Flora and fauna in support of Jat antiquity

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

Flora and fauna as a tool to study history

The Flora and fauna in support of Jat antiquity can be a tool to study the antiquity of Jat race in absence of any written history. The ancient and prehistoric man has lived in symbiosis with the environment. In the neolithic age, primitive man lived in dense forests, on trees or in natural caves, and subsisted on leaves, fruits, and roots of plants. He used fire for keeping off the dangerous animals of the forest. In palaeolithic age, he took to hunting wild birds and small animals to obtain their flesh for eating and their skin or fur for covering himself. In the neolithic age he discovered the use of fire for cooking and developed the cultivation. [1]

Dense forests in India

Palaeo-botanical evidence testify to the fact that there were dense forests in India in the Permian period, 250 million years ago. Fossil wood is found in several places in Madhya Pradesh and in Siwalik hills along Himalayas. Man was evolved in the beginning of Pleistocene Age, only about a million years ago. At this time India had thick forests except in Rajasthan and parts of Punjab which lay buried under a swamp, the remnant of the receding Tethya sea. [2]

Archaeological evidence shows that the Rajasthan swamps existed till as late as 4000 BC, when Mohenjodaro culture flourished in the outskirts of Lothal in Gujarat. In these marshes grew stout reeds which were used by Chalcolithic people to cover dead bodies. The adjoining forest contained rhinoceroses and crocodiles of which we find replicas on the seals. [3]

The chronicles of Chinese pilgrims mention dense Indian forests in birth-place of Lord Krishna. Records relating to the invasion of Alexander the great in 326 BC mention the existence of almost impenetrable forests along the Indus. [4]

Arrian writes in Arrian Anabasis Book/5a Chapter XI that THERE was in the bank of the Hydaspes (Jhelum River), a projecting point, where the river makes a remarkable bend. It was densely covered by a grove of all sorts of trees; and over against it in the river was a woody island without a foot-track, on account of its being uninhabited.[5] Arrian further writes that Megasthenes tells us this also about an Indian river; its name is Silas, it flows from a spring of the same name as the river through the territory of the Sileans, the people also named both from river and spring; its water has the following peculiarity; nothing is supported by it, nothing can swim in it or float upon it, but everything goes straight to the bottom; so far is this water thinner and more aery than any other. In the summer there is rain through India; especially on the mountains, Parapamisus and Hemodus and the Imaus, and from them the rivers run great and turbulent. The plains of India also receive rain in summer, and much part of them becomes swamp; in fact Alexander's army retired from the river Acesines in midsummer, when the river had overflowed on to the plains.[6]

The remains of extinct creatures discovered in the upper layers of the sivalic range and in other parts of India gives us a glimpse of the wonderful wealth of animal life that flourished here in the tertiary period. Mastodons and great herds of elephants of many species trumpeted and tramped through the swamps and reedy forests of this region. With them lived hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses of various species, and a colossal four-horned ruminants, the Sivatherium. The one-horned rhinoceros, as born out by the seals of the Harrapan culture, was once found as far west as Rajasthan. [7]

Bamboo in ancient literature

The earliest Bamboo remains date between 4800 to 5200 BC from Zhejiang Hemmdu’ site in China. Bamboo baskets, mats and other woven elements found. Another reference about 3000 Years old in Henang Anyang – documents on shells and bones painted with bamboo brushes. During Zhao dynasty (11th to 3rd century BC) many bamboo based musical instruments including 8 holed flute. The technology of making Paper out of bamboo at least 1700 years old.


First direct reference to bamboo in our literature is in “Rig Veda” (circa 5000 BC) where Rishi prays Indra:

“Bestow upon us a hundred bamboo clumps, hundreds of tanned leather, four hundreds of lands suitable for cultivation”

In Valmiki Ramayana too there is a mention of “River Shailoda” with a thick growth of ‘Keechak’ (bamboo) on both its banks. In Ramayana, Hanuman jumps from one bamboo tree to another and Lakshmana built Parnakutira' in Panchavati with the use of bamboo as chief raw material.

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43 mentions that Sugreeva sends troops to north in search of Sita. He gives an account of the snowy regions and provinces of northern side and asks them to search in the places of Yavana, Kuru, and Daradas etc., civilisations. Sugreeva specially informs them about a divine province called Uttara Kuru and a heavenly mountain called Mt. Soma on which Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva make sojourn for its sacredness.

तम् तु देशम् अतिक्रम्य शैलोदा नाम निम्नगा ।
उभयोः तीरयोः तस्याः कीचका नाम वेणवः ॥४-४३-३७॥
ते नयंति परम् तीरम् सिद्धान् प्रत्यानयन्ति च ।
उत्तराः कुरवः तत्र कृत पुण्य प्रतिश्रियाः ॥४-४३-३८॥
Meaning - "On crossing over that province there is a deep flowing river named Shailoda. On both of its riverbanks bamboo brakes called as Kichaka-s will be there. Those bamboos will be enabling the movement of siddha-s, accomplished souls, from one bank to the other. [4-43-37, 38a]

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 mentions large mass of wealth consisting of various kinds of tribute presented unto Yudhishthira by the kings of the earth. They that dwell by the side of the River Sailoda flowing between the mountains of Meru and Mandara and enjoy the delicious shade of topes of the Kichaka Venu (bamboo) viz., the Khashas, Ekasanas, the Arhas, the Pradaras, the Dirghavenus, the Paradas, the Kulindas, the Tanganas, and the other Tanganas, brought as tribute heaps of gold measured in dronas (jars) and raised from underneath the earth by ants and therefore called after these creatures.

