Jat history prior to 1669

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

The Jat history prior to 1669, according to the historian Qanungo, had little scope for their lawless activity under the strong governments of the Surs and the Mughals down to the accession of Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707). They remained quite till the religious persecution of that Emperor and the misrule of the provincial viceroys goaded them into rebellion.[1]

After the enchanted sleep of a century, administered successively by the hypnotic spell of Akbar, the genial indifference of Jahangir, and the mild patting of Shah Jahan, Hindu India woke to life again in second half of the seventeenth century, being rudely shaken by the pious activity of the saintly Emperor Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707). Accustomed to look upon the occupant of the throne of Delhi, though of an alien faith, as th e shadow of God on earth, the awakened Hindus found to their surprise and sorrow that the impartial ruler of Hindustan had changed into a militant missionary of Islam.[2]


We discuss in this article about the position of Jats, Jat rulers, distribution and migration of Jats and their social conditions in India and Pakistan in the period prior to the rule of Aurangzeb(1658 - 1707). The traditional accounts of the Jats record that on many occasions the Sarva Khap Panchayat of the Jats and others met to express its deep resentment against the administrative oppression, unjust restrictions and humiliating exactions on ground of religious discrimination.

The evidences of anthropometry, linguistics, customs and institutions put together lead us to surmise that in all likelihood the Jats are the progeny of the famous republican people mainly of the Vedic stock – of the ancient Sind and Punjab. [3], [4], [5]

We do not have the means to form an accurate and comprehensive view of Jats in the pre-Aurangzeb period, from the early medieval times to commencement of the reign of Aurangzeb when their brethren of Mathura and Bharatpur step by step rose to political prominence. Our sources contain incidental and meager information about the Jats. [6]

Jat history from Jat's angle

It needs no stress that the mind of the people is better and more correctly revealed by their own writings. In case of the Jat people who generally do not have a respectable tradition of history writing, the paucity of any systematic and complete history from their side causes difficulties to a student of their history. The non-Jat sources do provide facts about the Jat activities. The sources consulted include such as Majmal-ut-Tawarikh, Tabkai-i-Akbari, Kamil-ut-Tawarikh, Tarikh-us-Subuktigin, Malfuzat-i-Timuri,Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi etc.

Jats in Sindh

The legendry reference about the Jats and Meds in Majmal-ut-Tawarikh, the first Persian account of the 11th century (1026), [7] involving the mythological figures can not be regarded as a historical fact but would imply that the people designated as Jats were present in Sind at the time of war of Mahabharata. [8]

Jats and Meds have been the oldest occupants of Sind. The first Persian account of the 11th century Mujmat ut-Tawarikh (1026), originally an ancient work in Sanskrit, mentions Jats and Meds as the ancient tribe of Sind and calls them the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. [9][10]The Ghaznavid poet, Farrukhi calls the Jats (Zatt in Arabic) as the Indian race.[11] These Arabic/Persian accounts find support from the early fifth century inscription which documented the Indianized names of the Jat rulers, [12] such as Raja Jit-Jit Salindra-Devangi-Sumbooka-Degali-Vira Narindra- Vira Chandra and Sali Chandra. Furthermore, the Mujmat ut-Tawarikh also mentions the Indianized name of one of their chiefs of the Jats in remote ancient time as Judrat. [13][10]These textual references further strengthened the view of O'Brien, who opines that the names and traditions of certain Jat tribes seem to connect them more closely with Hindustan. [14]

According to Dr. Raza, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [10]Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode.[15] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab.[16] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[10]Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan.[17]

Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran.[18] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region.[19] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[10][20]

Thakur Deshraj mentions about the Buddhist Mauryan Jats rulers’ Rai Dynasty. He says that Rai was their title and their capital was at Aror which used to lie on the banks of the Indus River. Rai Meharsan II had a war with Badshah Nimroz of Iran in which he was killed. After him Rai Sahasi II became the king. When Rai Sahasi II fell ill, he called his minister to see the letters. The minister sent his munshi Chach for this purpose. The wisdom of Chach influenced the king and he appointed Chach to look after the palace. This way he got free entry into the palace. Chach developed illegal relations with the queen Suhanadi. Chach conspired with the Rani Suhanadi and killed Raja Sahsi Rai II and married with the queen and became ruler of Sindh starting a line of Brahmin ruler ship. [21]


