Indus River

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Indus and its tributaries
Map showing Indus River
Ancient Indian Kingdoms in 600 BC

Indus or Sindhu or simply Sindh (सिंधु, सिंध नदी) is a large river which originates from Himalayan area of Kashmir and flowing through western part of India (western Punjab and Sindh Provinces - now in Pakistan), merges into Arabian Seas.


Jat Gotras Namesake

Jat Gotras Namesake


It flows through Pakistan, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir and Gujarat, and western Tibet (China).

Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit-Baltistan and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 km (1,980 mi). It is Pakistan's longest river.


The Indus forms the delta of present-day Pakistan mentioned in the Vedic Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Iranian Zend Avesta as Hapta Hindu (both terms meaning "seven rivers"). The river has been a source of wonder since the Classical Period, with King Darius of Persia sending his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river as early as 515 BC.

Ch.30: Capture of Aornus. — arrival at the Indus. (p.262-264)

Arrian[1] mentions.... ON the first day his army constructed the mound the length of a stade; and on the following day the slingers shooting at the Indians from the part already finished, assisted by the missiles which were hurled from the military engines, repulsed the sallies which they made against the men who were constructing the mound. He went on with the work for three days without intermission, and on the fourth day a few of the Macedonians forcing their way occupied a small eminence which was on a level with the rock. Without taking any rest, Alexander went on with the mound, being desirous of connecting his artificial rampart with the eminence which the few men were now occupying for him. But then the Indians, being alarmed at the indescribable audacity of the Macedonians, who had forced their way to the eminence, and seeing that the mound was already united with it, desisted from attempting any longer to resist. They sent their herald to Alexander, saying that they were willing to surrender the rock, if he would grant them a truce. But they had formed the design of wasting the day by continually (delaying the ratification of the truce, and of scattering themselves in the night with the view of escaping one by one to their own abodes. When Alexander discovered this plan of theirs, he allowed them time to commence their retreat, and to remove the guard which was placed all round the place. He remained quiet until they began their retreat; then taking ‘yoo of the body-guards and shield-bearing infantry, he was the first to scale the rock at the part of it abandoned by the enemy; and the Macedonians ascended after him, one in one place another in another, drawing each other up. These men at the concerted signal turned themselves upon the retreating barbarians, and killed many of them in their flight. Others retreating with panic terror perished by leaping down the precipices; and thus the rock which had been inexplicable to Heracles was occupied by Alexander. He offered sacrifice upon it, and arranged a fort, committing the superintendence of the garrison to Sisicottus, who long before had deserted from the Indians to Besstts in Bactra, and after Alexander had acquired possession of the country of Bactria, entered his army and appeared to be eminently trustworthy.

He now set out from the rock and invaded the land of the Assacenians; for he was informed that the brother of Assacenus, with his elephants and many of the neighbouring barbarians had fled into the mountains in this district. When he arrived at the city of Dyrta1, he found none of the inhabitants either in it or in the land adjacent. On the following day he sent out Nearchus and Antiochus, the colonels of the shield-bearing guards, giving the former the command of the Agrianians and the light-armed troops2, and the latter the command of his own regiment and two others besides. They were despatched both to reconnoitre the locality and to try if they could capture some of the barbarians anywhere in order to get information about the general affairs of the country; and he was especially anxious to learn news of the elephants. He now directed his march towards the river Indus3, and his army going forward made a road, as otherwise this district would have been impassable. Here he captured a few of the barbarians, from whom he learnt that the Indians of that land had fled for safety to Abisares, but that they had left their elephants there to pasture near the river Indus. He ordered these men to show him the way to the elephants. Many of the Indians are elephant-hunters, and these Alexander kept in attendance upon him in high honour, going out to hunt the elephants in company with them. Two of these animals perished in the chase, by leaping down a precipice, but the rest were caught and being ridden by drivers were marshalled with the army. He also as he was marching along the river lighted upon a wood, the timber of which was suitable for building ships; this was cut down by the army, and ships were built for him, which were brought down the river Indus to the bridge, which had long since been constructed for him by Hephaestion and Perdiccas.