मेरुमन्दरयॊर मध्ये शैलॊदाम अभितॊ नदीम
ये ते कीचक वेणूनां छायां रम्याम उपासते (Mahabharata:II.48.2)
खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा दीर्घवेनवः
पशुपाश च कुणिन्दाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (Mahabharata:II.48.3)
ते वै पिपीलिकं नाम वरदत्तं पिपीलिकैः
जातरूपं दरॊण मेयम अहार्षुः पुञ्जशॊ नृपाः (Mahabharata:II.48.4)


Kautilya (300 BC) in his work ‘Artha-Shastra’ mentions the trade in bamboo craft as one of the more important sources of state revenue. He describes various local bamboo species. Utaj bamboo as hollow and thorny, Chimiya as solid and soft, Chap bamboo having a small hole and being free of thorns, bitter in taste but good for making bows, Vansha having long internodes and big hollows with thorns, Satin and Kantak as separate species and Bhalluka as thornless with long internodes longers than all others.

Plant Myths and Traditions in India

Trees and plants play an important part in the myths and customs of India. Many are considered holy, often for reasons that are lost in the mists of antiquity - they are associated and identified with gods, planets, months, etc. - certain plants are used as protection against witchcraft and the evil eye - some plants bring luck and are offered in the temples - and others play an important part in other religious rites. These tradition and myths form an important aspect of the Indian's mental background and Dr. Gupta[8], has performed a most useful service in bringing together all those are known on these subjects from the older Indian Literature to modern research.

The author discusses the forty-five most important trees and plants and describes the myths and customs connected with each. Specimens of Indian sculpture illustrating the various myths are reproduced on numerous plates.

1. Acacia catechu, Willd, Khadira

2. Aegle Marmleos, Correa ex Roxb., Bilva

3. Anthocephalus cadamba, Miq, Kadamba

4. Arundo donax Linn. Nalaka

5. Bombax ceriba, Linn. Salmali

6. Butea monosperma, (Lam.) Kuntze, Plaksha

7. Cocculus cordifolius, (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms, Gaduchi

8. Cocos nucifera, Linn., Narikel

9. Cynodon dectylon, Pers. Durva ghas

10. Desmostachya bipinnata, Stapf., Kusa ghas

11. Diospyros peregrina, (Gaertn.) Gurke, Tinduka

12. Elaeocapus sphaericus, (Gaertn.) K. Schum, Rudraksha

13. Emblica officinalis, (Gaertn.) Amalak

14. Erythrina variegata, Linn., Mandara

15. Euphorbia neriifolia, Linn ., Manasasij

16. Ficus religiosa Linn., Aswattha

17. Ficus benghalensis, Linn., Nyagrodha

18. Ficus krishnae C. D. C., Krishna's cup

19. Ficus golmerata, Roxb., Udumbara

20. Hiptage benghalensis, Kurz, Madhavi lata

21. Imperata arundinaceae, Cyr., Munja ghas

22. Ischanemum augustifolium, Hack., Sabai

23. Mangifera indica, Linn., Amra

24. Monstera deliciosa, Liebm., Amarphal

25. Musa paradisiacal, Linn., Kadali

26. Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn. Pundarika

27. Nicotiana tabaccum, Linn., Tambaku

28. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Linn., Parijata

29. Ocimum sanctum, Linn., Tulasi

30. Oryza sativa, Linn., Dhanya, Rice

31. Pandanus odoratissimus, Linn. F., Ketaki

32. Prosopis cineraria, Druce, Sami

33. Piper betle, Linn., Tambula, Paan

34. Putranjiva roxburghii, Wall., Jivaka

35. Saraca asoca, (Roxb.) De Wilde, Asoka

36. Sarcostemma acidum, Voigt, Soma

37. Sesamum indicum, Linn., Tila, Sesame

38. Shorea robusta, Gaertn. f. Sala

39. Tamarindus indica, Linn., Tintrini

40. Terminalia Arjuna, (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Arjuna

41. Terminalia bellirica, Roxb., Vibhitika

42. Terminalia alata, Heyne ex Roth., Saja

43. Typha elephantine, Roxb., non Grah., Eraka

44. Vigna mungo, (Linn.) Hepper, Masha, Urad

45. Zizyphus mauritiana, Lam., Vadari

The animal and Plant Totemism among aboriginal tribes

In the form of languages the remains of aboriginal tribes and castes are still in each and every corner of India. The Munda languages in North East and Dravidian languages in South are spoken till to-day their main mark of identification was the tradition of totemism : on the other hand there was tradition of Gotras in Aryan tribes and castes. [9]


Totem can be defined as follows: if some casters or tribes or a group of families living together accept animal or a plant as their totem, it is called the totem of that caste or tribe viz Monkey, bear, fish, serpent, dear, eagle, tortoise, pea-cock, duck and many plants etc. [10]

Most of the Nagavanshi tribes who merged into the Jat-sangha had this system of Totemism , which explains their gotras based after the plants and the animals. The Vanara described in Ramayana was not the monkey tribe but the tribe with monkey as their totem. Similarly the Mor, Titar etc. tribe name origin can also be explained.


