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Barsi Gate Hansi

Hansi (हांसी), also called Asigarh, is an ancient town in the Hisar District in the state of Haryana in India. Its ancient name as mentioned in Ashtadhyayi of Panini is Asika (आसिका).[1] Asika is also mentioned in Vyakaranamahabhashya. [2]


Villages in Hansi tahsil

Bad Chhapar, Badala, Banda Heri, Bass Akbarpur, Bass Azam Shahpur, Bass Badshahpur, Bass Khurd Bejan, Bhaklana, Bhatla, Bhatol Jatan, (10) Bhatol Rangran, Bir Hansi, Channot, Data, Depal, Dhamian, Dhana, Dhanderi, Dharam Kheri, Garhi, Ghirai, Ghuskani, Gurana, Hajampur, Hansi (M Cl), Jamawari, Jamni Khera, Kajal, Kanwari, Khanda Kheri, Khanpur, Khar Khara, Kharbla, Khera Rangran, Kheri Barkesh, Kheri Gangan, Khumba, Kulana, Kutabpur, Madan Heri, Majod, Masoodpur, Mazadpur, Mehanda, Mohlaa, Puthi Saman, Putthi Mangalkhan, Ramayan, Shala Dheri, Sheikhpura, Sindhar, Singhwa Khas, Singhwa Ragho, Sisai Bola, Sisai Kali Rawan, Sisar, Sorkhi, Sultanpur, Tharwa, Thurana, Ugalan, Umra,


It is located at a distance of 16 miles east of Hisar on National Highway 10. Geographically, it is semi-arid with around 46cm of annual rainfall. It appears that at one time Hansi was larger, more prosperous and more important than Hisar. The town has several important buildings of archaeological importance.

Mention by Panini

Asika (आसिक), swordsman, is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]


Barsi Gate Hansi

V. S. Agrawala[4] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Kuru (कुरु) (IV.1.172) - It was known to Panini as a janapada and a Kingdom. Hastinapura (VI.2.101) was its capital. The region between triangle of Thanesar, Hisar and Hastinapur was known by three different names. Kururashtra proper between Ganga River and Yamuna with its capital Hastinapur; Kurujangala equal to Rohtak, Hansi, Hisar; and Kurukshetra to the north with its centres at Thaneswar, Kaithal, Karnal.

प्राचीनकाल में हांसी (हरयाणा) का नाम असिगढ़ था। (बहवाला टॉड)।[5]

It was founded by Asa Ram Jat. It was earlier called Asi which became Hansi. Even today it is known as Asi by the local people. According to Thakur Deshraj, The Asiagh people were inhabitants of Asirgarh. One group of them migrated to Europe. Another group moved to Jangladesh. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word "Asi" meaning sword. According to Kautilya, the people who depended on "Asi" (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. According to Bhim Singh Dahiya the city of Hansi was founded by Asiagh, its original name being Asika. [6]

Sir H. M. Elliot[7] quotes Al Bírúní (973-1048) and writes that From Kanauj, in traveling south-west, you come to Ásí,at the distance of eighteen parasangs; to Sahína, seventeen; to Chandrá, eighteen; to Rajauri, fifteen; to Narána the capital of Guzerát, eighteen. When the capital of Guzerát was destroyed, the inhabitants removed to a town on the frontier. The distance between Narána and Máhúra is the same as between Máhúra and Kanauj, that is twenty-eight parasangs.

The Sultan Mas'ud Ghaznavi (r.1030-1040) takes the fort of Hansi: Sir H. M. Elliot Edited by John Dowson[8] writes with reference to 'Táríkhu-s Subuktigín of Abu-l fazl Al Baihaki' that on Thursday, when eight days of Zi-1 hijja remained, the Amir, departed from Ghazni on his way to Hindustan, by the road of Kabul, to prosecute his holy war against Hansi. He remained ten days at Kabul. The first day of Muharram, a.h. 429 (14 Oct., 1037), fell on a Saturday. On Tuesday, when five days of Muharram remained, the Amir arrived at the Jailam, and encamped on the banks of that river near Dinarkotah. Here he fell ill, and remained sick for fourteen days. On Saturday, the 14th of Safar, the Amir had recovered, and held a darbar, and on Tuesday, the 17th, he left the Jailam, and arrived at the fort of Hansi on Wednesday the 9th of Rabi'u-1 awwal, and pitched his camp under the fort, which he invested. Fights were constantly taking place in a manner that could not be exceeded for their severity. The garrison made desperate attempts at defence, and relaxed no effort. In the victorious army the slaves of the household behaved very gallantly, and such a virgin fort was worthy of their valour. At last, mines were sprung in five places, and the wall was brought down, and the fort was stormed by the sword on Monday, ten days before the close of Rabiu-1 awwal. The Brahmans and other higher men were slain, and their women and children were carried away captive, and all the treasure which was found was divided amongst the army. The fort was known in Hindustan as " The Virgin," as no one yet had been able to take it.