1. Probably Dyrta was at the point where the Indus issues from the Hindu-Koosh. Grovovius first introduced και before τους ψιλους.

2. The name Indus is derived from the Sanscrit appellation Sindhu, from a root Syandh, meaning to flow. The name Indians, or Sindians, was originally applied only to the dwellers on the banks of this river. Hindustan is a Persian word meaning the country of the Hindus or Sindus. Compare the modern Sinde, in the north-west of India, which contains the lower course of the Indus. In Hebrew India was called Hodu, which is a contraction of Hondu, another form of Hindu. See Esther i. 1; viii. 9. Krüger changed ωδοποιειτο into ωδοποιει


Go to Index of the Book

In Mahabharata

Sindhu River (सिन्धु) (R) (I.89.34), (1.94),(3.80.85), (III.130.6), (VI.10.13), (R) (VI.10.20), (VIII.30.11),(VIII.30.35), (XIII.26.8),

Exploration by Scylax

In about 515 BCE, Scylax was sent by King Darius I of Persia to follow the course of the Indus River and discover where it led.[2] Scylax and his companions set out from the city of Caspatyrus in Gandhara (which would mean he entered the Indus close to its confluence with the Kabul River, near to what is now Peshawar in Pakistan). Scylax sailed down the river until he found it reached the sea. He then sailed west across Indian Ocean until he arrived at the Red Sea, which he also explored. He travelled as far as the Red Sea's western end at Suez, before returning to report to Darius I. His entire journey took thirty months.

Such, at least, is the prima facie narrative based on Herodotos.

Rigveda and the Indus

Rigveda also describes several mythical rivers, including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river and is attested 176 times in its text – 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, as in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein but "Sindhu" is the only river attributed with a masculine gender. Sindhu is seen as a strong warrior amongst other rivers which are seen as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

In Mahabharata

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 Describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Rivers are mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.13,14).

नदीः पिबन्ति बहुला गङ्गां सिन्धुं सरस्वतीम
गॊदावरीं नर्मदांबाहुदांमहानदीम Mahabharata (VI.10.13)
शतद्रुं चन्द्रभागांयमुनांमहानदीम
दृषद्वतीं विपाशांविपापां सदूलवालुकाम Mahabharata (VI.10.14)


Alexander Cunningham[3] writes that The name of Kophes (Kabul) is as old as the time of the Vedas, in which the Kubha river is mentioned as an affluent of the Indus ; and as it is not an Arian word, I infer that the name must have been applied to the Kabul river before the Arian occupation, or, at least, as early as B.C. 2500. In the classical writers we find the Khoes, Kophes, and Khoaspes Rivers, to the west of the Indus, and at the present day we have the Kunar River, the Kurram River, and the Gomal rivers to the west, and the Kunihar River to the east of the Indus, all of which are derived from the Scythian ku, " water."

Ancient people and places

Ancient people and places associated or identified living on the bank of Indus are (click the link to see details):

Jats on the Indus

Main article: Jats in Islamic History

According to Dr. Raza, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar.[4]Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode.[5] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab.[6] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[7]Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan.[8]

Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran.[9] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region.[10] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[11][12]

In the 7th century, the Chinese traveler Xuanzang reported that: "in a district of slopes and marshes to more than a thousand li beside the Sindhu River there live several hundred, nearly a thousand, families of ferocious people who made slaughtering their occupation and sustain themselves by rearing cattle, without any other means of living. All the people, whether male of female, and regardless of nobility or lowliness, shave off their hair and beards and dress in religious robes, thus giving the appearance of being bhikṣus (and bhikṣunīs), yet engaging in secular affairs."[13] Earlier translators of this same passage gave differing accounts of the numbers of people, however. Beal says that "there are several hundreds of thousands families settled in Sind"[14], while Watters says there were "some myriads of families"[15]

Dr. Raza proposes that these unnamed people were Jats.[16] The Chachnama, possibly dating originally to the 7th or 8th century CE, and translated into Persian in 1216 CE, stratified these people into 'the western Jats' (Jatan-i-gharbi) and 'the eastern Jats (Jatan-i-Sharqi),[17] living on the eastern and western side of the Indus River.