Chachnama gives us comparative detailed information about the Jats of lower Sind (especially of Brahmanabad) in relation to Rai Chach and Muhamad bin Qasim. It says that after the subjugation of the fort of Brahmanabad Rai Chach humiliated the Jats and the Lohanas and punished their chiefs. He imposed stern and disgraceful regulations on them. [22], [23]

Chachnama does not specify the causes of this unusual treatment but it is not difficult to surmise them. Resentful of loss of their state, external interference, and sensitive to autocracy the self-governing Jats have, from earliest times, mostly showed an instinctive attachment to democratic ways.[24], [25], [26] They were indifferent to the rigidity and exclusiveness in socio-religious structure and generally had a natural apathy to the monarchial form of the government, facts which gradually came to the forefront in the Hindu society under the hegemony of the Gupta Kings and thereafter. [27], [28], [29] In such a state of affairs, Chach, a high caste Brahman might have harboured a feeling of abhorrence for the defiant unorthodox Jats. ], [30]

We have a positive knowledge about the prevalence of Buddhism at that period in the Indus Valley, [M.Habib, “The Arab Conquest of Sind”, Islamic Culture Jan,1929], in which the Jats formed the bulk of the population. Hence it is not unlikely, that the Jats had definite leanings towards Buddhism, which was more agreeable to their ways and practices, which are reflected in the book by by Dr. Dharma Kirti, a modern Buddhist. [31] , [32]

It is also likely that the years long [33] stubborn resistance by Jats and others to Chach during the latter’s siege of Brahmanabad provided him the immediate provocation for adopting the repressive measures. [34]

Chachnama refers to the Jats again at the time of Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion of Sind. Following a query from the conqueror about the position of the Jats under Chach and Dahir, Sisakar, the minister of the fallen King, apprised him of the restrictions imposed upon them. The minister added that it was incumbent upon them to supply escorts and conduct parties and serve as guides. If any injury befell a person on the road they had to answer for it. The minister went on that these people have the disposition of savages and always rebelled against their sovereign....Having heard this, Qasim retained the same regulations against the Jats [35] of the eastern areas but not against those of western, who probably as mercenaries, had joined the invader against the oppressive Dahir. [36], [37]

Kamil-ut-Tawarikh notices the Jats seizing upon the roads of Hajar and plundering the corn of Kaskar. They had planted posts in all directions towards the desert. At the orders of the reigning Khalifa, Alif bin Isa marched against them (219 A.H. – 834 AD). He was busy suppressing their chief Muhammad bin Usman for seven months. After killing many of the Jats, Ajif is said to have carried twenty seven thousand of them (including women and children) to Baghdad. [38], [39]

Fatuh-ul-Buldan alludes to the Jats having sway over the territory of Kikan. Amran, the governor of [[Sind], (sometimes after 221 A.H. – 836 AD) attacked and subjugated them. [40], [41]

Tabkai-i-Akbari writes that Mahmud of Ghazni undertook his seventeenth expedition in 417 A.H. against the Jats (of the region of the Jud hills) who had molested his army on its return from Somnath. Mahmud is said to have organized a fleet of 1400 boats, while Jats could gather 4000 boats (or 8000 according to some). A naval fight ensued between the two at Multan, in which the Jats were drowned. The rest were slain. [42]

Tarikh-us-Subuktigin describes that two or three thousand mounted Jats attacked the Ghazanvide commander Tilak (425 A.H. – 1034 AD) “chiefly for the purpose of seizing his property and money”, when he was perusing the rebel, Ahmad Nialtigin in the lower Punjab. They carried away his son and subsequently killed Ahmad also. The Jats returned his son and the head of the deceased only after getting a portion of the promised reward. [43], [44]

