Kawardha

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Map of Kawardha district

Kawardha (कवर्धा) is a city and district of Chhattisgarh. The name has been changed to Kabirdham. Kawardha is known for Bhoramdeo Temple dedicated to Shiva. Dilip Singh Ahlawat [1] has mentioned Kawardha as a Kingdom of Nagavanshi Jats. Author (Laxman Burdak) visited it on 16.04.1985 while on way from Raipur - Jabalpur.

Variants

Location

The boundaries of the district are Dindori District to the north, Mungeli District and Bemetara to the east, Rajnandgaon District to the south, Balaghat District and Mandla District to the west. The northern and western parts are surrounded by the Maikal mountain ranges of Satpura.

This district is known for the Bhoramdeo temple (which is also known by the sobriquet, "the Khajuraho of Chhattisgarh") located at a distance of 18 km from the district headquarters, Kawardha.

Jat Gotras Namesake


  • Madwa (Jat clan) = Madwa Mahal, located about a kilometer away from the main temple Bhoramdeo, is a west facing temple where a Shiva Linga is deified. As the temple was built like a marriage hall or pandal (fabricated structure), known in local dialect as "Madwa". It was built in remembrance of the wedding of Nagavanshi king Ramachandra Dev and Haihaya vanshi Queen Raj Kumari Ambika Devi that took place in 1349.[6]

Tahsils in Kawardha district

Villages in Kawardha Tahsil

1 Agarikalan, 2 Amalidih, 3 Amlidih, 4 Anchhi, 5 Badaradeeh, 6 Baghamuda, 7 Baghutola, 8 Baharmuda, 9 Baijalpur, 10 Baiji, 11 Bamhani, 12 Bandaura, 13 Banjhi Mauha, 14 Bano, 15 Barbaspur, 16 Bardi, 17 Barpelatola, 18 Baturakachhar, 19 Bhagutola, 20 Bhanpur, 21 Bhedali, 22 Bhelwa, 23 Bhimpuri, 24 Bhurkuda, 25 Bijai, 26 Bijajhori, 27 Biptara, 28 Biranpur, 29 Birkona, 30 Birutola, 31 Bisanpura, 32 Bitkuli Kalan, 33 Bitkuli Khurd, 34 Bodhaikunda, 35 Bordehi, 36 Borduli, 37 Botepar, 38 Chachedi, 39 Charbhatha, 40 Chardongari, 41 Chhanta, 42 Chhantajha, 43 Chhiraha, 44 Chimagondi, 45 Chorbhatti, 46 Chuchrungpur, 47 Dabrabhath, 48 Dalpuruwa, 49 Dargawan, 50 Dashrangpur, 51 Dashrangpur Khurd, 52 Daujri, 53 Daukabandha, 54 Dehri, 55 Dewari, 56 Dhamaki, 57 Dhanaura, 58 Dharampura, 59 Dhauraband, 60 Dubha, 61 Dudhiya, 62 Dullapur, 63 Fandatod, 64 Gadhabhatha, 65 Gangchuwa, 66 Gangpur, 67 Gegda, 68 Ghirghosa, 69 Ghorewara, 70 Ghothiya, 71 Ghotiya, 72 Ghughari Kalan, 73 Ghughari Khurd, 74 Ghuksa, 75 Gopal Bhawna, 76 Gorakhpur, 77 Gudha, 78 Gyanpur, 79 Hedaspur, 80 Hirapur, 81 Indori, 82 Jaitpuri, 83 Jamuniya, 84 Jarti, 85 Jeodan Khurd, 86 Jhalka, 87 Jhalmala, 88 Jhirna, 89 Jhironi, 90 Jinda, 91 Jogipur, 92 Joratal, 93 Junwani, 94 Kanabhaira, 95 Kesali, 96 Khadaudha Khurd, 97 Khaira, 98 Khairipar, 99 Khairjhiti, 100 Khairjhiti Kalan, 101 Khairwar, 102 Khamhi, 103 Khandsara, 104 Khapri, 105 Khuntu, 106 Kiritbandha, 107 Kodar, 108 Kodwa, 109 Koko, 110 Kosmanda, 111 Kothar, 112 Koylari, 113 Koylarideeh, 114 Kuteli, 115 Kutkipara, 116 Kuwa, 117 Laghan, 118 Lakhanpur Kalan, 119 Lalpur Kalan, 120 Lasatola, 121 Limo, 122 Litipur, 123 Lochan, 124 Madanpur, 125 Madmada, 126 Magarda, 127 Maharatola, 128 Mainpuri, 129 Majgaon, 130 Makke, 131 Manikchauri, 132 Manpur, 133 Marka, 134 Marpa, 135 Mathani Kalan, 136 Mathani Khurd, 137 Mirmitti, 138 Mohgaon, 139 Motiyari, 140 Mudghusri, 141 Naudih, 142 Nawagaon, 143 Nawagaon Farid, 144 Nawagaon Tiwari, 145 Nawapara, 146 Nawghata, 147 Newari, 148 Newariguda, 149 Paliguda, 150 Pandariya, 151 Paneka, 152 Paraswara, 153 Patharra, 154 Pendra, 155 Raghunathpur, 156 Ramhepur Khurd, 157 Raweli, 158 Rengakhar Khurd, 159 Sagona, 160 Saigona, 161 Samnapur, 162 Sarangpur Khurd, 163 Semo, 164 Sighanpuri, 165 Singhanpuri, 166 Sohagpur, 167 Sonbarsa, 168 Sonpuri, 169 Sukhatal, 170 Surajpura, 171 Talpur, 172 Tamruwa, 173 Thakuraintola, 174 Thuhadeeh, 175 Thunupar,

Source - https://villageinfo.in/chhattisgarh/kabeerdham/kawardha.html

History

On July 2, 1998 the government of Madhya Pradesh state decided to constitute a new district, Kawardha by combining the erstwhile tehsil of Kawardha of Rajnandgaon district and the erstwhile tehsil of Pandariya of Bilaspur district.[12] The town of Kawardha was decided as the headquarters for this new district. The new district came into existence on July 6, 1998. The district is presently known as Kabirdham district. The four Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district are Kawardha, Virendra Nagar, Lormi and Mungali.