Ibn Batutah (1304 – 1369) while moving from the Rajput Kingdom of Sarsatti, visited Hansi in India, describing it as "among the most beautiful cities, the best constructed and the most populated; it is surrounded with a strong wall, and its founder is said to be one of the great infidel kings, called Tara".[9]

According to Sir H. M. Elliot[10] Hwen Tsang's narrative; and this being fixed, we may identify the capital of Satadru, or the Sutlej Provinces, with the famous Fort of Hansi, which successfully resisted the arms of Mahmúd of Ghazní. According to the Tabakát-i Násirí, Hansi was the ancient capital of the Province of Siwálik, and up to the time of its capture by Mas'úd had been considered by the Hindus as impregnable.

H.A. Rose[11] Jatu (जाटू), said to be a Tunwar clan who once held almost the whole of Hissar, and are still most numerous in that District and the neighbouring portions of Rohtak and Jind. When the great Chauhan Bisaldeo overthrew Anangpal II, the Tunwar king of Delhi, the Tunwars were driven from Delhi to Jalopattan in the Sheikhawatti country north of Jaipur and there Dul Ram, a descendant of Anangpal, ruled. His son Jairat extended the Tunwar dominion to Bagar in Jaipur and the tract is still called the Tunwarwati. In fact the Tunwar of Hariana are said to have been divided into three clans named after and descended from, three brothers, Jatu, Raghu and Satraula, of which clans Jatu was by far the largest and most important, and once ruled from Bhiwani to Agroha. They are the hereditary enemies of the Punwar of Rohtak, and at length the sandhills of Mahm were fixed upon as the boundary between them, and are still known as Jatu Punwar ka daula or the Jatu-Punwar boundary. In Karnal, however, the Jatu describe themselves as Chauhan also.

Jairat (जैरात), the Tunwar, had a son, Jatu, (so-called because he had hair, jata, on him at the time of his birth) by a Sankla Rajputni, and his son migrated to Sirsa where he married Palat Devi, daughter of Kanwarpal, a Siroha Rajput and sister of the mother of the great Guga Pir. Kanwarpal made the tract about Hansi over to his son-in-law and the latter sent for his brothers Raghu and Satraula from Jilopattan to share it with him. Jatu's sons, Sidh and Harpal, founded Rajli and Gurana villages, and on the overthrow of the Chauhan Rai Pithaura by the Muhammadans the Jatus extended their power over Agroha, Hansi, Hissar and Bhiwani, their boast being that they once ruled 1,440 kheras or settlements. Amrata also seized 40 villages in the Kanaud (Mohindargarh) ilaqa of Patiala. The three brothers, Jatu, Raghu and Satraula divided the pargana of Hansi into three tappas, each named after one of themselves. Umr Singh, one of their descendants took Tosham, and after him that ilaqa was named the Umrain tappa, while that of Bhiwani was called the Bachwau lappa, after one Bacho, a Jatu. At Siwani Jatu's descendants bore the title of Rai, those of Talwandi Rana that of Rana, while those at Kulheri were called Chaudhri. In

[Page-379]: 1857 the people at once revived all their ancient titles, but the descendants of Harpal, a son of Jatu, remained loyal, the descendants of Sadh, another of Jatu's sons, having rebelled.

The Jatus, Raghus and Satraulas do not, it is said, intermarry. The Jatus are nearly half Hindus, the rest being Muhammadans. The Jatus appear to give their name to Jatusana in Gurgaon.

