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Toor (तूर)[1] Tur (तूर)[2] Tur (तुर)/ Turr (तुर्र)[3] Tuar (तुअर) Toorr (तूर्र) Tomar (तोमर) is same gotra Jats. Toor, Tomar and Salkalan are considered the same gotras. They are found in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and Pakistan. Turi (तूरी ) or Tori (तोरी) or Tawari (तवरी) or Tuari (तुअरी) clan is found in Afghanistan. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [4] James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[5]


  • Toor - The Toor Jat claim Tomar Jat ancestry. In fact, Toor is a shortened form of Tomar.
  • Toor Gotra gets name from Raja Toor. [7]

Mention by Panini

Turayana (तुरायण) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [8]

Taurayanika (तौरायणिक) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [9]


Ram Swarup Joon[10] writes about...Jatrak or Jattarana: This is also an old gotra. According to "Kautilya's Arthshastra" they fought against Alexander the Great. According to Alberuni this hilly place called Chittor (Jattaur) was the capital of the Jattrana. They have 12 villages in Delhi area. They call themselves descendents of Tur. They have about 80 villages near Bhiwani.

Ram Swarup Joon[11] writes about Tanwar or Tur: It cannot be exactly said whether these people are Tushars or Mauryas. Before the establishment of their rule in Delhi their capital was in Tusharsthan.

According to Todd's Rajasthan, Tanwar is a branch of the Mauryan dynasty, but according to the bard of the Tanwar family they are associated with the Pandava. It may be that the Mauryas and Tushars belong to the Puru dynasty and from time to time their family names changed. For some generations this dynasty ruled over Delhi. After losing the throne they rejoined the Jats in large numbers, but some continued to be called Rajputs.

James Todd[12] writes that Tuar, Tonwar, Tomara, though acknowledged as a subdivision of the Yadu, is placed by the best genealogists as one of the ' thirty-six royal races,' a rank to which its celebrity justly entitles it.

We have in almost every ease the etymon of each celebrated race. For the Tuar we have none ; and we must rest satisfied in delivering the dictum of the Bardai, who declares it of Pandu origin.

If it had to boast only of Vikramaditya, the paramoimt lord of India, whose era, established fifty-six years before the Christian, still serves as the grand beacon of Hindu chronology, this alone would entitle the Tuar to the highest rank. But it has other claims to respect. Delhi, the ancient Indraprastha, founded by Yudhishthira, and which tradition says lay desolate for eight centuries, was rebuilt and peopled by Anangpal Tuar, in S. 848 (A.D. 792), who was followed by a dynasty of twenty princes, which concluded with the name of the founder, Anangpal, in S. 1220 (A.D. 1164), when, contrary to the Salic law of the Rajputs, he abdicated (having no issue) in favour of his grandchild, the Chauhan Prithviraja. Vigraha-raja, known as Visaladeva, Bisal Deo, in the middle of the twelfth century, is alleged to have conquered Delhi from a chief of the Tomara clan. That chief was a descendant of Anangapala, who, a century before, had built the Red Fort [13].

The Tuar must now rest on his ancient fame ; for not an independent possession remains to the race which traces its lineage to the Pandavas, boasts of Vikrama, and which furnished the last dynasty, emperors of Hindustan. Several Mahratta chieftains deduce their origin from the Tuar race, as Ram Rao Phalkia, a very gallant leader of horse in Sindhia's State.

It would be a fact unparalleled in the history of the world, could we establish to conviction that the last Anangpal Tuar was the lineal descendant of the founder of Indraprastha; that the issue of Yudhishthira sat on the throne which he erected, after a lapse of 2250 years Universal consent admits it, and the fact is

[p.105]: us well established as most others of a historic nature of such a distant period : nor can any dynasty or family of Europe produce evidence so strong as the Tuar, even to a much less remote antiquity.

The chief possessions left to the Tuars are the district of Tuargarh, on the right bank of the Chambal towards its junction with the Jumna, and the small [88] chieftainship of Patan Tuarvati in the Jaipur State, and whose head claims affinity with the ancient kings of Indraprastha.