Not only Kawardha but also the place Chaura and Chhapri located at about 17 Km. from Kawardha, which is known as Bhoramdev, is a very important place historically and archaeologically. This place was the capital of Nagavanshi kings from about 9th century to 14th century. After that this came under possession of Haihayvanshi kings who were related to state Ratanpur. The Archaeological remains of the temple and old fort constructed by these kings are still available. [13]

According to Dilip Singh Ahlawat [14], The Naga Jats ruled over Kantipur, Mathura, Padmavati, Kausambi, Nagpur, Champavati, (Bhagalpur) and in the central India, in western Malwa, Nagaur (Jodhpur- Rajasthan). In addition they ruled the ancient land of Shergarh, (Kota, Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Chutiya Nagpur, Khairagarh, Chakra Kotiya and Kawardha. The great scholar, Jat Emperor, Bhoja Parmar, mother Shashiprabha was a maiden of a Naga Clan.


The Nagas of Kawardha established their power in the 9th century AD and they continued their rule till the middle of 14th century AD as feudatory of Kalachuris of Ratanpur. Details about this dynasty has been supplied by nine Inscriptions found at Kawardha, Chhapri, Chaura, Chhapri,Pujaripali, Boria and Sahaspur.[15]

Kawardha State

Kawardha State was one of the princely states in the Central Provinces of India during the period of the British Raj.[16] The capital of the state was Khairagarh town, in Kabirdham district of Chhattisgarh state. The Bhoramdeo Temple is located less than 20 km to the west of the main town.

Kawardha State was founded in 1751. According to legend its name would have originated in Kabirdham, Kabir's see, the current name of the district. In former times many Kabir panth adherents resided in the town. The rulers were Gonds of the Raj Gond dynasty. Kawardha State's last ruler, Thakur Lal Dharamraj Singh, signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1948, so the state territory was merged into Bombay State, following its splits first assigned to Madhya Pradesh, finally to Chhattisgarh.

Ruling Thakurs:

The rulers of the princely state of Kawardha bore the title Thakur.

  • 1751 – 1801 Mahabali Singh
  • 1801 – 1848 Ujiyar Singh
  • 1848 – 1852 Tok Singh
  • c.1860   Baijnath Singh
  • 186?. – 1863 Ram Singh
  • 1863 – 1864 Bahadur Singh
  • 1864 – 1891 Rajpal Singh (b. 1849 – d. ....)
  • 1891 – 1920 Jadunath Singh (b. 1885 – d. 19..)
  • 4 February 1920 – 15 August 1947 Lal Dharamraj Singh (b. 1910 – d. 1959)

Jat History

According to Dilip Singh Ahlawat [17], The Naga Jats ruled over Kantipur, Mathura, Padmavati, Kausambi, Nagpur, Champavati, (Bhagalpur) and in the central India, in western Malwa, Nagaur (Jodhpur- Rajasthan). In addition they ruled the ancient land of Shergarh, (Kota, Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Chutiya Nagpur, Khairagarh, Chakra Kotiya and Kawardha. The great scholar, Jat Emperor, Bhoja Parmar, mother Shashiprabha was a maiden of a Naga Clan.

'Mandava Mahal Inscription of Ramachandra of Phani Nagavanshi kings of Samvat 1406 (A. D. 1349) at Chaura' in Kawardha district of Chhattisgarh records the construction of a Siva temple by king Ramachandra, born of the Phani or Nagavansha, and married to Ambikadevi of the Haihaya lineage. It gives the legend of the origin of the Nagavansha. Our record relates that a Naga got enamoured of Mithila, the beautiful daughter of the sage Jatukarna (जाटुकर्ण). [18]

This record shows that Kawardha and the neighbouring country were under the sway of the Nagavanshi Jats for a period of about 500 years, commencing from the beginning of the 9th Century A. D., a little before the advent of the Kalachuris or Haihayas to Chhattisgarh. [19]

कवर्धा

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[20] ने लेख किया है ...कवर्धा (छत्तीसगढ़) (AS, p.152): कहा जाता है कि कवर्धा शब्द कबीरधाम का रूपांतर है. यह स्थान छत्तीसगढ़ में कबीर से संबंधित अनेक स्थानों में से है. कबीर पंथियों की संख्या यहां पर्याप्त है. कबीर साहब का असंगृहीत साहित्य भी यहां से प्राप्त हो सकता है.


जिला कबीरधाम सकरी नदी के दक्षिणी किनारे पर स्थित एक शांतिपूर्ण और आकर्षक स्थान है। कबीर साहिब के आगमन और उनके शिष्य धर्मदास के वंशज की गददी स्थापना के कारण इसका नाम कबीरधाम था। जो कबीरधाम के रूप में जाना जाता है। जिला मुख्यालय से लगभग 17 किमी भोरमदेव ऐतिहासिक और पुरातात्विक रूप से एक बहुत महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है। यह जगह 9वीं सदी से 14 वीं शताब्दी तक नागवंशी राजाओं की राजधानी थी। उसके बाद यह क्षेत्र राज्य के रतनपुर से संबंधित थे, जो हैहायवंशी राजा के कब्जे में आया। मंदिरों के पुरातात्विक अवशेष और इन राजाओं द्वारा बनाए गए पुराने किले अभी भी उपलब्ध हैं।[21]

कबीरधाम ज़िला

कबीरधाम ज़िला (Kabirdham) भारत के छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य का एक ज़िला है। यह पहले कवर्धा ज़िला (Kawardha) कहलाता था। ज़िले का मुख्यालय कवर्धा है, जो रायपुर से 120 किमी और बिलासपुर से 114 किमी की दूरी पर स्थित है। खजुराहो के समकालिक भोरमदेव का प्रसिद्घ मन्दिर जिले के महत्वपूर्ण आकर्षणों में से है।[1][2]

ऐतिहासिक महत्व के स्थान

पर्यटकों के लिए पर्यटन का अद्भुत केन्द्र बना कबीरधाम जिला 11वी शताब्दी के फणीनांगवंशी काल में निर्मित भोरमदेव मंदिर की पहचान विश्व पर्यटन मानचित्र पर भी रेखांकित हो रही है।