Acharya Chhitiji Mohan Sen [11] has defined the totem tradition: “From the most ancient time, in different countries, nations or tribes, a particular mark or insignia (animal, bird or plant) known as totem was in practice: that insignia was a subject of great respect and full faith for each and every member of the tribe or Nation. [12]


According to Majumdar the killing of certain animals or eating them is tabooed in some clans. Some tribes bear sign thereof. The totem animal, when it dies is ceremonially mourned and buried as a member of the clan concerned. The assumptions, with regard to totemism, are that totem organization is universal. J.F. Maclenon was the first to understand the significance of totemism as a primitive social institution.

According to Majumdar [13], as per ethnographic Survey of India, the Santhals have more than 100 totemistic clans. Hos have more than 50, Mundas 64 and Bhils 24, many castes in Orissa, the Kurmi, the Kumhar, the Bhumia, who have advanced in culture in recent years are named after the serpent, pumpkin, jackal and other totems. The Katkaris of Bombay, the Gond tribes of M.P. and of Rajasthan also have clan names after the fauna and flora of their habitat. It is clear that all these castes and tribes were sometimes, organized into totem system. But now owing to spreading of education and civilization, above system has also lost its grounds. [14]

Rigveda flora and Jats

As mentioned elsewhere, the wrests of deciduous trees including-teak, Saka or Saagwaan (Tectona grandis) covered the sub-Sivalak tarai and eastern parts of Sapta Sindhu. The tribes living in this region were also known as Sakas after the prominence of teak tree in those forests (just as Munjavatas were known because of "munja" growing in their area). Some times it is alleged that the Rigveda is innocent of the Sakas and Teak woods.[15]

Forests in Ramayana

The epic Ramayana discusses the Flora and fauna of the places visited by Rama. The identification of these species may prove to be great tool in identifying those places. We give here the Sargas (Chapters) in which forests and tree species have been mentioned.

Bala Kanda Sarga 24

Ramayana - Bala Kanda Sarga 24 mentions about forest and biodiversity. While crossing over the River Ganga, sage Vishvamitra sails Rama and Laxmana through its confluence with River Sarayu, which flows at their capital Ayodhya. The sage leads them to a deadly forest on the other bank of River Ganga and narrates about the provinces Malada and Karusha and the ambushing nature of demoness Tataka. This is given in shlokas 12-18 as under:

12b, 13a. On seeing a horrendous and uninhibited forest, Rama, the son of the best king Dasharatha asked the eminent sage Vishvamitra. [1-24-12b, 13a]


13b, 14a. Oh, impenetrable is this forest fraught with swarms of crickets, brutish predators, and vultures, which are all horribly strident. [1-24-13b, 14a]

14b, 15a. Various vultures are screeching with fierce sonority, and tigers, wild boars, and elephants render this forest atypical. [1-24-14b, 15a]

15b, 16a. Indeed, what is this wretched forest that is dense with Dhava (Anogeissus latifolia), Ashvakarna (Vateria indica - Dhupa), Kukubha (Terminalia arjuna - Arjuna), Bilva (Aegle Marmelos - Bel), Tinduka (Diospyros melanoxylon -Tendu), Pāṭalā (Stereospermum chelonoides - Padari), and Badari (Zizyphus mauritiana - Ber) trees. Thus Rama asked Vishvamitra. [1-24-15b, 16a]

16b, 17a. The resplendent and the great saint Vishvamitra then said to Rama, "I will tell you, oh, my boy Rama, whose is this wretched forest. [1-24-16b, 17a]

17b, 18a. Once these were vast provinces, oh, best one among men, designed by gods and known as Malada and Karusha. [1-24-17b, 18a]

