Jain

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Jainism is an ancient religion of India.

Jainism in History

Jains consider the king Bimbisara (c. 558–491 BCE), Ajatasatru (c. 492–460 BCE) Udayi of the Haryanka dynasty as a patron of Jainism.[1] Jainism also flourished under the Nanda Empire (424–321 BCE).[2] Tradition says that Chandragupta Maurya (322–298 BCE), the founder of Mauryan Empire became disciple of Bhadrabahu during later part of his life.[3] However, such accounts of Jain relationship with kings do not conform to the data available in other sources sometimes and hence are dubious.[4]

Ashoka (273–232 BCE), the grandson of Chandragupta was inspired by buddhist ideologies. There is a reference to Jains in the eddicts of Ashoka where the duties of dhammamahatma (law-authorities) are dealt with.[5] The inscription reads:[6]

Piyadasi, who is loved by the gods spoke thus: My supervisors of law are dealing with many connected with mercy, also with those which concern the ascetics and those which concern the house holders. They deal with the religious brotherhoods as well. I have made arrangements so that they will deal with the matter of Sangha (of the Buddhist community); similarly, I have made arrangements so they will deal with the Brahmans and also with the Ajivikas; I have also made arrangements that they deal with the Niganthas (Jainas); I have made arrangements so that they will deal with (all) the religious brotherhoods.

Ashoka's grandson Samprati Maurya (c. 224–215 BCE), is said to have converted into Jainism by a Jain monk named Suhasti according to the tradition. He lived in a place called Ujjain.[7] It is believed that he erected many Jain temples, and the temples whose origins are forgotten were often ascribed to him in later times.[8] Samparti Maurya son of Dasarath Maurya and grandson of Asoka was a great patron of Jainism, who, according to Jinaprabhasuri ruled at Patliputra as ‘’lord of Bharata with its three continents, and was the great Arhanta to establish Viharas for Sramanas even in non-Aryan countries.” The dominions of Samprati probably also included Avanti and Western India.[9] Nadlai Inscription of 1629 AD calls Samprati as Jnyataraja (Jat King). Ghanghani Inscription of Samprati Maurya provides very useful information. There is an ancient Jaina Temple. According to Jaina poet Samayasundara the ancient sculptures bear Inscription of Samprati Maurya, Dasarath Maurya's son and granson of Ashoka Maurya. This indicates that he built a grand Padmaprabhu Jinalaya temple.[10]

Emperor Kharavela of Mahameghavahana dynasty, though religiously tolerant, is said to have patronized Jainism. Inscriptions found in Udayagiri mentions that he erected a statue of the Adinath, the first tirthankara and made cave-dwellings for monks.[11]

During Chandragupta's reign, Bhadrabahu moved to karnataka to survive a twelve year long famine. Sthulbhadra, a pupil of Bhadrabahu, stayed in Magadha. Later, when the disciples of Bhadrabahu returned, they found that those who stayed back started wearing clothes. They found this as being opposed to the Jain tenets which, according to them, required complete nudity. Those who wore clothes are known as svetambara where as the other were known as digambara. According to Svetambara, they are the original Jains and the Digambara sect came out c. 83 CE. According to Digambara, they are the original and the svetambara sect came out c. 80 CE.

According to a story, Gardabhilla (c. 1st century BCE), a powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati who was the sister of a Jain monk named Kalaka. The enraged monk sought the help of the Indo-Scythian ruler Saka Sahi who defeated Gardabhilla and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated, although Gardabhilla himself was forgiven.[12] Vikramaditya, the son of Garadabhilla, drove away the saka ruler and is considered by Jains as a patron of their religion.[13] He was a pupil of a famous Jain monk called Siddhasena Divakara. The rule of Vikramaditya was ended by Gautamiputra Satakarni (also known as Salivahana) according to the tradition. He was also a great patron of Jainism.[14] Mathura was an important Jain centre during the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE and inscriptions from the 1st and 2nd century CE shows that the schism of Digambara/Svetambara had already happened.[15]

Vallabhi council was formed at 454 CE[16] to write the scriptures of Jainism. The digambara sect completely rejects these scriptures as not being authentic. King Vanaraja (c. 720–780 CE) of chavada dynasty was raised by a Jain monk Silunga Suri. Mularaja, the founder of Chalukaya dynasty constructed built a Jain temple, even though he was not a Jain.[17] During the reign of Bhima (1022–1064), a Jain layman Vimala built many temples above Mount Abu. A famous Jain monk Hemachandra (Born c. 1088 CE) was initiated at the age of eight by monk Devachandra. He was a prime figure; responsible for propagation of Jainism in Gujarat.[18] He converted king Kumarpal of the Solanki dynasty. However, Ajaypala, nephew and successor of Kumarpala was a Saivite. He subjucated Jains.