भोरमदेव मंदिर: भोरमदेव मंदिर जिला मुख्यालय कवर्धा से उत्तर पश्चिम में 18 किलोमीटर की दूरी पर सतपुड़ा मैकल पहाड़ियों के पाद तल में बसे हुए चौरा गांव में स्थित है। भोरमदेव मंदिर का निर्माण फणी नागवंश के छठवें राजा गोपाल देव द्वारा 11 वीं शताब्दी 1087 ई में कराया गया था। मंदिर में बनाए गए तीन प्रवेश द्वार जो तीनों की आकृति अर्द्ध मंडप जैसी ही दिखाई देती है। इस मंदिर मंडप में 16 स्तंभ तथा चारों कोनों पर चार अलंकृत भित्ति स्तंभ है। मंदिर के वर्गाकार गर्भगृह में हाटकेश्वर महादेव विशाल जलाधारी के मध्य प्रतिष्ठित है। गर्भगृह में ही पद्मासना राजपुरूष सपत्नीक,पदमासना सत्पनीक ध्यान मग्य योगी,नृत्य गणपति की अष्ठभूजी प्रतिमा तथा फणीनागवंशी राजवंश के प्रतीक पांच फणों वाले नाग प्रतिमा रखी हुई है। काले भूरे बलुआ पत्थरों से निर्मित मंदिरी की वाहय दीवानों पर देवी देवताओं की चित्ताकर्षक एवं द्विभुजी सूर्यप्रतिमा प्रमुख है। मंदिर के वाह्य सौंदर्य दर्शन का सबसे उपयुक्त स्थल ईशान कोण अर्थात भोरवदेव के ठीक सामने है, यहां से मंदिर रथाकार दिखाई देखता है। यह मंदिर तल विन्यास से सप्तरथ चतुरंग,अंतराल,अंलकृत, स्तंभों से युक्त वर्गाकार मण्डप है। उध्र्व विन्यास में उधिष्ठान जंघा एवं शिखर मंदिर के प्रमुख अंग हे। मंदिर के जंघा की तीन पंकित्यों में विभिन्न देवी देवताओं की कृष्णलीला, नायक-नायिकाओं, अष्ठद्विकपालों, युद्ध एवं मैथुन दृष्यों में अलंककरण किया गया है।

छेरकी महल: छेरकी महल भोरमदेव मंदिर के दक्षिण-पश्चिम में एक किलोमीटर की दूरी पर यह छेरकी महल स्थापित है। इस ऐतिहातिक एवं पुरात्व महत्व के छेरकीमहल में शिव भगवान विराजित है। ईंट प्रस्त्र निर्मित इस मंदिर का मुख पूर्व दिशा की ओर है। 14 वीं सदी के उत्तरार्द्ध में निर्मित इस मंदिर में छेरी बकरी का गंध आज भी आती है, इसलिए इस मंदिर नुमा महल को छेरकी महल के नाम से जाना जाता है। द्वार चैखट की वाम पाश्र्व द्वारा शाखा में नीचे चर्तुभूजी शिव एवं द्विभुजी पार्वती खड़े है। मंदिर का गर्भगृह वर्गाकार है। मध्य में कृष्ण प्रस्तर निर्मित शिवलिंग जलाधारी पर स्थापित है।

मड़वा महल: भोरमदेव मंदिर से आधे किलोमीटर की दूरी पर दक्षिण में चौरा ग्राम के समीप एक प्रस्तर निर्मित पश्चिमांभिमुख एक शिव मंदिर है, जिसे मड़वा महल कहा जाता है। स्थानीय लोग इस दूल्हादेव मंदिर के नाम से जानते है। इस मंदिर का निर्माण फणिनागवंश के चैबीसवें राजा रामचन्द्र देवराज द्वारा 1349 ई में रतनपुर राज्य की कलचुरी राजकुमारी अंबिका देवी के संग विवाहोपरांत करवाया गया था। मड़वा महल के शिलालेख से मिलती हे। इस शिलालेख में फणिनावंश की उत्पत्ति तथा वंशावली दी गई है।

पचराही: कबीरधाम जिले के बोडला विकासखण्ड के तरेगांव मार्ग पर कवर्धा से 45 किलोमीटर दूर प्राचीनतम पुरातात्विक एवं धार्मिक स्थल पचराही हाफ नदी के तट पर स्थित है। भोरमदेव में प्राप्त मूर्तियों एवं पचराही में प्राप्त मूर्तियों में जोगी मगरध्वज का उल्लेख होना देनों में सास्यता प्रदर्शित करता है। इसे स्थानीय लोग कंकालिन पचराही के नाम से जानते है। अलेक्जेंडर कविघंम यहां पर 18वीं सदी तक एक भव्य मंदिर होने का उल्लेख करते है,जिसके अंदर कंकालिन माता की मूर्ति थी। हाफ नदी के तट पर विकसित सभ्यता का प्रमाण पुरातात्विक उत्खनन उपरांत मिला है। यहां पंचायतन शैली का शिव मंदिर सबसे छोटी गणेश प्रतिमा हनुमान जी की अद्भुत प्रतिमा नगर सभ्यता की वस्तुएं प्राप्त हुई हैं। खुदाई के दौरान 15 करोड़ वर्ष प्राचीन जलीय जीवाश्म मोलास्का प्रजाति का प्रमाण मिला है।

जैन तीर्थ बकेला: कबीरधाम जिले विभिन्न धर्माे का समन्वय केन्द्र रहा है। यहां पर हिन्दू, जैन, सिक्ख, ईसाई और ईस्लाम धर्म को पर्याप्त सम्मान मिला है। पंडरिया तहसील मुख्यालय से 20 किलोमीटर पश्चिमोत्तर एवं पचराही से एक किलोमीटर की दूरी पर बकेला नामक स्थल है,जहां से नौवमीं दसवीं सदी की काले रंग की ग्रेनाईट से निर्मित जैन तीर्थकार प्रभु पाश्र्वनाथ की 51 ईंच उॅची प्रतिमा 1978 में प्राप्त हुई है। यहां पर जैन तीर्थ विकसित हो रहा है.