James Tod[14] writes that The warriors assembled under Visaladeva Chauhan against the Islam invader included the ruler of Tuar ruler of Delhi. This Tuar must have been one of the Dehli vassals, whose monarch was of this race.

Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mention it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [15] Toor is an Agnivanshi Jat clan included in Chauhans.[16]

H.A. Rose[17] mentions about Tur in a mirasi's chāp or ballad regarding the great deeds of the Chaddrar clan, found along the whole length of the Chenab and Ravi valleys, but far most numerous in Jhang, where they for the most part regard themselves as Rajputs, the Chhadhars claim to be descended from Raja Tur, Tunwar.

Tur phir tawāna hoeā, Jis kul Tārā pāeā ne ; Rājā khub bhalā Ravilan. Jis Dilii Koṭ banāeā ne.

Meaning- Tunwar then became, strong. From which family Tara was born ; Raja Ravilan was a fine hero. Who built the fort of Delhi.

In Rigveda

Bhim Singh Dahiya has identified the Tur Jat clan with the Rigvedic Tribe - Tura : (RV 1/18/2, VI/25/5, VIII/3/13, VII/41/2, V/4/5. VI/48/12 VII/40/1, l/171/1, VII/40/l etc.). Turvas is also mentioned as a king in RV X/63/10 and VI/20/12 etc. Turan are noted in RV 1/173/1, and ancient King Tura in 1/121/3.

यो रेवान यो अमीवहा वसुवित पुष्टिवर्धनः |
स नः सिषक्तु यस्तुरः || (RV 1/18/2)
नहि तवा शूरो न तुरो न धर्ष्णुर्न तवा योधो मन्यमानो युयोध |
इन्द्र नकिष टवा परत्यस्त्येषां विश्वा जातान्यभ्यसि तानि || (RV VI/25/5)
कन नव्यो अतसीनां तुरो गर्णीत मर्त्यः |
नही नवस्य महिमानमिन्द्रियं सवर्ग्र्णन्त आनशुः || (RV VIII/3/13

They are also mentioned in Sat.Br. IX/5/2,35. Zimmer and McDonnel, took this tribe as one of the five main Aryan tribes. They are justified also because the Avesta mentions these five tribes as Arya, Turya, Dahi, Shor,and Sarmat. The last, in fact, is the name of the Alans. Perhaps the Alinas of RV, but I am taking it as Aulan. All these five tribes can be identified with the five tribes of the Jats, who are now Known as Arya, Tur, Dahiya, Sheoran, and Aulan/Sarmata respectively. In the Rigveda, they are expressly called Panca Jatah i.e. five Jats.

In Mahabharata

Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 mentions Tur tribe in verse 66 as combatant who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo:

तुहनश च तुहानश च चित्रथेवश च वीर्यवान
मधुरः सुप्रसादश च किरीटी च महाबलः (Mahabharata:IX.44.66)

Origin of Tur

Bhim Singh Dahiya has explained the origin of Tur. He[18] writes The word, "Turk" is coined perhaps in the sixth and seventh centuries whereas the Kushanas lived in the second century B.C. to third century A.D. At the time of the Kusanas the word Turk was not in existence. It is in the sixth and seventh centuries, after the rise of the Turkish people and their occupation of the area now called Turkistan - the home of the Kusanas-that these areas came to be associated with the name of Turk. The fact is that some Yue-che tribes who remained in their homes in Central Asia, later on mingled with the Turks who were one of their own clans, called "Turs". But prior to the 2nd/3rd century A.D., when there was no "Turks" at all the very idea of assigning Turkish origin to the Kushanas is out of the question. Who comes first, the father or the son? The Chinese sources are consistent in maintaining that the Turks are the descendants of the Biung-Nu or Hunas and not vice versa. It was only in 551 A.D., that the people of Altai area, revolted against the Jujuans (another Jat clan now called Janjua) and established their state with capital near Orkhon in outer Mongolia. These people were called Tu-Kiue by the Chinese and Turks by others. Prior to 551 A.D., the word 'Turk' was not in use, at least, and they must be a minor can. [19]