Before the invasion of Sultan Mahmud (1027), Jats had firmly established in the region of Multan and Bhatiya on the banks of Indus River.[18][19] Alberuni mentions the Mau as the abode of Jats in Punjab, situated in between the river Chenab and Beas.[20]

In the 13th century CE, chroniclers further classified them as 'The Jats living on the banks of the rivers (Lab-i-daryayi)[21] and the Jats living in plain,desert (Jatan-i-dashti); and 'the rustic Jats' (rusta'i Jat) living in villages.[22] Professionally, they were classified on the basis of their habitats, as boatmen and maker of boats, those who were living in the riverside.[23] However Jats of country side were involved in making of swords; as the region of Deybal was famous for the manufacture of swords, and the Jats were variously called as teghzan (holder of the swords).[24] The rustic people were appointed by the Chach and the Arab commanders as spies (Jasus) and the caravan guide (rahbar). They used to guide the caravans on their way both during day time and at night.[25][26]

In political hierarchy, the early fifth century inscription refers to them as a ruler of Punjab, part of Rajasthan and Malwa.[27]It further highlights their sovereign position with high sounded epithets such as Sal, Vira, and Narpati ('lord of men').[28] In the military hierarchy, the Chachnama placed them high on the covetous post of Rana. During the war they were brought against enemy as soldiers. In Dahir's army all the Jats living in the east of Indus River stood marshalled in the rear against the Arab commander Muhammad Bin Qasim.[29] They were also involved in palace management, thus Chach appointed them as his bodyguard (pasdar).[30]

Migration of Samvarana to Sindhu

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 89 tells us the History of Puru and Pandavas (Aila dynasty).

Genealogy of Puru : Puru (wife: Paushti) → 1.Pravira, 2.Iswara, and 3. Raudraswa

1. Pravira (w:Suraseni) → Manasyu (w:Sauviri) → Subhru, Sahana, and Vagmi.

3. Raudraswa (w:Misrakesi) → Richeyu (=Anadhrishti) (+9 more) → Matinara → Tansu (+3 more) → Ilina (w:RathantaraDushmanta (w:Sakuntala) (+4 more) → BharataBhumanyu (Pushkarini) → Suhotra (w:Aikshaki) (+5 more) → Ajamidha (w: Dhumini) → RikshaSamvarana (w:Tapati) (migrated to Sindhu River) → Kuru (w:Vahini) → AbhishyavantaParikshitJanamejayaDhritarashtra (+Pandu & 6 more) → Pratipa (+2 more) → Santanu

It is interesting to note that Samvarana migrated to Sindhu River as given below in details:

  • Riksha begat Samvarana, the perpetuator of the royal line. And, O king, it hath been heard by us that while Samvarana, the son of Riksha, was ruling the earth, there happened a great loss of people from famine, pestilence, drought, and disease. And the Bharata princes were beaten by the troops of enemies. And the Panchalas setting out to invade the whole earth with their four kinds of troops soon brought the whole earth under their sway. And with their ten Akshauhinis the king of the Panchalas defeated the Bharata prince. Samvarana then with his wife and ministers, sons and relatives, fled in fear, and took shelter in the forest on the banks of the Sindhu extending to the foot of the mountains. There the Bharatas lived for a full thousand years, within their fort. And after they had lived there a thousand years, one day the illustrious Rishi Vasishtha approached the exiled Bharatas, who, on going out, saluted the Rishi and worshipped him by the offer of Arghya. And entertaining him with reverence, they represented everything unto that illustrious Rishi. And after he was seated on his seat, the king himself approached the Rishi and addressed him, saying, 'Be thou our priest, O illustrious one! We will endeavour to regain our kingdom.' And Vasishtha answered the Bharatas by saying, 'Om' (the sign of consent). It hath been heard by us that Vasishtha then installed the Bharata prince in the sovereignty of all the Kshatriyas on earth, making by virtue of his Mantras this descendant of Puru the veritable horns of the wild bull or the tusks of the wild elephants. And the king retook the capital that had been taken away from him and once more made all monarchs pay tribute to him. The powerful Samvarana, thus installed once more in the actual sovereignty of the whole earth, performed many sacrifices at which the presents to the Brahmanas were great.
  • "Samvarana begat upon his wife, Tapati, the daughter of Surya, a son named Kuru. This Kuru was exceedingly virtuous, and therefore, he was installed on the throne by his people. It is after his name that the field called Kuru Jangala has become so famous in the world. Devoted to asceticism, he made that field (Kurukshetra) sacred by practising asceticism there.

Migration Jats from Sind

Migration of Jats from Sindh to Rajasthan

As for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[31]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the North-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[32]

By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[33] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.[31]The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.[34]

When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.[35] However, the third migration took place in early eighth century and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans.[31]Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutab Din Aibek in the region of Hansi.[36]

The Jats of the lower Indus comprise both Jats and Rajputs, and the same rule applies to Las-Bela where descendants of former ruling races like the Sumra and the Samma of Sind and the Langah of Multan are found. At the time of the first appearance of the Arabs they found the whole of Makran in possession of Zutts.[37] On phronetic grounds, this maybe Jats.[38]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर [39] ने लेख किया है ... 1. सिंधु (AS, p.958) = सिंधु नदी हिमालय की पश्चिमी श्रेणियों से निकल कर कराची के निकट समुद्र में गिरती है।

इस नदी की महिमा ऋग्वेद में अनेक स्थानों पर वर्णित है- 'त्वंसिधो कुभया गोमतीं क्रुमुमेहत्न्वा सरथं याभिरीयसे' ऋग्वेद10,75,6. ऋग्वेद 10,75,4 में सिंधु में अन्य नदियों के मिलने की समानता बछड़े से मिलने के लिए आतुर गायों से की गई है- 'अभित्वा सिंधो शिशुभिन्नमातरों वाश्रा अर्षन्ति पयसेव धेनव:' सिंधु के नाद को आकाश तक पहुंचता हुआ कहा गया है। जिस प्रकार मेघों से पृथ्वी पर घोर निनाद के साथ वर्षा होती है उसी प्रकार सिंधु दहाड़ते हुए वृषभ की तरह अपने चमकदार जल को उछालती हुई आगे बढ़ती चली जाती है- 'दिवि स्वनो यततेभूग्यो पर्यनन्तं शुष्ममुदियर्तिभानुना। अभ्रादिव प्रस्तनयन्ति वृष्टय: सिंधुर्यदेति वृषभो न रोरूवत्' ऋग्0 10,75,3.

सिंधु शब्द से प्राचीन फ़ारसी का हिन्दू शब्द बना है क्योंकि यह नदी भारत की पश्चिमी सीमा पर बहती थी और इस सीमा के उस पार से आने वाली जातियों के लिए सिंधु नदी को पार करने का अर्थ भारत में प्रवेश करना था। यूनानियों ने इसी आधार पर सिंध को इंडस और भारत को इंडिया नाम दिया था। अवेस्ता में हिन्दू शब्द भारतवर्ष के लिए ही प्रयुक्त हुआ है (दे. मेकडानेल्ड-ए हिस्ट्री आव संस्कृत लिटरेचर, पृष्ठ 141). ऋग्वेद में सप्त सिंघव का उल्लेख है जिसे अवस्ता में हप्तहिन्दू कहा गया है। यह सिंधु तथा उसकी पंजाब की छ: अन्य सहायक नदियों (वितस्ता, असिक्नी, परुष्णी, विपाशा, शुतुद्रि, तथा सरस्वती) का संयुक्त नाम है। सप्तसिंधु नाम रोमन सम्राट् आगस्टस के समकालीन रोमनों को भी ज्ञात था जैसा कि महाकवि वर्जिल के Aeneid, 9,30 के उल्लेख से स्पष्ट है- Ceu septum surgens, sedates omnibus altus per tacitum-Ganges.