Chauhan history

James Tod[12] writes that according to the Book of Kings of Govind Ram (the Hara bard), the Haras were descended from Anuraj, son of Bisaldeo ; but Mog-ji, the Khichi bard, makes Anuraj progenitor of the Khichis, and son of Manika Rae. We follow the Hara bard.

Anuraj had assigned to him in appanage the important frontier fortress of Asi (vulg, Hansi). His son Ishtpal, together with Aganraj, son of Ajairao, the founder of Khichpur Patan in Sind-Sagur, was preparing to seek his fortunes with Randhir Chohan prince of Gowalcoond : but both Asi and Golconda were almost simultaneously assailed by an army "from the wilds of Gujlibund."

Randhir performed the sakha ; and only a single female, his daughter, named Surabhi, survived, and she fled for protection towards Asi, then attacked by the same furious invader. Anuraj prepared to fly ; but his son, Ishtpal, determined not to wait the attack, but seek the foe. A battle ensued, when the invader was slain, and Ishtpal, grievously wounded, pursued him till he fell, near the spot where Surabhi was awaiting death under the shade of a pipal : for " hopes of life were extinct, and fear and hunger had reduced her to a skeleton." In the moment of despair, however, the ashtwa (peepul) tree under which she took shelter was severed, and

[p.420]: Asapurna, the guardian goddess of her race, appeared before her. To her, Soorahbae related how her father and twelve brothers had fallen in defending Golconda against ' the demon of Gujlibund'. The goddess told her to be of good cheer, for that a Chohan of her own race had slain him, and was then at hand ; and led her to where Ishtpal lay senseless from his wounds. By her aid he recovered, and possessed himself of that ancient heir-loom of the Chohans, the famed fortress of Asir. The story goes, his limbs, which lay dissevered, were collected by Surabhi, and the goddess sprinkling them with " the water of life" he arose. Hence the name Hara, which his descendants bore, from har or ' Bones,' she collected : but more likely from having lost (Hara) Asi.

Ishtpal, the founder of the Haras, obtained Asir in S. 1081 (or A.D. 1025) ; and as Mahmud of Ghazni's last destructive visit to India, by Multan through the desert to Ajmer, was in A.H. 417, or A.D. 1022, we have every right to conclude that his father Anuraj lost his life and Asi to the king of Ghazni. The Hara chronicle says S. 981, but by some strange, yet uniform errors all the tribes of the Chohans antedate their chronicles by a hundred years. Thus Bisaldeo's taking possession of Anhalpur Patun is "nine hundred, fifty " thirty and six" (S. 986), instead of S. 1086. But it even pervades Chund, the poet of Pirthvi Raj, whose birth is made 1115, instead of S. 1215 : and here in all probability, the error commenced, by the ignorance (willful we cannot imagine) of some rhymer.

At the same time that Ajmer was sacked, and the country laid waste by this conqueror, whom the Hindu bard might well style " the demon from Gujlibund or 'The elephant wilds.' They assert that Ghazni is properly Gujni, founded by the Yadus : and in a curious specimen of Hindu geography (presented by me to the Royal Asiatic Society), all the tract about the glaciers of the Ganges is termed Gujlibun, or Gujlibu, the 'Elephant Forest' There is a " Gujingurh mentioned by Abulfazil in the region of Bijore, inhabited by the Sooltans, Jadoon, and Eusofzye tribes.

The Mahomedan historians give us no hint even of any portion of Mahmood's army penetrating into the peninsula, though that grasping ambition, which considered the shores of Saurashtra but an intermediate step from Ghazni to the conquest of Ceylon and Pegu, [13] may have pushed an army during his long halt at Anhalwarra, and have driven Randhir from Golconda. But it is idle to speculate upon such slender materials ; let them suffice to illustrate one new fact,namely, that these kingdoms of the south as well as the north were held by Rajput sovereigns, whose offspring, blending with the original population, produced that mixed race of Mahrattas, inheriting with the names, the warlike propensities of their ancestors, but who assume the name of their abodes as titles, as the Nimalkars, the Phalkias, the Patankars, instead of their tribes of Jadon, Tuar, Puar, &c., &c.