सतखण्डा महल हरमो: भोरमदेव मार्ग से हटकर पश्चिम दिशा में हरमो नामक गांव है,जहां एक भवन है, जिसे सतखण्डामहल के नाम से जाना जाता है। यहां सात खण्ड, छोटा जीना, सीढ़ी आदि निर्मित हैं। वनावट के आधार पर इसको किला भी कहा जा सकता है। इसकी पूर्व पश्चिम लम्बाई 21 मीटर एवं उत्तर दक्षिण चैड़ाई 10 मीटर तथा उचाई 45 फुट है। इसी भवन को प्रभु वल्लभाचार्य का जन्मस्थली बताया जा रहा है।

रामचुवा: रामचुवा कवर्धा से 8 किमी पश्चिम में जैतपुरी ग्राम के निकट मैकल पहाड़ की तलहटी मे स्थित है। रामचुआ पर्यटन स्थल के रूप में विकसित हो रहा है। यहां शिव, राम-जानकी, हनुमान व लक्ष्मीनारायण के अष्टमंदिर हैं। यहां पर जलकुंड,पाथवे बनाकर रामचुवा का विकास किया जा रहा है।

रानीदहरा: रानीदहरा जलप्रपात बोड़ला के पश्चिम दिशा मे बैरख ग्राम पंचायत के आश्रित ग्राम रानीदहरा में स्थित है। प्रकृति प्रदत अनुपम सौंदर्य स्थल रानी दहरा मे पर्यटन की संभावनाओं को बढ़ावा देने रानीदहरा जलप्रपात मे स्थल सुविधाएं बढ़ाने कांक्रीट सीढ़ी निर्माण के लिये 25 लाख रूपये स्वीकृत किये हैं। मैकल पहाड़ों से कल-कल बहता झरने का पानी नीचे एकत्र होता है

चिल्पी घाटी: मैकल की रानी चिल्पी घाटी जिले का खूबसूरत हिल स्टेशन हैं। चिल्पी घाटी में जाड़े के दिन मे कड़ाके की ठंड पड़ती है। यहां चिरईयां के फूल, पहाड़ों पर ऊंचे-ऊंचे पेंड़, बादलों का अद्भुत नजारा, बैगा आदिवासी जीवन आकर्षित करता है। चिल्फी घाटी क्षेत्र मे स्टाॅप डैम बनाकर यहां जलसंरक्षण व जलसंवर्धन को बढ़ावा दिया जा रहा है। इससे यहां की हरियाली बरकरार रहेगी व वन्यजीवों व लोगों के लिये निस्तार की सुविधा हो रही है।

भोरमदेव अभ्यारण्य: छत्तीसगढ़ में 3 राष्ट्रीय उद्यान एवं 11 अभयारण्य है राज्य के राष्ट्रीय उद्यानों का कुल क्षेत्रफल 2899 वर्ग किलोमीटर तथा अभयारण्यों का कुल क्षेत्रफल 3568 वर्ग किलोमीटर है कि राज्य के कुल वन क्षेत्र का 11.55% एवं राज्य की कुल क्षेत्रफल का 4.79% है प्रदेश के 3 राष्ट्रीय उद्यान में बीजापुर जिले में इंद्रावती राष्ट्रीय उद्यान को टाइगर प्रोजेक्ट घोषित किया गया राज्य बनने के बाद प्रथम अभयारण्य भोरमदेव अभ्यारण्य है यह सन 2001 में बना इसमें मुख्य रूप से तेंदुआ चीतल मोर नीलगाय सांभर आदि पाए जाते हैं

लोहारा बावली: कवर्धा की दक्षिण-पश्चिम दिशा में 20 कि॰मी॰ की दूरी पर स्थित लोहारा बावली बहुत खूबसूरत है। बैजनाथ सिंह ने इसका निर्माण 120 वर्ष पहले कराया था। मानसून आने से पहले गर्मी से निजात पाने के लिए कवर्धा के शासक इन कमरों में रहते थे।

कान्हा राष्ट्रीय पार्क: विश्वप्रसिद्ध कान्हा राष्ट्रीय पार्क कवर्धा से 300 कि॰मी॰ की दूरी पर स्थित है और अपनी हरियाली व वन्य जीवन के लिए बहुत प्रसिद्ध है। यहां पर पर्यटक साल के खूबसूरत वृक्षों और वन्य जीवन के खूबसूरत दृश्य देख सकते हैं। इसके वन्य जीवन की झलक पाने के लिए पर्यटक यहां आते हैं। वह यहां पर शेर, चीता, हिरण, तेंदुआ और कई प्रजातियों के खूबसूरत पक्षियों को देख सकते हैं।

सरोदादादर: सरोदादादर कवर्धा जिले के चिंल्फी ब्लाक में आकर्षण का केंन्द्र है। इसें विश्व का बिंन्दू भी कहते हैं। [22]

Bhoramdeo temple

Bhoramdeo temple

The Bhoramdeo temple is carved on the rocky stones in the Nagar style. This temple was built in the period of 7th to 11th century A.D.

The Shiva Linga in the temple is beautifully carved and the artistic appeal beckons the visitors. The Bhoramdeo temple has a resemblance with the Sun temple of Konark and The Khajuraho temple , and that is why it is also called the Khajuraho of Chhattisgarh. The “Madwa Mahal” near the Bhoramdeo temple is another beautiful historic monument, worth seeing. Just one km. away from Bhoramdeo , Madwa Mahal is known as the memorial of the marriage of Nagavanshi king and Haihawanshi Queen. ‘Madwa’ is a word from the local dialect synonymous to marriage pandal.

Madwa Mahal was originally a Shiva temple but due its shape, like a marriage shamiyana, it is known as “Madwa Mahal”. It is also called Dullhadeo. Nagavanshi emperor Ramchandra Deo has built it in 1349 A.D. The Shiva Linga is inside the ‘Garbha Grih’ and the ‘Mandap rests upon 16 pillars’.