सिंधु की पश्चिम की ओर की सहायक नदियों-कुभा सुवास्तु, कुमु और गोमती का उल्लेख भी ऋग्वेद में है। सिंधु नदी की महानता के कारण उत्तर वैदिक काल में समुद्र का नाम भी सिंधु ही पड़ गया था। आज भी सिंधु नदी के प्रदेश के निवासी इस नदी को 'सिंध का समुद्र' कहते हैं। (मेकडानेल्ड, पृ0 143)

[p.959]: वाल्मीकि रामायण बालकाण्ड 43,133 में सिंधु को महा नदी की संज्ञा दी गई है, 'सुचक्षुशचैव सीता च, सिंधुश्चैव महानदी, तिस्त्रश्चैता दिशं जग्मु: प्रतीचीं सु दिशं शुभा:' इस प्रसंग में सिंधु की सुचक्षु (=वंक्षु) तथा [[Sita River|सीता (=तरिम) के साथ गंगा की पश्चिमी धारा माना गया है।

महाभारत भीष्म 9,14 में सिंधु का, गंगा और सरस्वती के साथ उल्लेख है, 'नदी पिवन्ति विपुलां गंगा सिंधु सरस्वतीम् गोदावरी नर्मदां च बाहुदां च महानदीम्' सिंधु नदी के तटवर्ती ग्रामणीयों को नकुल ने अपनी पश्चिमी दिशा की दिग्विजय यात्रा में जीता था। 'गणानुत्सवसंकेतान् व्यजयत् पुरुषर्षभ: संधुकूलाश्रिता ये च ग्रामणीया महाबला:' महाभारत सभा पर्व 32,9.

ग्रामणीय या ग्रामणीय लोग वर्तमान यूसुफजाइयों आदि कबीलों के पूर्वपुरुष थे। उत्सेधजीवी ग्रामीणीयों (उत्सेधजीवी=लुटेरा) को पूगग्रामणीय भी कहा जाता था। ये कबीले अपने सरदारों के नाम से ही अभिहित किए जाते थे, जैसा कि पाणिनि के उल्लेख से स्पष्ट है 'स एषां ग्रामणी:'।

श्रीमद्भागवत 5,19,18 में शायद सिंधु को सप्तवती कहा गया है, क्योंकि सिंधु सात नदियों की संयुक्त धारा के रूप में समुद्र में गिरती है।

महारौली स्थित लौहस्तंभ पर चंद्र के अभिलेख में सिंधु के सप्तमुखीं का उल्लेख है (दे. सप्तसिंधु)। रघुवंश 4,67 में कालिदास ने रघु की दिग्विजय के प्रसंग में सिंधु तीर पर सेना के घोड़ों के विश्राम करते समय भूमि पर लोटने के कारण अनेक कंधों से संलग्न केसरलवों के विकीर्ण हो जाने का मनोहर वर्णन किया है, 'विनीताध्वश्रमास्तस्य सिंधुतीरविचेष्टनै: दुधुवुर्वाजिन: स्कंधांल्लग्नकुंकुमकेसरान्' इस वर्णन से यह सूचित होता है कि कालिदास के समय में केसर सिंधु नदी का दक्षिणी समुद्र तट है।

जैनग्रंथ जंबूद्वीपप्रज्ञप्ति में सिंधु नदी को चुल्लहिमवान् के एक विशाल सरोवर के पश्चिम की ओर से निस्सृत माना है और गंगा को पूर्व की ओर से।