Ishtpal had a son called Chand-karan ; his son, Lok Pal, had Hamir and Gambhir, names well known in the wars of Pirthi Raj. The brothers were enrolled amongst his one hundred and eight great vassals, from

[p.421]: which we may infer that, though Asir was not considered absolutely as a fief, its fief paid homage to Ajmer, as the principal seat of the Chohans.


Its 2005 population is estimated to be 82,984.

Hansi fort

हांसी का किला

The city of Hansi has five gates of entry - Delhi Gate (East), Hisar Gate (West), Gosain Gate (North-west), Barsi Gate(South) and Umra Gate (South west). The peculiarity of this town is that its altitude increases after entry from any of the gates. Deserts guard this city towards its west (cities like Tosham, Devsar, Khanak).

Another prominent feature of this ancient city is its fort. Extended in an area of 30 acres, it is square in shape and has security posts in all the four corners. The fort is said to be that of Great King Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Later, son of King Anangpal, Drupad established sword manufacturing factory in this fort, hence it is also called "Asigarh". Swords from this fort were exported as far away as to Arab countries. As per Talif-e-Tajkara-e-Hansi by Qazi Sharif Husain in 1915, around 80 forts across the area were controlled from this centre "ASIGARH". During the period of Firoz Shan Tuglaq, an underground tunnel was constructed connecting the present Hansi to Hisar. Gate of fort has horrifying figures of gods, and pictures of gods, goddesses, birds can also be seen on the walls of the fort. The entry gate of the fort was built by George Thomas. This fort was declared a Protected Monument of National Importance in 1937 by the Archaeological Survey, the present ASI, and is still in good condition, a must visit site for all archaeologists.

Right in front of the Fort, ancient statues of like Mahavira and Gautama Buddha are placed. These statues are worth $1 million as calculated by the Archaeologists.


As far as the history of this town is concerned , it finds mention in Panini's Asthadhyai as Asi or Asika . Though the origin of this city is wrapped in controversies, some prominent names and documentary proof like "Majkura Hansi" describe it as founded by ill daughter Hansivati/Ambavati of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Others say it was found by King Anangpal Tomar for his guru "Hansakar"(957AD). Even one Asaram Jat is also projected as its founder.

In 1192, after the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at the hands of Mohammed Gauri, Hindu rule ended here. This was the time when non-muslims were not permitted to settle here. Slowly, Hansi lost its importance and was remembered only as a Fort.

Shahjahan also came to Hansi, met the famous Hindu saint Jagganath Puri and after his approval Hindus were allowed to settle in Hansi. Some, now prominent castes in this area viz. Jain, Saini, Brahmins, came here during this mughal rule.

Guru Gobind Singh came to Hansi in 1705 and instigated Hindus to rise in revolt against injustice. Hansi was under Maratha rule in 1736 and after 3rd battle of Panipat in 1761, it was lost to Ahmed Shah Abdali.

George Thomas (soldier), an Irish adventurer who rose from an ordinary sailor to become an independent king, formed Hansi as his capital. Hansi came under British East India Company rule in 1803. From 1819-1832, Hansi was District HQ which was later shifted to Hisar in 1832.

We do not come across any specific date, when this town came into being. It was in existence much earlier than 11th century. We do come across some references about this town being taken over by Muslim invaders around that time. The fort of Hansi was known as virgin fort and no body could capture it before 11th century. Now also we can see the fort in north of town in ruins. It is located at great height. It was ruled by Prithvi Raj Chauhan and Rajia Begum. There is a canal which is in north of town and supposed to be the work of Feroz Shah Tuglak when he established the town of Hisar in 14th century. Many idols belonging to Jainism and Hinduisms have been found in recent times in the fort.

The town of Hansi was the capital of Haryana in ancient times and the boundary of Haryana was from south of Satluj, present Haryana and western UP. After the Mughals established capital in Delhi, Hansi fell in the hands of Mughals and remain so till beginning of 19th century, when it was taken over by George Thomas. He remained there till Britishers took over from him in 1803 under the command of col. Skinner. Skinner's horse was also raised here. There is some property owned by Skinners' even today. It was one of the largest center for cotton ginning before partition .