तीरम् दक्षिणम् आसाद्य जग्मतुर् लघु विक्रमौ ।
स वनम् घोर संकाशम् दृष्ट्वा नरवरात्मजः ॥१-२४-१२॥
अविप्रहतम् ऐक्ष्वाकः पप्रच्छ मुनि पुंगवम् ।
अहो वनम् इदम् दुर्गम् झिल्लिका गण संयुतम् ॥१-२४-१३॥
भैरवैः श्वापदैः कीर्णम् शकुनैः दारुण आरवैः ।
नाना प्रकारैः शकुनैः वाश्यद्भिः भैरव स्वनैः ॥१-२४-१४॥
सिंह व्याघ्र वराहैः च वारणैः च अपि शोभितम् ।
धव अश्वकर्ण ककुभैः बिल्व तिन्दुक पाटलैः ॥१-२४-१५॥
संकीर्णम् बदरीभिः च किम् नु एतत् दारुणम् वनम्
तम् उवाच महातेजा विश्वामित्रो महामुनिः ॥१-२४-१६॥
श्रूयताम् वत्स काकुत्स्थ यस्य एतत् दारुणम् वनम् ।
एतौ जनपदौ स्फीतौ पूर्वम् आस्ताम् नरोउत्तम ॥१-२४-१७॥
मलदाःकरूषाः च देव निर्माण निर्मितौ ।
पुरा वृत्र वधे राम मलेन समभिप्लुतम् ॥१-२४-१८॥

Aranya Kanda Sarga 11

Ramayana - Aranya Kanda Sarga 11 mentions the Stories of Sages Mandakarani and Agastya. Rama comes across lake from which divine music is heard. Surprised at the musical notes from beneath the waters of the lake he enquires with the sage who is following, and that sage narrates the episode of Sage Mandakarni. Then Rama proceeds on wondering at that lake, and he visits all the hermitages about there and thus elapsed are ten years. Again Rama returns to the hermitage of Sage Suteekhsna, and after staying there for some time, takes leave of that sage and proceeds to see Sage Agastya. And on the way he visits the brother of Sage Agastya also. Rama, on the way narrates about the great deeds done by Sage Agastya in protecting humans from demons, and also depicts the propitious nature of Agastya’s hermitage.

44. On listening that which is said by the sage, Rama revered that sage along with his brother, and then he journeyed with Seetha and his follower Lakshmana aiming to reach Agastya. [4-11-44]
45, 46. While viewing beautiful forests, cloud-like mountains, lakes, and rivers that are flowing following the pathways, Rama happily journeyed on the pathway indicated by sage Suteekshna, then he gladly spoke this sentence to Lakshmana. [4-11-45, 46]
49. Upraised by the wind the sour-smell of pippali fruits (Piper longum) is suddenly coming closer from the forest. [4-11-49]
74. On observing the wild grass that grows on its own giving wild grain, Jack-fruit (Panasa - Artocarpus heterophyllus) trees , Sala (Vateria indica) trees, Ashoka' (Saraca asoca - Banjuldruma) trees, (Tinisha-Lagerstroemia speciosa) trees, saplings of Bilva (aegle marmelos) trees and also Madhuka (Madhuka indica) and Bilva and Tinduka (Diospyros peregrina) trees he journeyed. [4-11-74]
75, 76. Rama has seen hundreds of flowered forest trees that are battered by the trunks of elephants, that are adorned with monkeys, reverberated by hundreds of lusty bird folks, and that are enriched by the flowered climbers whorled around them. [4-11-75, 76]
इति रामो मुनेः श्रुत्वा सह भ्रात्रा अभिवाद्य च । प्रतस्थे अगस्त्यम् उद्दिश्य सानुगः सह सीतया ॥३-११-४४॥
पश्यन् वनानि चित्राणि पर्वतां च अभ्र संनिभान् । सरांसि सरितः चैव पथि मार्ग वश अनुगतान् ॥३-११-४५॥
सुतीक्ष्णेन उपदिष्टेन गत्वा तेन पथा सुखम् । इदम् परम संहृष्टो वाक्यम् लक्ष्मणम् अब्रवीत् ॥३-११-४६॥
पिप्पलीनाम् च पक्वानाम् वनाद् अस्माद् उपागतः । गन्धो अयम् पवन उत्क्षिप्तः सहसा कटुकोदयः ॥३-११-४९॥
नीवारान् पनसान् सालान् वन्जुलान् तिनिशान् तथा । चिरि बिल्वान् मधूकान्बिल्वान् अथ च तिन्दुकान् ॥३-११-७४॥
पुष्पितान् पुष्पित अग्राभिर् लताभिर् उपशोभितान् । ददर्श रामः शतशः तत्र कान्तार पादपान् ॥३-११-७५॥
हस्ति हस्तैः विमृदितान् वानरैः उपशोभितान् । मत्तैः शकुनि संघैः च शतशः प्रति नादितान् ॥३-११-७६॥

Aranya Kanda Sarga 15

Ramayana - Aranya Kanda Sarga 15 mentions about Panchavati situated on Godavari River in Nasik district in Maharashtra. The biodiversity of the place is very beautifully described from shlokas 12-18 as under:

12, 13a. This River Godavari is also seen from here, surrounded by blooming trees, spread over with swans, and beautified with kaarandava, and chakravaaka birds, as that contemplated soul sage Agastya had said. [3-15-12]

14. Those soaring mountains are appearing beautiful with many caves, surrounded by flowered trees, flurried by animal herds, sounded by peacocks, and they are neither far-off nor very nearby. [3-15-13, 14]