The Pehlavi Bundahesh, derives the Tur/Tour/Turk, as follows:

Fredun → Tour/Tur → Jaeshm → Peshang → Frasiao

As per Masoudi this person Tur or Tour was the ancestor of all the Turks, and there is no evidence to contradict this view. It is significant that this clan of Turs is still existing in India. Mohan Singh Tur, at present a member of National Parliament, belongs to this clan. Iranian sources also say that daughter of the descendants of Fredun, named Baboudukht, was married to Kabad (Kavadh) In 498 A.D. when he was in exile with the Aksuvans (Kasuans). Noshirwan was born to her. Noshirwan too, married another daughter of the Khakan, and Hormuzd, his successor, was born from her. [20] While we are on this topic let us see the last named descendant of Tur, viz., Frāsiāo. Firdausi gives the name as Afrasiāb and mentions his brother as Karsevaz. He was king of the Turanians, who fought the battle of Balkh, under their general Piran against the Iranian king Kae Khushru. This war ended in a treaty. However, the next Turanian King, Arjasp, fought again and killed not only Lohrasp, son of Kakhushru, but also Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism. He is stated to have extinguished the "Sacred fire" of their temples and Gushtasp himself, the king, was defeated and fled away. [21] Now our point is this: Is not the Frasiao of Bundahesh and Afrasiab of Firdausi -the same as Bharashiva of India? The so-called Bharashivas or Naga rulers of Mathura/Gwalior, under and after the Kushanas, must be the same as this Frasiao of central Asia. The similarity is too striking to be amenable to any other explanation. Otherwise also the Indian name Bharashiva,does not render itself to any reasonable meaning. Bhara is "weight" , and Shiva is of course, God Shiva; so, Bharasiva means a "load on/of Shiva". Were they (the Bharashivas) a load on Shiva or was Shiva a load on them?

Therefore, the Bharashivas of Mathura, etc. were from the Tur clan of Jats, and they cannot be taken as the indigenous power which drove away the Kushanas from India. This theory of Dr Jayaswal, based solely on the evidence of coins, is not at all tenable.[22] The Bharashivas were the Turs of Jats and they could not, be instrumental in destroying the Jat empire under their Kasvan clan. That the word Bharashiva, is the Sanskritised form of Frāsiāo/admits of no difficulty. There is even now a town called Afrasiab, near Samarkand, where excavation work has been done by G. Trever.[23]

So, Tur was the great grandfather of the first Frāsiāo, the Bharashiva of India. Their names Traya, Haya and Barhiṇa-are certainly not Indian names.

Relations with Sassanid emperor

During the time of Naushervan (531-579 AD), the Sassanid emperor of Iran ( who was himself born of a Jat lady of Tur clan, married by his father, Kavadh, in 498 AD when he was in exile and seeking the help of his Jat relations), we find that their chief, Khakan, at Balkh was in favour of peace with the Iranians. [24]

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the Turas identified with the Turvasha of ancient India, are further to be identified with the Tur clan. An area in Iran was called Tur and another area in Baluchistan is called Turan. [25]

तूर गोत्र का इतिहास

पंडित अमीचन्द्र शर्मा[26]ने लिखा है - तहसील पानीपत जिला करनाल में तूर गोत्र के जाटों का डिमाना एक नामी गाँव है। इसमें तूर जाटों के कई घर हैं। इस गोत्र के बड़े का नाम राजा तूर था जिससे यह गोत्र चला। यह विवरण इस गाँव के तूर गोत्र के जाट चौधरी जुगलाल ने उपलब्ध कराया। उसको पूरी वंशावली याद थी पर स्थानाभाव के कारण यहाँ नहीं दी जा रही है। इनके पुरोहित विवाह के समय अब तक भी डिमाना के तूर वंशी जाटों की वंशावली राजा तूर तक बताते हैं। डिमाना के ब्राह्मणों ने भी ऐसा ही बताया।