2. सिंधु (AS, p.959) = सिंध प्रांत - वर्तमान सिंध प्रांत पाकिस्तान का प्रांत है। सिंध प्रांत पाकिस्तान के चार प्रान्तों में से एक है। रघुवंश 15,87 में सिंध नामक देश का रामचंद्रजी द्वारा भरत को दिए जाने का उल्लेख है, 'युधाजितश्च संदेशात्स देश सिंधुनामकम् ददौ दत्तप्रभावाय भरताय भृतप्रजः'। इस प्रसंग में यह भी वर्णित है कि युधाजित् (भरत का मामा) ने केकय नरेश से संदेश मिलने पर उन्होंने यह कार्य सम्पन्न किया था। संभव है कि सिंधु देश उस समय केकय देश के अधीन रहा हो। सिंधु पर अधिकार करने के लिए भरत ने गंधर्वों को हराया था- 'भरतस्तत्र गंधर्वान्युधि

[p.960] निजिंत्य केवलम् आतोद्यग्राहयामास समत्याजयदायुधम्' रघुवंश 15,88. अर्थात भरत ने युद्ध में (सिंधु देश के) गंधर्वों को हराकर उन्हें शस्त्र त्याग कर वीणाग्रहण करने पर विवश किया। वाल्मीकि रामायण उत्तरकाण्ड 100-101 में भी यही प्रसंग सविस्तर वर्णित है। 'सिंधोरुभयतः पार्श्वेदेशः परमशोभनं तं च रक्षन्ति गंधर्वाः सांयुधा युद्धकोविदाः' उत्तर 100,11. इससे सूचित होता है कि सिंधु नदी के दोनों ओर के प्रदेश को ही सिंधु-देश कहा जाता था। इसमें गंधार या गंधर्वों का प्रदेश भी सम्मिलित रहा होगा। यह तथ्य इस प्रकार भी सिद्ध होता है कि भरत ने इस देश को जीतकर अपने पुत्रों को तक्षशिला और पुष्कलावती (गंधार देश में स्थित नगर) का शासक नियुक्त किया था। तक्षशिला सिंधु नदी के पूर्व में और पुष्कलावती पश्चिम में स्थित थी। ये दोनों नगर इन दोनों भागों की राजधानी रहे होंगे। सिंध के निवासियों को विष्णु 2,3,17 में सैंधवाः कहा गया है। 'सौवीरा सैंधवाहणाः शाल्वाः कोसलवासिन।' . सिंधु देश में उत्पन्न लवण (सैंधव) का उल्लेख कालिदास ने इस प्रकार किया है- 'वक्त्रोष्मणा पुरोगतानि, लेह्मानि सैंधवशिलाशकलानि वाहाः' रघुवंश 5,73 अर्थात सामने रखे हुए सैंधव लवण के लेह्म शिलाखंडों को घोड़े अपने मुख की भाप से धुंधला कर रहे हैं। 'सौवीर' सिंधु देश का ही एक भाग था।

महरौली (दिल्ली) में स्थित चंद्र के लौहस्तंभ के अभिलेख में चंद्र द्वारा सिंधु नदी के सप्तमुखों को जीते जाने का उल्लेख है- 'तीर्वर्ता सप्तमुखानि येन समरे सिंधोर्जिता वाह्लिकाः' तथा इस प्रदेश में वाह्लिकों की स्थिति बताई है। ( दे. दिल्ली)

युनान के लेखकों ने अलक्षेंद्र के भारत-आकमण के संबंध में सिंधु-देश के नगरों का उल्लेख किया है। साइगरडिस (Sigerdis) नामक स्थान शायद सागर-द्वीप है जो सिंधु देश का समुद्रतट या सिंधु नदी का मुहाना जान पड़ता है। अलक्षेन्द्र की सेनाएँ सिंधु नदी तथा इसके तटवर्ती प्रदेश में होकर ही वापस लौटी थीं। हर्षचरित, चतुर्थ उच्छ्वास में बाण ने प्रभाकरवर्धन को 'सिंधुराजज्वरः' कहा है जिससे सिंधु देश पर उसके आतंक का बोध होता है।