Taj-ul-Maasir refers to the rising of the Jats of Haryana (588 A.H. 1192 AD) under their leader Jatwan, following the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Jatwan besieged the Muslim garrison at Hansi. Hearing about it, Qutb-ud-Din hurriedly moved against the Jats. Jatwan raised the siege to confront Qutb-ud-Din, but was beaten after a sanguinary fight. We are told that in samvat 1252 (1195 AD) a meeting of Sarva Khap Panchayat (Federal clan council of the Jats and other kindred people of Upper Doab, Haryana and neighbourng areas) was held in a forest between the villages of Bhoju and Banera under the chairmanship of Rao Vijay Rao of the village, Sisauli. This meeting decided among others to raise a big militia “to defend the Sarva Khap area against a suspected attack by Muhammad Ghori and to protect the area from loot and plunder. [45], [46], [47]

The Jats rose again when Timur invaded India. Malfuzat-i-Timuri testifies to his satisfaction over killing 2000 Jats of village Tohna near Sarsuti. He found them “demon like”, “robust”, “marauding” and “as numerous as ants, and locusts”. [48], [49] We learn that in order to hold deliberations over the problem of his invasion, a Sarva Khap Panchayat meeting was held in samvat 1455 (1338 AD) in forest of Chugama under the president ship of Dev Pal Rana. It passed the resolutions that they should “vacate the villages, sending the children and women to the forests and that the able-bodied persons should take up arms and destroy the army of Timur. [50], [51] The Panchayat militia harassed the forces of Timur, while they were advancing from Meerut towards Haridwar. In the process the former lost 6000 men. [52], [53]

Another invader Babar found the Jats inhabiting a tract between Mil-ab and Bhera mountains. He remarks:

“If one goes into Hindustan the Jats and Gujars always pour down in countlesss hordes from hill and plain for loot in bullock and buffalo…When we reached Sialkot, they fell in tumult on poor and needy folks who were coming out of the town to our camp, and stripped them bare. I had the silly thieves sought for, and ordered two or three of them cur to pieces”. [54], [55]

It is said that in response of Rana Sanga’s call a Jat militia of 5000 from the upper Doab and another from the Brij participated in the battle of Sikari against Babar. [56], [57]

Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi speaks of one redoubted Jat chief named Fateh Khan who ravaged the country of Lakhi Jungle and the road from Lahore to Panipat. Haibat Khan, the governor of the Punjab, crushed Fateh Khan and his associates. [58], [59]


The Jats late opposed, to their worth, Nadir shah (at Karnal) and Ahmad Shah Abdali (at Manupur). These examples suffice to show their tendency of opposing the foreign invaders. K.R.Kanungo rightly remarks:

"They (the Jats) have shown in all times – whether against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, or against Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali – the same propensity to fall upon the rear of a retreating army undeterred by the heaviest odds, or the terror-inspiring fame of great conquerors. When encountered they showed the same obstinate and steady courage unmindful of the carnage on the field or of the miseries that were in store for them after defeat". [60], [61]

The traditional accounts of the Jats record that on many occasions the Sarva Khap Panchayat of the Jats and others met to express its deep resentment against the administrative oppression, unjust restrictions and humiliating exactions on ground of religious discrimination. In some cases they reportedly resolved to oppose the Muslim administration in case the oppressive measures were not withdrawn. [ Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.), 6,8-9,12,14], [62]

Balhara rule in sindh

According to Thakur Deshraj, the Balhara Jats were the rulers in Sindh from 8th century to 10th century. In 710 AD Muhammad bin Qasim occupied Sindh. Sindhu River had made them good navigators. They had fight with Alexander the great by boats. Brahman Raja Dahir was the ruler of Sindh at that time. Other Jat states in Sindh were not powerful; they were also eliminated by the year 800 AD. This was the early period of Balhara Jat rulers in Sindh. Balharas ruled the area, which can be remembered as Bal Division. The area from Khambhat to Simari was under their rule and Manafir was their capital. Manafir was probably Mandore or Mandwagarh. It is likely that after nagas it was ruled by Balharas. The rule transferred from Balharas to Mauryas to Pawars to Chauhans to Parihars to Rathores.[63]