The erogenous idols of this temple are also extremely beautiful. On the outer walls there are as many as 54 erotic sculptures in different poses. These asanas from the “Kam sutra”, are truly an epitome of eternal love and beauty. They are artistically significant too. The Nagavanshi Kings were believed to be the practitioners of ‘Trantra’ as their contemporaries in Khajuraho. The traces of turmeric on the walls, indicate that marriage and other rituals must have been performed here from time to time.

The Bhoramdeo temple, in the backdrop of natural beauty, is also unique for its architecture. Cunningham had termed it as one of the most beautifully decorated temple seen by him.

The main temple here has two parts. One is known as Ishtika made temple and the other is completely stone-carved. The main Bhoramdeo temple is in front of atranquil and cool lake. This medieval temple has been constructed upon a five feet high sprawling platform including a ‘Mandap’(shelter) Antral(Passage) and ‘Garbha Grih’(The main house of God). This east facing temple three openings except in the west. In the 60 ft. x 40 ft. area of the temple the Mandap which is square shape having four pillars in the centre and the rest are in periphery , associated with high roofs. There is a half shelter also on every entrance. In the 9 x 9 sq. ft sized ‘Garbha Grih’ a Shiva Linga’ is situated. The top of Grabha Grih goes straight to the summit of the temple known as the ”Kalash”. The east side Kalash is open in a circular form, probably to reduce the weight and maintain the balance of the structure. Near the entrance on the outer walls, the sculptures of Lord Vishnu and his other incarnations can be seen, besides those of Shiva, Ganesha etc. The row of idols from top to bottom have a size of one , one and half , and two feet height respectively The bottom part of the temple has four structures to keep the main body of the temple intact braving adverse weather condition. There are only four joints but no ‘kalash’ on the top of the same. The idols of elephants and lions are queued up on the top give the temple a decorative look. The main idols in the temple are those of Uma-Maheswar, Natraj , Narsimha , Vaman , Krishna, Surya , Kaal , Bhairava, Nritya Ganesh , Kartikeya, Tandul, Shivgang, Chamunda, Ambika, Sapta-Matrika and Laxmi-Naryan. The traces of 'Ram-Katha' are also engraved here in stones. Amidst a variety of idols the carnal sculptures of the temple are known worldwide for their exquisite carving in different erotic poses, obviously to reflect the lifestyle of those historic periods.In the north of the temple, there is a brick structure temple, which has got a superbly crafted series. On the North East and South portions of the ‘Garbha Grih’ the right angled projections add attraction to the site having big one in the middle and smaller ones on the outer side.

The brick-Structured temple also has similar Garbha Grih, as in main temple but there is no ‘Mandap’ in the front and only a open projected wall is there called ‘Allinda’. The top of this temple , too , is equal to the Bhoramdeo temple but the peak is broken mid-way. The entrance of the ‘Garbha Grih’ is completely stone-carved having one centre pillar and three adjoining pillars still intact. Inside the main temple there are shiva Linga and idols of Uma-Maheshwar. The king and queen are standing in the front as the worshippers.

Inscriptions in Kawardha State

Source - Hira Lal: Descriptive lists of inscriptions in the Central provinces and Berar,p.162-63

[p.162]

Kawardha State

A. Important Inscriptions

(233) Boramdeo Temple Inscriptions

Boramdeo Temple (Chhapri-Kawardha) Inscriptions 1088 A.D.

(In situ)

Near the village Chhapri, 11 miles east of Kawardha, there is an old temple of Vishnu, popularly known as Boramdeo, on account of Gonds having utilized it as a shrine of their god when they were ascendant. The oldest inscription here is on the pedestal of a large figure of a bearded man sitting with joined hands, which General Cunningham considered to be the Raja's religious adviser. There are four records on it. The first gives a number of names apparently of the temple builder's religious advisers. In the second inscription the names of his wife, sons and daughters are given, In the third the date is given as 840, during the reign of Gopaladeva, and the fourth gives the names of masons.

The year apparently belongs to the Kalachuri era, and is thus equivalent to 1088 A.D. Gopaladeva was evidently a local chief under the sovereignty of the Ratanpur kings. He may be identical with Gopaladeva of the Pujaripali inscription. The principal image of the temple is that of Lakshmi Narayana, on the pedestal of which the name of that ubiquitous Jogi Magaradhvaja with the figure 700 is inscribed. On the wall of the temple there is a modern inscription of the Samvat year 1608 (A. D. 1551), which was originally read as 160, equivalent to A.D. 103, and was quoted as a proof of the antiquity of Gond rule in Chhattisgarh.

(Cunningham's Archaeological Reports, Volume XVIII, page 42.)

Mandava Mahal Inscription of Ramachandra of Phani Nagavanshi kings of Samvat 1406 (A. D. 1349) at Chaura

(234) Mandava Mahal Inscription at Chaura
(In situ)

Source - Hira Lal: Descriptive lists of inscriptions in the Central provinces and Berar,p.162-63

[p.152]: Chaura is a village about 11 miles from Kawardha. In a temple known as Mandava Mahal (मंडवा महल) there is a long inscription on a slab containing 37 lines, which records the construction of a Siva temple by king Ramachandra, born of the Phani or Nagavansha, and married to Ambikadevi of the Haihaya lineage. It gives the legend of the origin of the Nagavansha, somewhat resembling that of the Haihaya-vansha, who claim a serpent and a mare to be their original ancestors. Our record relates that a serpent got enamoured of Mithila, the beautiful daughter of the sage Jatukarna (जाटुकर्ण).