15. Here and there are the golden, silvery and coppery ores on the mountains, and they are shining forth like cow-eye ventilators on walls and also like the superb paintings on elephants. [3-15-15]

16-18. These mountains are brightening with trees of Saala (Vateria indica), Palmyra (Borassus flabellifer - Tāla), Tamāla (Garcinia hanburyi), Kharjūra (Phoenix dactylifera - Date Palm), Panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus - Jackfruit), Druma (?) and also thus with Tiniśa (Lagerstroemia speciosa) and Punnāga (Calophyllum inophyllum), With Chūta (Mangifera indica - Mango); Ashoka (Saraca indica), Tilaka (Vitex altissima - Tilakapushpa), even with Ketakī (Pandanus tectorius), Champaka (Michelia champaka) trees, And even with Syandana (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Chandana (Santalum album - Sandalwood), Nīpa (Barringtonia racemosa), Parnasa (Ocimum sanctum - Tulasī), Lakuch (Artocarpus hirsutus - Hindi: Vadahar), Dhava(Anogeissus latifolia), Ashwakarna (Vateria indica), Khadira (Acacia catechu - Khair), Shami (Prosopis cineraria), Kinshuka (Butea monoserma - Palas), Pāṭalā (Stereospermum chelonoides - Padari) trees, and entwined are those and those trees with flowered shrubs, and along with climbers, and thus they brighten the mountains. [3-15-16, 17, 18]

यथा आख्यातम् अगस्त्येन मुनिना भावितात्मना । इयम् गोदावरी रम्या पुष्पितैः तरुभिर् वृता ॥३-१५-१२॥

हंस कारण्डव आकीर्णा चक्रवाक उपशोभिता । न अतिदूरे न च आसन्ने मृग यूथ निपीडिता ॥३-१५-१३॥

मयूर नादिता रम्याः प्रांशवो बहु कंदराः । दृश्यन्ते गिरयः सौम्य फुल्लैः तरुभिर् आवृताः ॥३-१५-१४॥

सौवर्णै राजतैः ताम्रैः देशे देशे च धातुभिः । गवाक्षिता इव आभान्ति गजाः परम भक्तिभिः ॥३-१५-१५॥

सालैः तालैः तमालैः च खर्जूरैः पनसैः द्रुमैःनीवारैः तिनिशैः चैव पुन्नागैः च उपशोभिताः ॥३-१५-१६॥

चूतैर् अशोकैः तिलकैः केतकैर् अपि चंपकैः । पुष्प गुल्म लता उपेतैः तैः तैः तरुभिर् आवृताः ॥३-१५-१७॥

स्यन्दनैः चंदनैः नीपैः पर्णासैः लकुचैः अपि । धव अश्वकर्ण खदिरैः शमी किंशुक पाटलैः ॥३-१५-१८॥

21-23. Lakshmana built a very spacious straw-cottage there levelling and raising the clay for raised floor of the cottage, strongly pillared with long bamboos, thereupon on those pillars excellent rafters are made, and the branches of Shamī trees are spread out, twined firmly with twines of jute strands, and with the cross-laid bamboos for thatching, and over that blades of Kusha grass and leaves of Kaasha are spread and well over-covered for the roof, and thus that very great mighty Lakshmana made that best and very spacious straw-cottage with a levelled surface for residence of Raghava in the interests of Raghava alone, and it resulted as a feast to the eye. [3-15-21, 22, 23]

पर्णशालाम् सुविपुलाम् तत्र संघात मृत्तिकाम् । सुस्तंभाम् मस्करैर् दीर्घैः कृत वंशाम् सुशोभनाम् ॥३-१५-२१॥

शमी शाखाभिः आस्तीर्य धृढ पाशावपाशितम् । कुश काश शरैः पर्णैः सुपरिच्छादिताम् तथा ॥३-१५-२२॥

समीकृत तलाम् रम्याम् चकार सुमहाबलः । निवासम् राघवस्य अर्थे प्रेक्ष्णीयम् अनुत्तमम् ॥३-१५-२३॥

Aranya Kanda Sarga 73

Aranya Kanda Sarga 73 writes how Kabandha extols Pampa Lake and details Rama about the course to be adopted to proceed to Mt. Rishyamuka to befriend Sugreeva. He details about Matanga hermitage and implores upon Rama to visit an anchoress name Shabari, who is waiting for ages to have a glimpse of Rama.