Sir Henry Elliot has mentioned that after defeat of Jat Raja Sahasi Rai II, Raja Matta of Shivistan attacked Alore (the capital of Chach) with brother of Raja of Kannauj and his army. The Jat Raja Ranmal was the ruler of Kannauj at that time. He was famous as Rana. After that the other Jat rulers were eliminated except the Balharas. The Balharas were strong rulers from Khambhat to Sambhar. 'Koyala Patan' which is now known as 'Kolia', was a single city from Kolia to 'Kalindi Katkeri' spread over about 36 km in length. There used to be bricks of one cubit long and half cubit thick. There are seven tanks of Balharas, Banka tank in the name of Banka Balhara and Lalani tank in name of Lalaji. There is one village named Balhara in Sikar district of Rajasthan. [64]


In 900 A D a King of this gotra was a powerful ruler in the Western Punjab. He has been greatly praised by historian Sulaiman Nadwi, who came to India as a trader. According to him this ruler was one of the four big rulers of world at that time in 857 A D. He was a friend of the Arabs and his army had a large number of elephants and camels. His country was called Kokan (Kaikan) 'near river Herat. [65]

The boundaries of this Kingdom extended from China to the Sea and his neighbors were the Takshak and Gujar kings. Their capital was Mankir.[66]

Nehra Jats in Sindh

Nehra clan Jats were rulers of Nehrun state in Sindh at the time of attack on Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim in 710. Present Hyderabad city was settled on the land of Nehrun. The Hyderabad city was then named Nehrun Kot and was called the heart of the Mehran. [67]

Other Jat rulers in Sind

Thakur Deshraj mentions about rule of other Jat named Chandra Ram of Hala clan. He was ruler of Susthan but he lost it to Muslims. He wandered for some time but later he attacked the fort and occupied it. When Muhammad bin Qasim learnt it he sent 1000 sawar and 2000 footsoldiers to suppress Chandra Ram. He fought bravely but killed. His state was known as Halakhandi.[67],[68]

Jat rulers in Kaikan

Kaikan was a province in Sind. Kikania is the name of a mountain. When the Arab invaders first time came to Kaikan mountains, the Jats repelled them. K.R.Kanungo[69] writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind, Kaikan country was in independent possession of Jats. The country of Kaikan was supposed to be in south-eastern Afghanistan [70], which was conquered from Jats by the Arab general Amran Bin Musa in the reign of the Khalifa Al-Mutasim-bi-llah, (833-881 AD)[71]. During the same reign another expedition was sent against the Jats who had seized upon the roads of Hajar (?)...and spread terror over the roads and planted posts in all directions towards the desert. They were overcome after a bloody conflict of twenty five days. 27000 of them were led in captivity to grace the triumph of victor. It was a custom among these people to blow their horns when Marshalled for battle.[72], [73],[74]

Rai Dynasty

Thakur Deshraj mentions about the Buddhist Mauryan Jats rulers’ Rai Dynasty. He says that Rai was their title and their capital was at Aror which used to lie on the banks of the Indus River. Rai Meharsan II had a war with Badshah Nimroz of Iran in which he was killed. After him Rai Sahasi II became the king. When Rai Sahasi II fell ill, he called his minister to see the letters. The minister sent his munshi Chach for this purpose. The wisdom of Chach influenced the king and he appointed Chach to look after the palace. This way he got free entry into the palace. Chach developed illegal relations with the queen Suhanadi. Chach conspired with the Rani Suhanadi and killed Raja Sahsi Rai II and married with the queen and became ruler of Sindh starting a line of Brahmin ruler ship in samvat 689 (632 AD). [75]

Panwar rulers in Omarkot

Umerkot or Omarkot (Urdu: عمرکوٹ) is town in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is also referred to as Amar Kot as per old histories, "Amar Kot Itehas" by Tej Singh Solanki. Once, it has been Capital of Greater Sindh Province, including some parts of present Rajasthan state of India. According to Thakur Deshraj, Panwar clan Jats were rulers here prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. Jame Todd tells it to be a Rajput state confusing Panwar with Rajputs, but it was denied by Cunningham, who wrote it to be a Panwar Jat state referring to the author of 'Humayun Nama'. [76], [77]

Migration from Sind

Migration of Jats from Sindh to Rajasthan

As for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[10]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the Nort-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[78] By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[79] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.[10]The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.[80]