अरबों के सिंध पर आक्रमण के समय वहाँ दाहिर नामक ब्राह्मण-नरेश का राज्य था। सिंध के कुछ लुटेरों की लूटमार से क्रुद्ध होकर इराक़ के मुसलमान सूबेदार अलहज्जाज ने उन्हें दंण्डित करने के लिए कई बार चढ़ाई की, किन्तु राजा दाहिर ने उसकी फ़ौजों को पराजित कर दिया। दाहिर आक्रमणकारियों से बहुत ही वीरता के साथ लड़ता हुआ मारा गया था। इसकी वीरांगना पुत्रियों ने बाद में, अरब सेनापति मुहम्मद बिन क़ासिम से अपने पिता की मृत्यु का बदला लिया और स्वयं आत्महत्या कर ली। सिंध पर मुसलमानों का अधिकार 1845 ई. तक रहा। इस बीच इसे मुग़ल बादशाह जहाँगीर ने एक महत्त्वपूर्ण सूबा भी बनाया था। बाद के समय में यहाँ के मुस्लिम अमीरों को जनरल नेपियर ने मियानी के युद्ध में हराकर इस प्रांत को ब्रिटिश राज्य में नहीं मिला लिया।

3. सिंधु (AS, p.961) = सिंध नदी - यह नदी विंध्य श्रेणी से (सिरोंज, मध्य प्रदेश) के उत्तर से निकलकर इटावा और जालौन उत्तर प्रदेश के बीच यमुना में मिल जाती है. श्रीमद्भागवत में इसका नर्मदा, चर्मण्वती और शोण आदि के साथ उल्लेख है--'नर्मदा चर्मण्वंती सिंधुरंधः शोणश्च नदौ महानदी....'. मेघदूत (पूर्व मेघ 31) में कालिदास ने सिंधु का इस प्रकार वर्णन किया है--'वेणीभूतप्रतनुसलिला तामतीतस्य सिन्धुः पाण्डुच्छायातटरुहतरुभ्रंशिभिर्जीर्णपर्णैः । सौभाग्यं ते सुभग विरहावस्थया व्यञ्जयन्ती, कार्श्यं येन त्यजति विधिना स त्वयैवोपपाद्यः'. मेघ के यात्रा-क्रम के अनुसार यह यमुना की सहायक प्रसिद्ध सिंधु हो सकती है, किंतु मेघ को, विदिशा से उज्जैन के मार्ग में, इस सिंध के मिलने की संभावना अधिक नहीं जान पड़ती क्योंकि वर्तमान भीलसा (प्राचीन विदिशा) से उज्जैन तक जाने वाली सीधी रेखा से यह नदी पर्याप्त उत्तर में छूट जाती है. यह अधिक संभव जान पड़ता है कि कालिदास ने इस स्थान पर सिंधु से कालीसिंध नदी का निर्देश किया है.

कालीसिंध नदी नदी भी विंध्याचल की पहाड़ियों से निकलकर उज्जैन से थोड़ी दूर पश्चिम की ओर बहती हुई कोटा के उत्तर में चंबल में मिल जाती है. सिंधु नदी के वर्णन के पश्चात ही 32 वें पद में कालिदास अवंतिका उज्जैन का उल्लेख किया है जो इस नदी के कालीसिंध के साथ अभिज्ञान से ही ठीक जचता है. यमुना की सहायक सिंध तो उज्जैन से काफी दूर -150 मील के लगभग उत्तर-पश्चिम की ओर विदिशा-उज्जैन के सीधे मार्ग से बाहर छूट जाती है. काली सिंध ही उज्जैन से ठीक पूर्व की ओर इसी मार्ग पर पड़ती है.

4. सिंधु (AS, p.961) = काली सिंध (दे.सिंधु-3)


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