2, 3, 4, 5a. Oh, Rama, have a recourse to westward, and where the trees of Jambū ( Syzygium cumini - Jāmun), Priyāla ( Buchanania lanzan - Chironji), Panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus - Jackfruit), Plaksha (Butea monosperma - Palas), Nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis - Banyan), Tinduka (Diospyros melanoxylon), Aśvattha (ficus religiosa - Pipal), Karnikāra (Cassia fistula - Amaltas), Chūta (Mangifera indica - Mango), and others... and even trees like Dhanva (Mimusops elengi - Bakulla), Nāga (Mesua ferrea - Nāgachampa), Tilaka (Vitex altissima - Tilakapushpa), Naktamāla (Pongamia pinnata - Karanj), Nīla (Ficus bengalensis - Banyan), Ashoka (Saraca asoca), Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba), Karavira (Nerium indicum - Kannhera), Agnimukha (Semecarpus anacardium - Bhilawa), Ashoka (Saraca asoca), Surakta (Pterocarpus santalinus - Red sandalwood) trees and Paribhadraka (Erythrina indica - Pāngārā) trees will be heart-pleasingly shining forth in full blossom, that alone is an optimistic course for you. [3-73-2, 3, 4, 5a]


एष राम शिवः पंथा यत्र एते पुष्पिता द्रुमाः । प्रतीचीम् दिशम् आश्रित्य प्रकाशन्ते मनो रमाः ॥३-७३-२॥

जंबू प्रियाल पनसाः प्लक्ष न्यग्रोध तिंदुकाः । अश्वत्थाः कर्णिकाराः च चूताः च अन्ये च पादपाः ॥३-७३-३॥

धन्वना नाग वृक्षा तिलका नक्तमालकाः । नील अशोक कदंबाः च करवीराः च पुष्पिताः ॥३-७३-४॥

अग्निमुखा अशोकाः च सुरक्ताः परिभद्रकाः । तान् आरुह्य अथवा भूमौ पातयित्वा च तान् बलात् ॥३-७३-५॥

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1

Ramayan-Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 1 gives a description of Pampa Lake and writes that there are many forest trees. Tree species are named in shlokas 73-83 as under:


73. Soumitri, see those flowered Karnikara trees (Cassia fistula - Amaltas) with their tree-trunks on those southern hill-terraces of Pampa, they are highly splendorous... [4-1-73]

74. That one, that kingly mountain which is ornamentally impregnated with ores and minerals is exhausting much mass of wondrous dust with the colour of its ores, that is drifted by the wind's speed... [4-1-74]

75. On the mountainsides, Soumitri, all over fully flowered are the exquisite Kimshuka trees (Butea monoserma - Palas), while their leaves are hidden under those reddish flowers, and with them that mountain is as though aglow... [4-1-75]

The mountains always have similitude with kings as they stand high and noble on the land. The Himalaya is King Himavant, the father of Goddess Parvati, Shiva's consort. So also here the Rishyamuka Mountain, where Sugreeva takes asylum, is termed as a kingly mountain and Rama has not yet known the name of this mountain. On this mountain there are coloured dust splashes hiding the greenery of leaves, and the flowers are luminous in red colour, all over. This is indicating that the Kingly Mountain Rishyamuka is inviting the other King Rama or Rama the divine, with an incensed camphor, that will be red in glow and emits coloured smoke. This is the mangala aarati , the auspicious camphor-torch deference offered to kings of deities.

76. On the banks of Pampa these Malati (Jasminum grandiflorum - Chameli), Mallikā ('Jasminum sambac - Mogara) , Padma (Nelumbo nucifera - Kamal) have grown up and they are now flowered that is wetted with the fragrance of nectar...[4-1-76]

77. The Ketakī' (Pandanus Pandanus tectorius - Kewada), Sindhūvara (Vitex negundo - Nirguddi), Vāsantī (Hiptage benghalensis - Madhumēlati), Supuṣpī (Clitoria ternatea - Aparājitā), Mādhavi (Gaertnera racemosa), flowers are also fully fragrant, and everywhere there are bushes of Jasmine... [4-1-77]

78. Charming are the saplings of Bilva (Eagle marmelos - Bel), and Madhūka (Madhuka indica - Mahuwa), and plants like Banjula (Saraca asoca - Ashoka), Vakula (Mimusops elengi), Champaka (Michelia champaca), Tilaka (Vitex altissima - Tilakapushpa), Naaga (Mesua ferrea - Nāgachampa) trees are well flowered.... [4-1-78]

79. Padmaka (Prunus cerasoides - Himalayan wild cherry) are well flourishing, and like that Nīla (Ficus bengalensis - Banyan), Ashoka (Saraca asoca) are also flowered... trees on the mountain terraces namely Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa) trees are brownish like lion's mane... [4-1-79]

80. The trees of Ankola (Alangium salvifolium), Kurantaka (Barleria prionitis - Vajradanti), Pūrnaka (?), Pāribhadraka (Erythrina indica - Pāngārā), and also the Chūta (Mangifera indica - Mango) trees, and like that Pāṭalā (Stereospermum chelonoides - Padari) trees, and the trees of Kovidāra (Bauhinia varigegata - Kachanār) are flowered...[4-1-80]

81. Muchukunda (Pterospermum suberifolium) trees, also Arjuna (Terminalia Arjuna) trees are seen on mountain terraces...Ketaka (Syzygium cumuni - Jamun), Uddālaka (Gordia myxa - Lasora) trees also... like that the Śiriśa (Albizzia lebbeck) tree, Śimśupa (Dalbergia latifolia - Rose wood) trees, and Dhava (Anogeissus latifolia) trees... [4-1-81]