Family tree of Nagavanshi Rulers of Kawardha


[p.163]: He therefore assumed human form and had intercourse with her. Their issue was Ahiraja, who, having conquered the neighbouring chiefs, set himself up as a king. The kings who followed him are shown in the genealogical table in the picture. Family tree is as under:

1. Ahiraja → 2. Rajalla → 3. Dharnidhara → 4. Mahimadeva → 5. Sarvavandana (Saktichandra ?) → 6. Gopaladeva → 7. Naladeva → 8. Bhuvanapala → 9. Kirtipala → 10. Jayatrapala → 11. Mahipala → 12. Vishamapala → 13. Ja(nhu) → 14. Janapala or Vijanapala (or Juvapala ?) → 15. Yasoraja → 16. Kanhadadeva ? (Vallabhadeva ?) → 17. (La)kshmavarma → 18. Khadgadeva → 19. Bhuvanaikamalla → 20. Arjuna → 21. -Bhima → 22. Bhoja

17. (La)kshmavarma → Chandana → Vijjana → Malugideva → 23 Lakshrtiana → 24. Ramachandra → (Arjuna + Haripala)

[164]: It would appear that the succession deflected twice from the direct line. For nine generations up to Kirtipala it went in a direct line. The 10th king Jayatrapala was a brother of Kirtipala, who apparently had no son to succeed him. Twelve descendants of Jayatrapala succeeded one after the other, the last king Bhoja being succeeded by Lakshmana, a great-grandson of his great-great-grand-uncle. Lakshmana's son was Ramachandra, the 2Oth descendant from the original ancestor Ahiraja.

The inscription is dated in Vikrama Saka 1406, bearing the name Jaya, which makes it clear that the year intended was that of the Vikrama era, as the cyclic year Jaya was current in Vikrama Samvat 1406 (A. D. 1349).

This record shows that Kawardha and the neighbouring country were under the sway of the Nagavanshi kings for a period of about 500 years, commencing from the beginning of the 9th Century A. D., a little before the advent of the Kalachuris or Haihayas to Chhattisgarh.

Apparently the Nagavanshis became the feudatories of the Kalachuris and continued to rule under their protection for a long time. Amongst the kings of this dynasty we find two names Gopaladeva (6) and Yasoraja (15) with which we are familiar from other inscriptions found in this locality. Gopaladeva's name occurs in the Boramdeo temple, about a mile away from our inscription slab. It is dated in the Kalachuri year 840, or A. D. 1088, while at Sahaspur, only 21 miles away from Chaura, there is a record of Yasoraja, dated in the Kalachuri year 934, or A.D. 1182. These kings must evidently belong to the dynasty which our record describes. Between Gopaladeva and Yasoraja there was an interval of only 94 years according to the dates of their inscriptions, but our record gives eight intervening generations, giving an average of less than 12 years to a generation. This throws a doubt on the accuracy of the genealogy, to swell which it is possible a number of fictitious names may have been inserted.

The geographical names mentioned in the record are Chavarāpura, the Samkari river, Rajapura and Kumbhipuri.

Chavarapura, to the east of which the temple was built, is undoubtedly the village Chaura, within whose limits the temple still lies, and Samkari is the Sankari river which is about a quarter of a mile away.

Rajapura was a village

[p.165]: granted for the supply of offerings to the god, and may be identified with a village of the same name three miles from Chaura.

Kumbhipuri is not traceable. It was given at the same time as an agrahara to a Brahman named Mahesa.

The record which is in verse, was composed by a Dakshini Brahman Vitthala, which seems to account for the curious way in which he has indicated the era, calling it Vikrama Saka ; the last word Saka used in this phrase is merely an equivalent of a year.

Kankali Inscriptions

Source - Hira Lal: Descriptive lists of inscriptions in the Central provinces and Berar,p.165

(235) Kankali Inscriptions
(Two in situ and four in Kawardha.)

[p.165]: There is a temple of Kankali in a fort 20 miles north of Kawardha, the nearest village being Boria, three miles to the south-east. The inscribed sculptures of this place have been removed to Kawardha, so that there remain only two records in situ, viz., the name of Magaradhvaja Jogi with his invariable figure 700 and that of Devadasa who appears to have been another pilgrim like Magaradhvaja.

Of the four inscriptions removed to Kawardha, two were Sati pillars which now support the mandapa of Rama's temple there, while the other two, recorded on the pedestals of statues, are kept in the Burha Mahadeva (बूढा महादेव) temple near the new court-house. One of them is undated and gives no information beyond the name of Jasaraja.

The other one is dated in what appears to be Samvat 945 or 915, and is engraved on the pedestal of a royal bearded figure' who is seated with hands joined in devotional posture. It records the construction of a temple (prasāda) for the salvation of her father by one Vāvo, daughter of Vānchhā, the mother of the wise Pandu (पांडू), son of Thakur Mandu (ठाकुर मांडू), the Prime Minister (mahāmātya) of the Maharanaka Jasarajadeva (महाराणक जसराजदेव). It appears that Mandu and his wife had died and their daughter built a temple in the name of her parents. The sculpture has three figures, two of a couple with haloes behind them, and the third of a female without any such insignia.

Apparently, the couple represents the parents and the simple female figure their devoted daughter.


[p.166]: General Cunningham read the date as 910 or 1110, which the inspection of the inscription does not confirm. The figures are badly formed, and they were once read as 849.1

The chief Jasarajadeva is apparently the same as Yasoraja of the Sahaspur inscription, which is dated in Samvat 934, or 1183 A. D., and the present reading of the date goes to establish the identification more closely than before. Jasaraja is described a Maharanaka or feudatory chief, the nucleus of whose dominions was obviously the Kawardha State. It seems possible that Yasoraja or Jasaraja was a descendant of Gopaladeva of the Boramdeo temple inscription. The latter flourished a century earlier than the former.

(Cunningham's Archaological Reports, Volume XVII, page 44 ff.)
B.— Unimportant, Incomplete Or Illegible Inscriptions.
(236) Kawardha Inscriptions.
(In situ.)

In the temple of Rama, on the Ujiyar Sagar tank, there are two inscribed pillars which are much worn. They appear to be Sati stones utilized as pillars to support the mandapa of the temple which was built only about a century ago from stones and materials brought from Boria (or Kankali). One of the inscriptions is dated in Samvat 1414 on Monday the 12th of the bright fortnight of Margasirsha, corresponding to Monday the 5th December 1356 A. D., during the reign of Maharaja Sri Ramadeva, and the other in Samvat 1422 on Monday the 13th of the bright half of Jyeshtha, corresponding to Monday the 13th May 1364 A. D. This stone records that the deceased Nayaka Mahadeva had three wives, Metāī , Jaukhāī and Divamāī, of whom only Metāī committed Sati, and it was in her honour that the pillar was erected. The Hindu sentiment


1. Asiatic Researches, Volume XV, page 506.


[p.167]: would not allow a tombstone to be put up in a place of worship, but neither the builder of Rama's temple nor the citizens of Kawardha ever dreamt that these pillars contained records of this nature.