पंडित अमीचन्द्र शर्मा[27] ने गुराइण गोत्र के इतिहास में लिखा है कि जिला हिसार (अब भिवानी) में बामला गुराइण गोत्री जाटों का एक गाँव है। यहाँ तूर वंश में एक अति विख्यात जाटू नाम का राजा था। जाटू राजा के बड़े पुत्र का नाम पाड़ था। उसका पुत्र गोरा प्रसिद्ध हुआ। गोरा का पुत्र कालू, कालू का पूत्र सधीव, सधीव का पुत्र धेरपाल हुआ। बामला के गोरा की संतान गुराइण गोत्री जाट हैं। गुराइन गोत्री जाटों के ओर भी कई ग्राम हैं। गोरा की संतान में से कोई राजली ग्राम से चलकर बौन्द ग्राम में आ गया। बौन्द रियासत जींद में है। बौन्द में ठीक नहीं जमा तो वह कलिंगा ग्राम जिला रोहतक आ गया। यहाँ के ठाकुर ने उसको बसने के लिए थोड़ी जमीन दे दी। ठाकुर का पुत्र भी उसके पास ही रहने लगा। उस महाशय के दो पुत्र हुये। 1 बीधू, 2 भाकू ...उस महाशय ने ठाकुर से बहुत सारी जमीन लेली और उसमे बामला गाँव बसाया। इस गाँव मे 3 पान्ने हैं। जाट पुत्रों के नाम पर क्रमश: बीधू का बीधवान और भाकू का भाकल। ठाकुर के बेटे का नौरंगाबाद पानना है।

बामला के जाटों का निकास राजली ग्राम है। बामला के गुराइण गोत्र के जाटों की वंशावली निम्नानुसार है:

नोट - यह मानकर की परशराम लेखक का समकालीन होने से वर्ष 1900 ई. से एक पीढ़ी का काल 25 वर्ष मानते हुये उपरोक्त पीढ़ियों की काल गणना की जावे तो राजा जाटू का काल लगभग 1350 ई. आता है।

गोरा की संतान में छ्ज्जू सिंह (1575 ई.) तूर संघ से जाट संघ में मिला। तूर संघ मुख्यतया जाट गोत्रों से ही बना था। धरेपाल के भतीजे की संतान अब तक भी जताई ग्राम जिला भिवानी में हैं, वे राजपूत हैं। जताई के राजपूत और बामला के जाट परस्पर भाई हैं।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[28] ने लेख किया है ... चांपानेर (AS, p.331): चांपानेर अथवा 'चंपानेर' गुजरात में बड़ौदा से 21 मील (लगभग 19.2 कि.मी.) और गोधरा से 25 मील (लगभग 40 कि.मी.) की दूरी पर स्थित है। गुजरात की मध्ययुगीन राजधानी चांपानेर, जिसका मूल नाम 'चंपानगर' या 'चंपानेर' था, के स्थान पर वर्तमान समय में पावागढ़ नामक नगर बसा हुआ है। यहाँ से चांपानेर रोड स्टेशन 12 मील (लगभग 19.2 कि.मी.) है। इस नगर को जैन धर्म ग्रन्थों में तीर्थ स्थल माना गया है। जैन ग्रन्थ 'तीर्थमाला चैत्यवदंन' में चांपानेर का नामोल्लेख है- 'चंपानेरक धर्मचक्र मथुराऽयोध्या प्रतिष्ठानके -।'