When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.[81] However, the third migration took place in early eighth century and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans.[10]Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutb-ud-din Aybak in the region of Hansi.[82]

Jats in Chachnama

Chachnama gives us comparative detailed information about the Jats of lower Sind (especially of Brahmanabad) in relation to Rai Chach and Muhamad bin Qasim. It says that after the subjugation of the fort of Brahmanabad Rai Chach humiliated the Jats and the Lohanas and punished their chiefs. He imposed stern and disgraceful regulations on them. [83], [84]

Chachnama does not specify the causes of this unusual treatment but it is not difficult to surmise them. Resentful of loss of their state, external interference, and sensitive to autocracy the self-governing Jats have, from earliest times, mostly showed an instinctive attachment to democratic ways.[85], [86], [87] They were indifferent to the rigidity and exclusiveness in socio-religious structure and generally had a natural apathy to the monarchical form of the government, facts which gradually came to the forefront in the Hindu society under the hegemony of the Gupta Kings and thereafter. [88], [89], [90] In such a state of affairs, Chach, a high caste Brahman might have harboured a feeling of abhorrence for the defiant unorthodox Jats. [91]

We have a positive knowledge about the prevalence of Buddhism at that period in the Indus Valley, [92], in which the Jats formed the bulk of the population. Hence it is not unlikely, that the Jats had definite leanings towards Buddhism, which was more agreeable to their ways and practices, which are reflected in the book by by Dr. Dharma Kirti, a modern Buddhist. [93] , [94]

It is also likely that the years long [95] stubborn resistance by Jats and others to Chach during the latter’s siege of Brahmanabad provided him the immediate provocation for adopting the repressive measures. [96]

Chachnama refers to the Jats again at the time of Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion of Sind. Following a query from the conqueror about the position of the Jats under Chach and Dahir, Sisakar, the minister of the fallen King, apprised him of the restrictions imposed upon them. The minister added that it was incumbent upon them to supply escorts and conduct parties and serve as guides. If any injury befell a person on the road they had to answer for it. The minister went on that these people have the disposition of savages and always rebelled against their sovereign....Having heard this, Qasim retained the same regulations against the Jats [97] of the eastern areas but not against those of western, who probably as mercenaries, had joined the invader against the oppressive Dahir. [98], [99]

Jats in Kamil-ut-Tawarikh

Kamil-ut-Tawarikh notices the Jats seizing upon the roads of Hajar and plundering the corn of Kaskar. They had planted posts in all directions towards the desert. At the orders of the reigning Khalifa, Alif bin Isa marched against them (219 A.H. – 834 AD). He was busy suppressing their chief Muhammad bin Usman for seven months. After killing many of the Jats, Ajif is said to have carried twenty seven thousand of them (including women and children) to Baghdad. [100], [101]

Jats in Fatuh-ul-Buldan

Fatuh-ul-Buldan alludes to the Jats having sway over the territory of Kikan. Amran, the governor of Sind, (sometimes after 221 A.H. – 836 AD) attacked and subjugated them. [102], [103]

See also

The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire/Introduction - by Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi.