H.A. Rose[14] writes that The Ahulana tradition traces their origin to Rajasthan. Their ancestor was coming Delhi-wards with his brothers, Mom and Som, in search of a livelihood. They quarrelled on the road and had a deadly fight on the banks of the Ghātā, naddi. Mom and Som, who were on one side, killed their kinsman and came over to Delhi to the king there who received them with favour and gave them lands : to Som the tract across the Ganges where his descendants now live as Rajputs. Mom was sent to Rohtak, and he is now represented by the Jats there as well as in Hansi and Jind. The Rohtak party had their head-quarters at Ahulana in that district, and thence on account of internal quarrels they spread themselves in different directions, some coming into the Delhi district.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[15] ने लेख किया है ...आसिका (AS, p.72)- पाणिनि की अष्टाध्यायी में इसका उल्लेख है। आसिका शायद वर्तमान हाँसी (हरियाणा) है।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[16] ने लेख किया है ...हांसी (AS, p.1017) हरियाणा का यह मध्यकालीन नगर है. पाणिनी ने इसे ही शायद असिका कहा है. इसकी स्थापना पृथ्वीराज चौहान के मातामह आनंदपाल ने की थी (बारवी सती ई.). मुसलमान इतिहास-लेखकों के ग्रंथों में इस नगर का उल्लेख है. इब्नबतूता ने नगर की समृद्धि और अपार जनसंख्या का उल्लेख किया है.

गठवाला जाटों का हांसी आगमन

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[17] के अनुसार गजनी पर मुसलमानों का अधिकार हो जाने से जो लल्ल गठवाले वहां रह गये वे मुसलमान बन गये और शेष गजनी छोड़कर सरगोधाभटिण्डा होते हुए हांसी (जि० हिसार) पहुंच गये और वहां पर हांसी के आस-पास अपना पंचायती राज्य स्थापित करके रहने लगे (हरिराम भाट की पोथी)।

जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 332-333 पर योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री ने लिखा है कि -

“ऋषिक-तुषारों का दल जब जेहलम और चनाब के द्वाबे में आकर बसा तो इधर तुषार भाषा भेद से त्रिशर और शर के शब्दार्थ वाण होने से ये लोग तिवाण और तिवाणा कहलाने लगे। बौद्ध-धर्म के पतनकाल में भी बाद तक ये बौद्ध ही रहे और इस्लाम आने पर संघ रूप से मुसलमान बन गये। तुषारों का एक दल उपरोक्त द्वाबे के शाहपुर आदि स्थानों पर न बसकर सीधा इन्द्रप्रस्थ की ओर आ गया यहां इन्होंने विजय करके एक गांव बसाया जो आज विजवासन नाम से प्रसिद्ध है। यह हुमायूँनामे में लिखित है। यहां आज भी तुषार जाट बसे हैं। ये लोग यहीं से मेरठ में मवाना के समीप मारगपुर, तिगरी, खालतपुर, पिलौना और बिजनौर के छितावर गांवों में जाकर बस गये। हिन्दुओं में तिवाणा अभी भी जाटों में ही है। किन्तु इस वंश का वैभव मुसलमानों में ही देखा जा सकता है। इनके मलिक खिजरहयात खां तिवाणा को सम्मिलित पंजाब के प्रधानमंत्री पद की प्रतिष्ठा प्राप्त हुई। इनके शाहपुर जिले में सभी तिवाणा मुसलमान सम्पन्नता की दृष्टि से अत्यन्त वैभव प्राप्त हैं। ऋषिकों का दल तुषारों की तरह इस्लाम की ओर नहीं झुका यद्यपि मुग़लकाल में इन दोनों को ही मलिक की उपाधि दी गई थी। पश्चिमोत्तर भारत में जब इस्लाम फैलने लगा तब सामूहिक रूप से संगठित होकर ऋषिकों का यह दल झंग, मुलतान, बहावलपुर और भटिण्डा होते हुए हिसार में हांसी के पास देपाल (दीपालपुर) नामक स्थान पर अधिकार करके बस गया। इनके संगठन की श्रेष्ठता के कारण यह वंश संगठनवाला से गठवाला प्रसिद्ध हुआ।”

जटवान का मुसलमानों से युद्ध

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[18] लिखते हैं:

जाट इतिहास पृ० 714-715 पर ठा० देशराज ने जाटवान के विषय में लिखा है कि “यह रोहतक के जाटों का एक प्रसिद्ध नेता था। कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक के विरुद्ध जाटों ने विद्रोह कर दिया। क्योंकि ये पृथ्वीराज के समय अपने देश के स्वयं शासक थे और पृथ्वीराज को नाममात्र का राजा मानते थे। जाटों ने एकत्र होकर मुसलमानों के सेनापति को हांसी में घेर लिया। वे उसे भगाकर अपने स्वतन्त्र राज्य की राजधानी हांसी को बनाना चाहते थे। इस खबर को सुन कर कुतुबुद्दीन सेना लेकर रातों-रात सफर करके अपने सेनापति की सहायता के लिए हांसी पहुंच गया। जाटों की सेना के अध्यक्ष जाटवान ने शत्रु के दोनों दलों को ललकारा। ‘तुमुल समीर’ के लेखक ने लिखा है कि दोनों ओर से घमासान युद्ध हुआ। पृथ्वी खून से रंग गई। बड़े जोर के हमले होते थे। जाट थोड़े थे फिर भी वे खूब लड़े। कुतुबुद्दीन स्वयं घबरा गया। जाटवान ने उसको निकट आकर नीचे उतरकर लड़ने को ललकारा। किन्तु कुतुबुद्दीन ने इस बात को स्वीकार न किया। जाटवान ने अपने चुने हुए बीस साथियों के साथ शत्रुओं के गोल में घुसकर उन्हें तितर-बितर करने की चेष्टा की। कहा जाता है जीत मुसलमानों की रही। किन्तु उनकी हानि इतनी हुई कि वे

जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-273

रोहतक के जाटों का दमन करने के लिए जल्दी ही सिर न उठा सके।” (जाट इतिहास पृ० 16-17 पर लेखक कालिका रंजन कानूनगो ने भी ऐसा ही लिखा है)।

हरिराम भाट की पोथी अनुसार लल्ल गठवालों ने जाटवान मलिक के नेतृत्व में मुसलमानों पर धावा किया। यह भयंकर युद्ध तीन दिन और तीन रात चला जिसमें जाटवान शहीद हुआ। जाट इतिहास पृ० 16-17 लेखक कालिकारंजन कानूनगो के अनुसार हरयाणा के जाटों ने एक योग्य नेता जाटवान के नेतृत्व में इस युद्ध में भाग लिया।

जाटवान के बलिदान होने पर लल्ल गठवालों ने हांसी को छोड़ दिया और दूसरे स्थान पर आकर गोहाना के पास आहुलाना (हलाना), छिछड़ाना आदि गांव बसाये। वीर जाटवान के बेटे हुलेराम ने संवत् 1264 (सन् 1207 ई०) में ये गांव बसाये। (हरिराम भाट की पोथी)।

Hansi Inscription of Prithviraja II of V. 1224 (1168 AD)

We have Hansi inscription about the Chauhan ruler Prithviraja II, dated 7th of the bright half of Magha, V. 1224. Hansi inscription states that he secured the elephant Manahsiddhikari from ruler Vastupala whom we may identify as Vasantapala, the grandfather of Aparagangeya. [19]

External links


  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p. p.72
  2. (पा-३,३.१०८; अकि-२,१५४.१५-१५५.१०; रो-३,३४३४१-३४२; भा-३/३०) का नाम आसिका अन्येषु ईहमानेषु ।
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.420
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.54
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 388)
  6. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Bhim Singh Dahiya, p.163
  7. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/VII. Rashídu-d Dín, from Al Bírúní,pp.58-59
  8. The history of India : as told by its own historians. Volume II/III. Tarkhhu-s Subuktigin of Baihaki, p.139-140
  9. André Wink, Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th-13th Centuries, Volume 2 of Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries, (BRILL, 2002), p.229.
  10. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/Note (A).- Geographical,p.394
  11. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.378-79
  12. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati, p.419-421
  13. See Ferishta, life of Mahmood
  14. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/D, p.221
  15. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.72
  16. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.1017
  17. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-272
  18. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-273,274
  19. Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, p.73-74

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