Mihirakula ended the Gupta kingdom c. 480 CE. He was considered as an opponent by the Jains because he created policies to subjucate Jainism.[19]

Huien Tsang, a traveller, (629–645 CE) notes that numerous Jains in Vaisali near Rajagraha, Nalanda, Pundravardhana. He considers Kalinga to be major seat of Jainism during his time.[20]

The king of Kannauj Ama (c. 8th century CE) was converted to Jainism by Bappabhatti, a disciple of Siddhasena Divakara.[21] Bappabhatti also converted a friend of Ama, named Vakpati. Vakpati is the one who composed the famous prakrit epic named Gaudavaho.[22]

Origin of Jainism

The origins of Jainism are obscure. During the 5 or 6th century BC, Vardhamana Mahāvīra became one of the most influential teachers of Jainism. Mahāvīra, however, was most probably not the founder of Jainism, which reveres him as the last of the great tīrthaṅkaras of this age and not the founder of the religion. He appears in the tradition as one who, from the beginning, had followed a religion established long ago.

Pārśva, the traditional predecessor of Mahāvīra, is the first Jain figure for whom there is reasonable historical evidence.[47] He might have lived somewhere in the 9th–7th century BC.[23][24][25] Followers of Pārśva are mentioned in the canonical books; and a legend in the Uttarādhyayana sūtra relates a meeting between a disciple of Pārśva and a disciple of Mahāvīra which brought about the union of the old branch of the Jain ideology and the new one.[26]

The word Jainism is derived from the Sanskrit verb root jin ("to conquer"). It refers to a battle with the passions and bodily pleasures that the Jain ascetics undertake. Those who win this battle are termed as Jina (conqueror). The term Jaina is therefore used to refer to laymen and ascetics of this tradition alike.

जैन परम्परा

संदर्भ - जैन परम्परा के इतिहास का यह भाग 'श्री सार्वजनिक पुस्तकालय तारानगर' की स्मारिका 2013-14: 'अर्चना' में प्रकाशित अशोक बच्छावत (अणु) के लेख 'जैन परम्परा' (पृ. 75-78) से लिया गया है।

जैन परम्परा के इतिहास में तीर्थंकर ऋषभनाथ के पुत्रों में चक्रवर्ती भरत एवं बाहुबली प्रसिद्ध हुये हैं। भरत के नाम पर इस देश का नाम भारत पड़ा। भरत का पुत्र सूर्यवंश और बाहुबल का पुत्र चंद्रवंश हुये जिनके नाम पर सूर्यवंश और चंद्रवंश चले हैं। जैन परम्परा मे 23 वें तीर्थंकर पार्श्वनाथ की पट्टावली मे 7 वें पट्टधर रत्नप्रभ सूरी हुये हैं। इनका कथानक इस प्रकार है - तीर्थंकर महावीर के निर्वाण के 70 वर्ष बाद अर्थात विक्रम संवत 400 पूर्व भीनमाल नगरी मे भीमसेन राजा राज्य करता था, उनके दो पुत्र थे, श्री पुंज और उपलदेव। उपलदेव ने मंत्री उहड़ देव को साथ लेकर मंडोर के पास उपकेश नगर वर्तमान ओसियां बसाकर अपना राज्य स्थापित किया। इसी समय तीर्थंकर पार्श्वनाथ के पट्टधर रत्नप्रभ सूरी उपकेश पट्टण (उपकेश ओसियां) पधारे। वहाँ पर राजा उपलदेव सहित सवालख लोग आचार्य श्री से प्रतिबोध पाकर जैन धर्मावली बने। आचार्य श्री द्वारा महाजन वंश की स्थापना हुई एवं ओसियां नागरी के नाम पर वहाँ निवासियों को ओसवाल कहा गया। ('अर्चना':पृ.75)