(237) Sati Inscriptions.

There are a number of Sati records in Chhapri and Boria. Two of these, belonging to Boria, have been utilized as pillars in Rama's temple at Kawardha. They belong to the 14th Century A. D,. To the same period belong the Sati pillars of Chhapri, one of which is dated in Samvat 1430, or A.D. 1373, and another in Samvat 1445, or A.D. 1388.

(Cunningham's Archaeological Reports, Volume XVII, page 41.)

Boria Statue Inscriptions of Jasarajadeva Kalachuri year 910 (1158 AD)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 585-586


Nos 111-112; Plate XCII
Boria Statue Inscriptions of Jasarajadeva

[p.585]: These inscriptions were discovered in 1881-82 by Sir A Cunningham near the ruins of a temple of the goddess Kankālī in an old deserted fort, 3 miles to the north-west of the village Bôriâ. This village is situated about 20 miles to the north of Kawardha, the chief town of a former feudatory State of the same name in the Chhattisgarh Division of Madhya Pradesh. Cunningham published a transcript and a photozincogiaph of the inscriptions in Archaeological Survey of India Reports, Vol XVII, p 44 and plate xxii. They were subsequently noticed by Rai Bahadur Hiralal in his inscriptions in the Central Provinces and Berar. They are edited here for the first time from excellent ink impressions kindly supplied by Mr. M A Suboor of the Central Museum, Nagpur.

They are two inscriptions, each on a separate statue. Both are in a good state of preservation. The characters are Nâgarï and language Sanskrit Each consists of only three lines. The average size of the letters in the first or larger one is 5" and that of the second is 7" .

The larger Inscription (A) of the two records is incised on the pedestal of a bearded figure with hands joined in adoration. It mentions Thākura Māltu, the Chief Minister (Mahāmātya) of the illustrious and victorious king, Mahārānaka Jasarājadeva, and names his son, mother and daughter. The object of it is to record the construction of a temple by Māltu for the religious merit of his father. This temple is evidently identical with the present one dedicated to the goddess Kankālī

The second inscription (B) also mentions the illustrious Jasarājadeva. The object of it is apparently to record that the statue on which it is incised represents Jāgu, the son of Dhirachhëndra, who was a military officer, evidently, of Jasrājadeva. He is stated to be a devoted disciple.

The first inscription contains the date, Samvat 910, expressed in decimal figures, of an unspecified era. It must, of course, be referred to the Kalachuri era. It does not admit of verification, but as an expired year, it would correspond to 1158-59 A C. The second inscription is undated, but is clearly of the same period.

Jasarājadeva, mentioned in both the records, is evidently identical with Yasorāja whose inscription, dated K 934, was found at Sahaspur in the same State of Kawardha.

He was probably a feudatory of the Kalachuris.


1. This date is furnished by the first or larger of the two inscriptions. The smaller one is undated.

2. 'The Memorandum of Inscriptions in Chhattisgarh', published by Sri R Jenkins in A R , Vol XV, p. 506, mentions two records at Borea of Pandua, one of them being dated Samvat 849, Thèse appear to be different from those edited here See C A S I R , Vol XVII, p 44

3. First ed , pp 165 ff, second ed , pp 177 ff

4. Cunningham gives the date as Samvat 910 in one place and as Samvat 1110 in another. See his A S I R , Vol XVII, pp 44-5 Hiralal read it as 945 or 915. Jasarājadeva of the present inscription is probably identical with Yasôrāja of the Sahaspur inscription (No. 115) which is dated in the (Kalachuri) year 934. If the date of the present inscription is also in the Kalachuri era, as appears probable, the reading 1110 is impossible. If referred to the Vikrama era, this date would be too early for Jasarâjadêva, judging from the characters of the inscription. It is also unlikely to be a date of the Saka era as shown by the Word Samvat prefixed to it, though it would, in that case, not be impossible for Jasarâjadêva. The figures of the date are very badly formed. The Sahaspur inscription indicates that the first figure is intended to be 9. The last two figures appear to be 1 and 0. In any case the last figure cannot be read as 5, for the contemporary shape of which, see L-6 of the Sahaspur inscription.

Sanskrit Text
A
१. स्वस्ति [।*] स्रि (श्री) विजयराजजसराजदेव [।*] महाराणकस्य तस्य महाआमात्य ठाकुर माल्तु-
[।*] तस्य पु-
२. त्र(त्रो) मतिस्रे (श्रे)ष्ठ [*] ठाकुर [*] पाल्तु नामे(म्ना)विस्रु(श्रु)त. [।*] तस्य माता वाल्ता [।*]
तस्य पुत्रि (त्री) वावो नाम विस्रुत [।*] तस्य पितुस्य [पु] -
३. ण्यार्थ प्रासाद [स्था]पीत सिव । सवत (त्) [९]१० [।*] सुत्रधार धरणीधर [।*]
B
१. स्री (श्री) जसराजदेव [।*]
२. [स्री] (श्री) धिरछेद्रपुत्र । डडनायक जागु [।*]
३. ठ सावियभक्त ॥
Boria Statue Inscriptions of Jasarajadeva Kalachuri year 910 (1158 AD)[23]
Translation
A


[p.586]: Hall ! (There is) the illustrious and victorious king Jasarājadeva . Of him (who is) Mahārānaka, the Mahāmātya (Chief Minister) is the Thākura Māltu. His son, deserving of highest praise by his intelligence, is a Thākura, well-known by the name Pāltu. His mother is Vāltā. His daughter is well-known by the name Vāvo (This) blessed temple has been erected for the religious merit of his father. The year 910

The Sûtradhāra (artisan) was Dharaṇīdhara.

B

(This is) the illustrious Jasarājadeva. His Dandanāyaka (is) Jāgu, the son of the illustrious Dhirachhendra, the Thākura who is a devoted disciple.