82. Śalmalī (Bombax ceiba - Semal) trees , Kinshuka (Butea monoserma - Palas) also, Raktā (Rubia cordifolia - Indian Madder), Kurvaka (Globe amaranat - Mehandi ) trees , thus are Tinisha (Lagerstroemia speciosa) and Naktamāla (Pongamia pinnata - Karanj), Chandana (Santalum album - Sandalwood) trees, Syandana (Lagerstroemia speciosa) trees' are all thus well flowered... [4-1-82]

83. Flowered are the trees like Hintāla (Cycas circinalis - Jangli madan mast ka phool), Tilaka (Vitex altissima - Tilakapushpa) , and Naaga (Mesua ferrea - Nāgachampa) trees, and they are enfolded by the flowered climber-plants at their apices... [4-1-83]

सौमित्रे पश्य पम्पाया दक्षिणे गिरि सानुषु । पुष्पितान् कर्णिकारस्य यष्टिम् परम शोभिताम् ॥४-१-७३॥

अधिकम् शैल राजोऽयम् धातुभिः तु विभूषितः । विचित्रम् सृजते रेणुम् वायु वेग विघट्टितम् ॥४-१-७४॥

गिरि प्रस्थास्तु सौमित्रे सर्वतः संप्रपुष्पितैः । निष्पत्रैः सर्वतो रम्यैः प्रदीप्ता इव किंशुकैः ॥४-१-७५॥

पम्पा तीर रुहाः च इमे संसक्ता मधु गन्धिनः । मालती मल्लिका पद्म करवीराः च पुष्पिताः ॥४-१-७६॥

केतक्यः सिन्धुवाराःवासन्त्यःसुपुष्पिताःमाधव्यो गन्धपूर्णाः च कुंदगुल्माः च सर्वशः ॥४-१-७७॥

चिरिबिल्वा मधूकाःवञ्जुला वकुलाः तथा । चम्पकाः तिलकाः च एव नागवृक्षाः च पुष्पिताः ॥४-१-७८॥

पद्मकाः च एव शोभन्ते नील अशोकाः । च पुष्पिताःलोध्राः च गिरि पृष्ठेषु सिंह केसर पिन्जराः ॥४-१-७९॥

अन्कोलाःकुरण्टाःपूर्णकाः पारिभद्रकाःचूताः पाटलयः च अपि कोविदाराः च पुष्पिताः ॥४-१-८०॥

मुचुकुंद अर्जुनाः च एव दृश्यन्ते गिरिसानुषुकेतक उद्दालकाः । च एव शिरीषाः शिंशुपा धवाः ॥४-१-८१॥

शाल्मल्यः किंशुकाः च एव रक्ताः कुरवकाः तथा । तिनिशा नक्तमालाः च चंदनाः स्यंदनाः तथा ॥४-१-८२॥

हिन्तालः तिलकाः च एव नाग वृक्षाः च पुष्पिताः । पुष्पितान् पुष्पित अग्राभिः लताभिः परिवेष्टितान् ॥४-१-८३॥

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40

Sugreeva orders vanara-s to search east under the leadership of Vinata, a mighty vanara. Firstly he dedicates all the vanara forces to Rama, but Rama desired to know whether Seetha is alive or not, and if so at what place. Then Sugreeva commissioning Vinata explains the topography and geography of Eastern side of the jambuu dwiipa, 'the Indian subcontinent,' and its eastward, comprising whole of South-East Asia. This is the first chronicle ever recorded about the lands and oceans, islands and dwellers in there, as far as Ancient Indian Geography is concerned.

39. "From there, on going to the disastrous ocean named Lohita, Red Ocean, for its waters are red, you shall see the colossal tree Kuuta-shalmali. This island is called shaalmali dwiipa, Shaalmali Island because of this tree. [4-40-39]

This kuuta-shalmali tree in Indian variety is Andersonia Rohitaka, and in Malayan, Malaysian variety, it is Kapok tree, [Ceiba pentandra, the seeds of which are covered with silk cotton. Because it is on Shalmali Island, one among Java, Sumatra etc., islands, it is called kuuTa shalmali tree. The Red Ocean is also called madhu samudra 'Wine Ocean.'

ततो रक्तजलम् भीमम् लोहितम् नाम सागरम् ।
गत्वा प्रेक्ष्यथ ताम् चैव बृहतीम् कूटशाल्मलीम् ॥४-४०-३९॥

53. "A golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches as its heads is established on the peak of that mountain as the insignia of that great-souled Ananta, and it will be lustrous with a golden podium. [4-40-53]

त्रिशिराः कांचनः केतुः तालः तस्य महात्मनः ।
स्थापितः पर्वतस्य अग्रे विराजति स वेदिकः ॥४-४०-५३॥


54-55. "That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestials gods, and beyond that a completely golden mountain is there, namely the august Udaya Mountain, the Mt. Sunrise, beyond which it is all west. The pinnacles of Mt. Sunrise will be touching heavens for their height is hundred yojana-s and that divine mountain greatly glitters for it is completely golden, and it is pedestalled with suchlike glittering mountains. [4-40-54, 55]

