastu further improved and built roads around the teple site. The architect of temple was son of famous Vararudra, who was probably from one of the villages donated for maintainance of the temple. [10]

Notes by Wiki editor

Map showing Uruk

1. Uruka (उरुक) - The verse-45 (L-30) tells that in the house of the Lord of Ganga, what glorious easy-flowing praise, interspersed with the histories of his consort Chandi, was uttered by the prince of learned men, the religious son of Uruka !

What does Uruka stand for in this verse ?

Bhim Singh Dahiya has mentioned while discussing the Manda empire that archaeological findings show that the name of these people was Manda. It were the Mandas who seem to be included in the term Umman-Mandas. We find that their last king was overthrown by Utukhegal, the Vrik. These Vrikas were known, at that period as Warkas or Uruks and they now form an important clan of the Jats. (See - Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats, p.295)

Bhim Singh Dahiya discussing the clan of Harshavardhana writes: Our conclusion, therefore, is that Harshavardhana was from the Varika clan and not from Bains clan as Cunningham and Carlleyle make out. (See - Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Harsha Vardhana : Linkage and Identity, p.212).

This indicates that the Harshadeva mentioned as kuladeva of the Chauhans in verse 27 of the inscription (श्री हर्षकुलदेवोस्या स्तस्मात् दिव्य कुल क्रम: ॥ २७) is probably the Harshavardhana, a Virk Jat. Harshavardhana is also known as Harsha Deva.

Uruk (उरुक) is also considered at times to be a variant of Uluk (Ulūka:उलूक), Son of Kitava, who was king of a country and people of the same name in Mahabharata. He was an ally of the Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the Pandavas. He has been mentioned in various Parvas of Mahabharata. This relates to the history of Aulakh or Ola.

2. Tripura (त्रिपुर) - Tripura is mentioned in verses II, VII, IX, XLI in the inscription. In mythology, Tripura (meaning three cities, in Sanskrit) was constructed by the great Sura architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by god Tripurantaka, an aspect of Shiva. The three cities were made of iron, silver and gold and were located on earth, in the sky and in heaven, respectively.

3. Kara (कारा) - Kara is mentioned as a name of Shiva in verse XVII in the inscription. Kara is a Jat clan found in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh.

4. Salavana (सलवण) - The sanskrit text mentions Salavana (सलवण) as a Tomar hero who was killed by Sinha-raja in verse XIX. English translation writes as Lavana which needs correction. We find in the list of Jat clans Salyan (साल्याण) as gotra of Jats found in District Muzaffarnagar in UP.

5. Raghuvansi (रघुवंशी) - Vigraha-raja is said to have come from Raghukula for the liberation of Sinha-raja of Chauhan lineage (Verse-XIX). Raghuvansi is a Jat clan found in Meerut district in Uttar Pradesh and Jaipur district in Rajasthan. They are descendants of Maharaja Raghu (रघु).

6. Vasava - The verse XX writes the fortunate Vigraha-raja, resembles Vasava. Vasava is origin of Jat Clan Waswan or Baswan found in Uttar Pradesh.

7. Durlabha-raja - The verse XXVI tells that Vigraha-raja was adorned by his younger brother, the fortunate prince Durlabha.

8. Rana-pallika - The spiritual teacher Visva-rupa's disciple Allata was Vargatika brahman who belonged to Rana-pallika village in neighbourhood of Harsha. Rana-pallika is identified as present Ranoli village.

9. Period of completion of temple - The XLVII tells us the time of the completion of building of this temple. It was from Ashadha shukla 13, Samvat 1018 to Ashadha shukla 15, Samvat 1030.

10. Dhandhuka (धंधुक) - It is not clear about Dhandhuka mentioned in the inscription. Verse XLVIII writes that the blessed Dhandhuka, though unconquered by the subjects of Sinha-raja, did, nevertheless, by permission of his liege lord, make over the village of Mayūra-pura, whose revenues were received by himself, in the district of Khadga-kūpa. We find a Jat clan named Dhandhu, who live in Mandsaur and Ratlam districts in Madhya Pradesh. Mayūra-pura may be identified with Mordoonga in Danta Ramgarh tahsil. Khadga-kūpa may be Khandela.

11. Widow remarriage - In verse-XXI wife of Sinha-raja was deprived of her husband and asked, " Who now will be my Lord ?". Vigraha-raja accepted her in his arms. Here we see widow remarriage. This is an old Jat tradition, which separates Jats from Rajputs. This prince Vigraha-raja is most probably an ancestor or near relative who fought with Muslim invaders in India.

12. Verse-X - Nothing is told respecting the Sura, or Hero, who is the speaker of the flowery verse in Verse-X.

13. Verse XIII. This celebrated family is here distinctly called चाहमान, but चाहवान, or Chahuvana, in the monuments quoted by Wilson, whence the Hindi term Chowhan, as used by Colonel Tod in his great work on Rajasthan. Allowing 30 years, which is perhaps not too much, for each descent from the father to his first-born son, the following will be the estimated dates of accession in this branch of the family.

Guvaka I, .....became king probably about 800 AD
Chandra Ra'ja,....... 830 AD
Guvaka II,...........860 AD
Chandana, .........890 AD
Vakpati, (conqueror of Tantrapala),.......... 920 AD
Sinha Raja, ........930 AD
And his successor (not by natural descent,)
Vigraha Raja* .........certainly about 968 AD
so as to satisfy the two dates of the inscription. This prince is most probably an ancestor or near relative who fought with Muslim invaders in India.

14. Allata (?) - There is one Allata (951 AD) in Guhil dynasty of Mewar who married Huna king's daughter Hariyadevi, who founded Harshapura village. See Ahar Udaipur Inscription of 977 AD, Saraneshwara Temple Inscription of 953 AD, English translation of Harsha Inscription of 961 AD

15. Vargatika - Verse-30: Allata, sprang from a holy family of brahmans of the Vargatika tribe ?; Is it related with Varka ?

See also


  1. Some Unpublished Sculpture from Harshagiri
  2. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 4 By Asiatic Society of Bengal, pp.361-385
  3. Sikar Ki Kahani, Captain Webb Ki Jubani, 2009, p. 21
  4. Sikar Ki Kahani, Captain Webb Ki Jubani, 2009, p. 79
  5. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan,p.102
  6. Sikar Ki Kahani, Captain Webb Ki Jubani, 2009, pp. 25,80
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.1011
  8. Sikar Ki Kahani, Captain Webb Ki Jubani, 2009, pp. 25, 80
  9. वीरभद्र सुत: ख्यात: सूत्रधारो प्रचण्डशिव: विश्वकर्मेव सर्वज्ञो वास्तु विद्या विशारद:।। - हर्ष शिलालेख
  10. Sikar Ki Kahani, Captain Webb Ki Jubani, 2009, p. 79