उपरोक्त ओसियां नागरी के राजा, मंत्री एवं अन्य क्षत्रियों द्वारा जैन धर्म स्वीकार किया गया। उस समय आचार्य श्री द्वारा 18 गोत्रों की स्थापना की - 1. तातेहड़, 2. कर्णाट, 3. बाफणा, 4. बलहरा, 5. मोराक्ष, 6. कुलहट, 7. विरहट, 8. श्रीमाल श्रेष्ठी, 9. सहचिता 10. आईचणाग, 11. भूरि, 12. भाद्र, 13. चींचट, 14. कुंभट, 15. डीडु, 16. कन्नोज 17. लघु श्रेष्ठी 18.ओसवाल

यह कथानक लगभग 2470 वर्ष पूर्व का है.('अर्चना':पृ.76)

राजस्थान मे जैन धर्म की उपस्थिती का प्रथम संकेत (इतिहास) श्री नांदिया तीर्थ से मिलता है। कहा जाता है की नंदिग्राम नंदिवर्धनपुर नंदिपुर आदि प्राचीन नाम से प्रसिद्ध गाँव तीर्थंकर महावीर के ज्येष्ठभ्राता नंदिवर्धन ने बसाया। एक कहावत प्रसिद्ध है - "नाणा, दियाणा नांदिया, जीवित स्वामी जुहांरिया" अर्थात इस मंदिर का निर्माण तीर्थंकर महावीर के जीवनकाल मे हुआ था। इसका पूर्वनाम नंदियक चैत्य था। कहा जाता है कि तीर्थंकर महावीर द्वारा चंडकौशिक नाग यहाँ प्रतिबोधित किया था। श्री मंदिर के मूल नायक तीर्थंकर महावीर हैं। निर्वाण काल श्री वीर निर्वाण संवत 2540 वर्ष से पूर्व का है यह तीर्थ पो. नांदिया, जिला सिरोही, राजस्थान मे है । ('अर्चना':पृ.76)

दूसरा तीर्थ अति प्राचीन खींवसर है। इसकाप्रचीन नाम अस्थिग्राम था। अस्थिग्राम कानाम कल्पसूत्र मे आता है। जैन आचार्य जीनेश्वर सूरी के समय उज्जैन के पँवार राजा खीमजी ने इसका नाम खींवसर किया। खींवसर नागौर जिले मे है। इसकी प्राचीनता लगभग 2000 वर्ष से ज्यादा है। ('अर्चना':पृ.76)

चूरु मण्डल मे जैन धर्म की विद्यमानतका प्रथम संकेत (रिणी) तारानगर के जैन मंदिर से मिलता है जो विक्रम की 10 वीं शताब्दी के अंतिम वर्षों मे बना माना जाता है। प्राचीन फोगपत्तन (फोगां, तहसील सरदारशहर) भाड़ंग (तहसील तारानगर) जो अब थेड़ मात्र रह गया है। ये संभवत: जैन धर्म के प्राचीन मुख्य स्थान हैं । जैन धर्म के पहले मुख्य दो गच्छ क्रमश:खरतरगच्छ (संवत 1204) और लौकागच्छ (संवत 1533) थे। इसमे खरतरगच्छ के आचार्य युग प्रधान जिनचन्द्र सूरी ने संवत 1625 (सान 1568 ई. मे ग्राम बापडाउ (बापेउ, डूंगरगढ़) तथा संवत 1637 (सान 1580 ई) मे ग्राम सेरूणा (डूंगरगढ़) मे चातुर्मास किए। ('अर्चना':पृ.76)

जिनरत्न सूरी के पट्टधर जिंचन्द्र सूरी और उनके पट्टधर जिनसुख सूरी हुये जो फ़ोगापतन (फोगा) के थे जिन्हें संवत 1762 आषाढ़ शुक्ल 11 को गच्छ नायक पद प्राप्त हुआ। संवत 1780 ज्येष्ठ कृष्ण 3 सान 1723 ई को रिणी (तारानगर) मे जिनमुख सूरि ने जिनभक्ति सूरी को गच्छ नायक पद प्रदान किया और स्वर्गस्थ हुये । ('अर्चना':पृ.76)

External links

References

  1. Glasenapp, Helmuth Von (1999), Jainism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1376-2,p.41
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  10. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.311
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