Note by Wiki editor

Sahaspur Statue Inscription of Yasoraja of Kalachuri year 934 (A.D. 1182)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 595

No 115 ; Plate XCV
Sahaspur Inscription of Yasoraja 1182 AD

This inscription was first brought to notice by Sir Richard Jenkins in the Asiatic Researches, Vol. XV, p 506. It was subsequently noticed by Sir A. Cunningham, who gave an account of its contents and the Christian equivalent of its date together with a photozincograph in his Archœologîcal Survey of India Reports Vol. XVII, pp 42-4, plate xxii. Its date was next examined by Dr Kielhorn in the Indian Antiquary Vol XVII, p. 217. The inscription is edited here for the first time from excellent ink impressions kindly supplied by Mr M A Suboor of the Central Museum, Nagpur.

The record is incised on the pedestal of a statue, locally known as that of Sahasrārjuna or Sahasrabāhu, which lies under a tamarind tree near a tank at Sāhaspur, 12 miles to the south-west of Kawardha, the chief town of a former feudatory state of the same name in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh. It consists of four short lines followed by four half lines on the left and two half lines on the right. It is in a good state of preservation. The average size of the letters is 5". The characters are Nāgarî and the language Sanskrit. The only orthographical peculiarities, which call for notice, are the use of v for b in Valêr=.L-1 and of the palatal ś for the dental s in -sûnôh^ L-2

In the first four lines the inscription describes Yasôrāja whom the statue was intended to represent ; but the description is wholly conventional. The next four half lines on the left name his queen (Lakshmādevī), two sons (Bhojadeva & Rājadeva) and one daughter (Jāsalladevi). The date of the inscription is recorded in the two half lines on the right as the year 934 (expressed in decimal figures only), the fifteenth tîthi of the bright fortnight of Kārttika, Wednesday. This date must evidently be referred to the Kalachuri era and regularly corresponds to Wednesday, the 13th October 1182 A C. On that day the fifteenth night of the bright fortnight of Kàrttika in the expired Kalachuri year 934 ended 14 hours after mean sunrise.

As stated before, Yaśorāja was probably a feudatory of the Kalachuri kings of Ratanpur.

Text

१. वक्तृत्वे समतां सदा सुरगुरोर्द्दाने व(ब)लेर्भूभुज

२. लावण्ये मकरध्वजस्य गिरिजाशू(सू)नो सुशक्तौ स्थिति.।

३. प्रत्यायातरिपुश्च दुष्टमपि [य]स्तद्रक्षणे य शिवि (बि)

४. सोयं चात्र विराजते भुवि यशोराज जितारि स्वय(यम्)[॥१॥

५. राज्ञी श्रीलक्ष्मादेवी ॥ स्वस्ति सम्व[त्] ९३४

६. कुमारश्रीभोजदेव ॥ कार्तिक सुदि १५ वु(बु)धे ॥

७. कुमारश्रीराजदेव: ॥

८. कुमा[रि](री) [श्री]जासल्लदेवि(वी) ॥

Sahaspur Statue Inscription of Yasoraja of Kalachuri year 934 (A.D. 1182)[24]

Translation of Sahaspur Statue Inscription of Yasoraja of Kalachuri year 934 (A.D. 1182)

Here on the earth shines that Yaśorāja himself, who has conquered his enemies, who has always attained equality with the preceptor of gods in eloquence, with the Bali in charity, with the crocodile-bannered (god of love) in beauty (and) with (Kartikeya) the son of Girijā in great strength, and who is Sibi in protecting even a wicked foe who comes back to him (for shelter).

(Line 5) The queen, the illustrious Lakshmādevī.
The prince, the illustrious Bhojadeva.
The prince, the illustrious Rājadeva.
The princess, the illustrious Jāsalladevi.

Hail ! (In) the year 934, on the 15th (lunar) day of the bright (fortnight) of Kārttika, on Wednesday.

Wiki Editor's note on Sahaspur Statue Inscription of Yasoraja of Kalachuri year 934 (A.D. 1182)

The inscription mentions following names which are associated with Jat history or Jat clans:

  • Shivi (शिवी) - Shivi (शिवी) or Sibi (सिबी) or Sibia (सिबिया) is a gotra of Jats.
  • Jit (जित) - Jit (जित) or Jit (जिट) is term used for Jats by the English historian James Tod.
  • Yashoraja - Yashoraja has been identified by Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi [26] as a feudatory of the Kalachuri kings of [Ratanpur]]. Mandava Mahal Inscription of Nagavanshi kings of Samvat 1406 (A. D. 1349) at Chaura gives the genealogy of Nagavanshi Jat rulers of Kawardha which starts from Ahiraja. In this list Yashoraja is mentioned at S.No. 15. Ramachandra is mentioned at S.No. 24 in this list, who constructed Shiva temple at Bhoramdeo in 1349 AD. There is a gap of 167 years and period of each generation comes about 19 years. This justifies that Yashoraja is from the dynasty of Nagavanshi Jat rulers of Kawardha.

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  2. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 585-586
  3. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.580-582
  4. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.580-582
  5. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 585-586
  6. https://web.archive.org/web/20091125135517/http://kawardha.nic.in/bhoramdeo.htm
  7. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.580-582
  8. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,p.284
  9. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.580-582
  10. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.580-582
  11. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.580-582
  12. History of Kabirdham district from official website, accessed 06-Sep-2008
  13. http://www.gloriousindia.com/places/ct/kawardha.html
  14. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  15. Archaeological excavations in central India: Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh By R. K. Sharma, Om Prakash Misra, p. 15
  16. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kawardha" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 702.
  17. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  18. Hira Lal: Descriptive lists of inscriptions in the Central provinces and Berar,p.162-63
  19. Hira Lal: Descriptive lists of inscriptions in the Central provinces and Berar,p.162-63
  20. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.152
  21. https://kawardha.gov.in/
  22. ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की रियासतें और जमीन्दारियाँ (वैभव प्रकाशन, रायपुर1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5) ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की जनजातियाँ/Tribes और जातियाँ/Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन, दिल्ली6, ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8)
  23. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 585
  24. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 595
  25. History and study of the Jats. By Professor B.S Dhillon. ISBN-10: 1895603021 or ISBN-13: 978-1895603026. p.126
  26. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 595

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