References

  1. K.R.qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. dr Vir singh, 2003, p.19
  2. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.20
  3. K.P.Jayaswal, Andhakar Yugin Bharat (trans. Ram Chandra Varma), Kashi:Samvat 2014, p.392
  4. A.H. Bingley, Sikhs (Simla:1899), p. 12
  5. G.C.Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 7
  6. G.C.Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 7
  7. Majmal-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, I, p. 104-105
  8. G.C. Dwivedi : [[The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire ]], Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 7
  9. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  11. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
  12. Inscription No.1, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. (1829-1832) James Tod and William Crooke, Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi (1990), Vol.II, Appendix. pp. 914-917.
  13. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
  14. O'Brien, Multan Glossary, cited Ibbetson, op.cit., p. 105
  15. Elliot, op. cit., Vol.I, p.133
  16. Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Firista, Gulsan-i-Ibrahimi, commonly known as Tarikh-i-Firishta, Nawal Kishore edition, (Kanpur, 1865), Vol.I, p.35
  17. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  18. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
  19. Encyclopedia of Islam, vol.II, p.488
  20. Chachnama, pp. 165-66; Alberuni, Qanun al-Mas'udi, in Zeki Validi Togan, Sifat al-ma'mura ala'l-Biruni; Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of India No. 53, pp.16,72; Abu Abudullah Muhammad Idrisi, Kitab Nuzhat-ul-Mustaq, Engl. translation by S.Maqbul Ahmad, entitled India and the Neighbouring Territories, (I. Eiden, 1960), pp.44,145
  21. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p.700-701
  22. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 150-151
  23. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  24. Bingley’s (Sikhs 11-12)
  25. U.N.Sharma, Jaton Ka Navin Itihas (Jaipur: 1977), 38
  26. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  27. K.P.Jayaswal, Andhakar Yugin Bharat (trans. Ram Chandra Varma), Kashi:Samvat 2014, p.391
  28. R.C.Majumdar, Corporate life in India, 165-167
  29. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire , Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  30. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  31. Dr. Dharma Kirti , Jat Jati prachhanna Baudh hai, 1999 ed. New Delhi
  32. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8, f.n.
  33. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 147
  34. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
  35. Ibid.,187
  36. Mirza Kalich Beg’s translation of Chachnams quoted by Qanungo, Jats, 28
  37. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
  38. Kamil-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, II, 247-248
  39. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  40. Fatuh-ul-Buldan in Elliot, I, 128
  41. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  42. Tabkai-i-Akbari quoted in Elliot, II, Note D 477-478
  43. Tarikh-us-Subuktigin in Elliot, II, 132-133
  44. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  45. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.) in possession of Chaudhary Qabul Singh of Shoram Muzaffarnagar]
  46. Habibullah, Foundation of Muslim rule in India, 62,81 (footnote)
  47. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  48. Malfuzat-i-Timuri and following it Zafarnama in Elliot, III, 248-249, 491
  49. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  50. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms),13
  51. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  52. Ibid.
  53. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  54. Memoieres of Babar, qaoted by Qanungo, Jats,33
  55. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  56. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms),15
  57. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  58. Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi in Elliotr, IV, 398-399
  59. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  60. History of the Jats:Dr Kanungo,30
  61. G.C.Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12
  62. G.C.Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12
  63. Kishori Lal Faujdar: Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jatvans, Jat Samaj, Agra, June 2001
  64. Kishori Lal Faujdar: Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jatvans, Jat Samaj, Agra, June 2001
  65. Ram Swaroop Joon: History of the Jats, India
  66. Ram Swaroop Joon: History of the Jats, India
  67. 67.0 67.1 Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 701. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Thakur Deshraj" defined multiple times with different content
  68. Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
  69. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.17
  70. Elliot, I, 383
  71. Elliot, I, 448
  72. Elliot, II, 247
  73. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702.
  74. Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
  75. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p.700-701
  76. Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
  77. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, p.705
  78. Richard F. Burton, op. cit., p.246
  79. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  80. Inscription No.II, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix, pp. 917-919 and n. 13
  81. Chachnama, p.166
  82. Hasan Nizami, Tajul-ma'asir, Fascimile translation in ED, Vol. II, p.218
  83. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 150-151
  84. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  85. Bingley’s (Sikhs 11-12)
  86. U.N.Sharma, Jaton Ka Navin Itihas (Jaipur: 1977), 38
  87. G.C. Dwivedi The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  88. K.P.Jayaswal, Andhakar Yugin Bharat (trans. Ram Chandra Varma), Kashi:Samvat 2014, p.391
  89. R.C.Majumdar, Corporate life in India, 165-167
  90. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  91. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  92. M.Habib, “The Arab Conquest of Sind”, Islamic Culture Jan,1929
  93. Dr. Dharma Kirti , Jat Jati prachhanna Baudh hai, 1999 ed. New Delhi
  94. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8, f.n.
  95. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 147
  96. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
  97. Ibid.,187
  98. Mirza Kalich Beg’s translation of Chachnams quoted by Qanungo, Jats, 28
  99. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
  100. Kamil-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, II, 247-248
  101. G.C. Dwivedi : [[]]The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  102. Fatuh-ul-Buldan in Elliot, I, 128
  103. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10



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