प्राचीन चांपानेर नगरी 12 वर्ग मील के घेरे में बसी हुई थी। पावागढ़ की पहाड़ी पर उस समय एक दुर्ग भी था, जिसे पवनगढ़ या पावागढ़ कहते थे। यह दुर्ग अब नष्ट-भ्रष्ट हो गया है, पर प्राचीन महाकाली का मंदिर आज भी विद्यमान है। चांपानेर की पहाड़ी समुद्र तल से 2800 फुट ऊँची है। इसका संबंध ऋषि विक्रमादित्य से बताया जाता है। चांपानेर का संस्थापक गुजरात नरेश वनराज का चंपा नामक मंत्री था। चांदबरौत नामक गुजराती लेखक के अनुसार 11वीं शती में गुजरात के शासक भीमदेव के समय में चांपानेर का राजा मामगौर तुअर था। 1300 ई. में चौहानों ने चांपानेर पर अधिकार कर लिया। 1484 ई. में महमूद बेगड़ा ने इस नगरी पर आक्रमण किया और वीर राजपूतों ने विवश होकर अपने प्राण शत्रु से लड़ते-लड़ते गवां दिए। रावल पतई जयसिंह और उसका मंत्री डूंगरसी पकड़े गए और इस्लाम स्वीकार न करने पर मुस्लिम आक्रांताओं ने 17 नवंबर, 1484 ई. में उनका वध कर दिया। इस प्रकार चांपानेर के 184 वर्ष के प्राचीन राजपूत राज्य की समाप्ति हुई।

मुग़लों का अधिकार: 1535 ई. में मुग़ल बादशाह हुमायूँ ने चांपानेर दुर्ग पर अधिकार कर लिया, पर यह आधिपत्य धीरे-धीरे शिथिल होने लगा और 1573 ई. में अकबर को नगर का घेरा डालना पड़ा और उसने फिर से इसे हस्तगत कर लिया। इस प्रकार संघर्षमय अस्तित्व के साथ चांपानेर मुग़लों के कब्जे में प्राय: 150 वर्षों तक रहा। 1729 ई. में सिंधिया का यहाँ अधिकार हो गया और 1853 ई. में अंग्रेज़ों ने सिंधिया से इसे लेकर बंबई (वर्तमान मुम्बई) प्रांत में मिला दिया। वर्तमान चांपानेर मुस्लिमों द्वारा बसाई गई बस्ती है। राजपूतों के समय का चांपानेर यहाँ से कुछ दूर है।

स्थापत्य': गुजरात के सुलतानों ने चांपानेर में अनेक सुंदर प्रासाद बनवाए थे। ये सब अब खंडहर हो गए हैं। 'हलोल' नामक नगर, जो बहुत दिनों तक संपन्न और समृद्ध दशा में रहा, चांपानेर का ही उपनगर था। इसका महत्व गुजरात के सुलतान बहादुरशाह की मृत्यु के पश्चात् (16वीं शती) समाप्त हो गया। पहाड़ी पर

[p.332]: जो काली मंदिर है, वह बहुत प्राचीन है। कहा जाता है कि विश्वामित्र ने उसकी स्थापना की थी। इन्हीं ऋषि के नाम से इस पहाड़ी से निकलने वाली नदी 'विश्वामित्री' कहलाती है। महादजी सिंधिया ने पहाड़ी की चोटी पर पहुँचने के लिए शैलकृत सीढ़ियाँ बनवाईं थीं। चांपानेर तक पहुँचने के लिए सात दरवाजों में से होकर जाना पड़ता है।

Turi in Afghanistan

H. W. Bellew[29] writes that Turi or Tori represent the Tawari or Tuars, formerly an important tribe in these parts, and a branch of the celebrated Tomar, Tawar, or Tuar clan, once a powerful and ruling tribe in India, and to which belonged the last dynasty of Hindu sovereigns who reigned at Delhi, when the Brahman dominion was overthrown by Islam under Shahabuddin Ghori, towards the end of the twelfth century. By some the Turi are said to claim descent from the Khaters, but this name does not appear among their clans or sections. The Turi are a dark-skinned, short, and wiry people, but very active and hardy ; they are said to be skilful and bold riders on horseback, and to observe some customs peculiar to themselves ; they wear their hair long and are scantily clad, and are addicted to a wandering life in tents, within the limits of their country, which formerly extended as far as Torawari in Miranzai. At present they are confined to the Kuram valley and the southern slopes of Sufed Koh, the Balyamin district of Kuram being their principal seat. , Formerly they extended westward of the Pewar ridge to the head waters of the Kuram river ; their Ali clan having given its name to a considerable tract here, called Alikhel, which is now occupied by the Jaji tribe. The Turi are all Shia' Musalmans, and are reckoned at ten thousand families ; they are in five main divisions or clans, collectively styled Panjpadri, "Five Fathers" viz.,— Gundi, Ali, Mastu, Sarghali, and Dopa.

Turitola village

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Baran district


Villages in Hanumangarh

Pratapnagar, Sangaria,

Distribution in Haryana

Village in Jhajjar district


Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Bhopal district


Villages in Bhind district


Villages in Guna district


Villages in Narsinghpur district

Kapuri Narsinghpur

Villages in Vidisha district

Raikhedi vidisha

Villages in Chhindwara district


Villages in Raisen district


Villages in Gwalior district


Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Village in Jyotiba Phule Nagar

Toor village in Jyotiba Phule Nagar in Amroha tahsil in Uttar Pradesh.

Distribution in Punjab

Village in Firozpur district


Villages in Mansa district

Biroke Kalan,

Villages in Gurdaspur district

Villages in Hoshiarpur district

Villages in Sangrur district

Distribution in Pakistan

Toor - The Toor Jat claim Tomar Jat ancestry. In fact, Toor is a shortened form of Tomar. Most of the Toor Jats were found in Amritsar and Jalandhar. They are now found mainly in Lahore, Gujranwala and Faisalbad.

Notable persons

  • Sher Singh Toor - Ex. Principal, Chotala Road , Sangaria. Ph: 01499-251277
  • Mohan Singh Tur - Ex. member of Indian Parliament.
  • Late Chandra Mohan Singh Patel (Toor) - Retired as Joint Director in Madhya Pradesh Agriculture Department, Bhopal. Died in May 2005.
  • श्री आदित्यपाल सिंह तूर पुत्र श्री सत्यपाल सिंह संगरिया[30]
  • Tejinder Pal Singh (Toor) (born 13 November 1994) is an Indian shot putter who holds the outdoor national record of 20.75m. He was born on 13 November 1994 in Khosa Pando village in Moga district, Punjab. Hailing from a family of farmers, he switched from cricket to shot put at the insistence of his father. जाट कौम के तजेंद्र सिंह तूर मोगा पंजाब एशियन एथेलेटिक्स चैंपियनशिप विजेता -गोल्ड मेडल

Gallery of Toor people

See also



  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. त-20
  2. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.244, s.n.237
  3. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.43,s.n. 1135
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.342
  5. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp. 104-105
  6. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 91
  7. Jat Varna Mimansa (1910) by Pandit Amichandra Sharma, p.29
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.368
  9. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.368
  10. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 88
  11. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 105
  12. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.104-105
  13. (Smith, EHI, 386)
  14. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II,Annals of Haravati,p.414-416
  15. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihasa
  16. Ompal Singh Tugania: Chauhanvanshi Lakra Jaton ka Itihas, Jaypal Agencies, Agra. Ch 32
  17. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/B , p.159
  18. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats, p. 29,30
  19. See Paul Pelliot, La Haute Asie, p. 12.
  20. See J. J. Modi in JBBRAS 1914, Vol. xxiv, p. 575.
  21. ibid., p. 10.
  22. JNSI, VP. III, p. 134.
  23. G. Trever, Less Monuments de-L'art Greco-Bactriem, p. XL.
  24. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 261
  25. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 306
  26. Jat Varna Mimansa (1910) by Pandit Amichandra Sharma, p.29
  27. Jat Varna Mimansa (1910) by Pandit Amichandra Sharma, p.37-38
  28. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.331
  29. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, p.98
  30. sn 94

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