पूर्वस्याम् दिशि निर्माणम् कृतम् तत् त्रिदशेश्वरैः ।
ततः परम् हेममयः श्रीमान् उदय पर्वतः ॥४-४०-५४॥
तस्य कोटिः दिवम् स्पृष्ट्वा शत योजनम् आयता ।
जातरूपमयी दिव्या विराजति स वेदिका ॥४-४०-५५॥

56. "That Udaya Mountain (Mt. Sunrise) will be splendorous with well flowered and beautiful saala, palm, Tamaala, and Karnikaara trees which are completely golden in hue and which will be glittering similar to sun. [4-40-56]

सालैः तालैः तमालैः च कर्णिकारैः च पुष्पितैः ।

जातरूपमयैः दिव्यैः शोभते सूर्य सन्निभैः ॥४-४०-५६॥

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42

Sugreeva sends troops to west side to search for Seetha under the leadership of Sushena, the father of lady Tara. Describing the various provinces like Surashtra, Balhika and Chandrachitra (Mathura), Western Ocean, River Sindhu and magnificent mountains that are situated at the northwest of India, cities like Murachi, Jatapura, Avanti and Angalepa and also the ocean down south to it, namely the present Arabian Sea and almost up to Persian provinces, he orders monkey troops to return within one month's time.

6-8. "Oh, best monkeys, conduct search in the Surashtra, Bahlika and Chandrachitra provinces, including their extensive and delightful rural areas and spacious cities, as well as in their woods with Punnaaga trees, areas filled with Vakula, and Uddalaka trees and in their interiors, and even in the thickets of Ketaka trees. (4.42.6b, 7, 8a)

सुशेषण प्रमुखा यूयम् वैदेहीम् परिमार्गथ ।
सौराष्ट्रान् सह बाह्लीकान् चंद्रचित्रान् तथैव च ॥४-४२-६॥
स्फीतान् जन पदान् रम्यान् विपुलानि पुराणि च ।
पुंनाग गहनम् कुक्षिम् वकुल उद्दालक आकुलम् ॥४-४२-७॥
तथा केतक खंडान् च मार्गध्वम् हरि पुंगवाः ।
प्रत्यक् स्रोतो वहाः चैव नद्यः शीतजलाः शिवाः ॥४-४२-८॥

Later the monkeys may ramble in the shrubberies of Ketaka plants, in copses of Tamaala plants and in the boscages of coconut trees. (4.42.11b, 12a)

तिमि नक्र आकुल जलम् गत्वा द्रक्ष्यथ वानराः ।
ततः केतक खंडेषु तमाल गहनेषु च ॥४-४२-११॥
कपयो विहरिष्यन्ति नारिकेल वनेषु च ।
तत्र सीताम् च मार्गध्वम् निलयम् रावणस्य च ॥४-४२-१२॥
वेलातल निवेष्टेषु पर्वतेषु वनेषु च ।
मुरची पत्तनम् चैव रम्यम् चैव जटा पुरम् ॥४-४२-१३॥

"In between Mt. Meru and Mt. Astaadri there is a gigantic ten-leaved Date-palm-tree, which is completely golden and shines forth with a marvellous podium. (4.42.46)


This area must be the present day Arabian and the ancient Persian province, because the Date-palm tree is the highly respected tree at there or even throughout south East Asia. The three kinds of Dates trees are called as dry-grass-palm trees, as said in Amara Kosha. kharjuura, ketakii, talii, kharjuurii ca tR^iNa drumaa: amara kosha 'Date, Pandamus odara tissimus, Corypha Talliera and Wild Date are dry-grass-palms, and these grow in abundance around oases.

अन्तरा मेरुम् अस्तम् च तालो दश शिरा महान् ।
जातरूपमयः श्रीमान् भ्राजते चित्र वेदिकः ॥४-४२-४६॥

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 43

Sugreeva sends troops to north in search of Seetha. He gives an account of the snowy regions and provinces of northern side and asks them to search in the places of Yavana, Kuru, and Daradas etc., civilisations. Sugreeva specially informs them about a divine province called Uttara Kuru and a heavenly mountain called Mt. Soma on which Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva make sojourn for its sacredness.

11, 12. "There in the north, the provinces of Mleccha-s, Pulinda-s, that way Shurashena - Prasthala - Bharata - Kuru - Madraka - Kaamboja - Yavana shall be scrutinized along with the cities of Shaka and Darada, and then search in Himalayas. [4-43-11,12]

तत्र म्लेच्छान् पुलिन्दान् च शूरसेनान् तथैव च ।
प्रस्थालान् भरतान् चैव कुरूम् च सह मद्रकैः ॥४-४३-११॥
कांबोज यवनान् चैव शकान् पत्तनानि च ।
अन्वीक्ष्य दरदान् चैव हिमवन्तम् विचिन्वथ ॥४-४३-१२॥

13. "In the stands of Lodhra trees, Padmaka trees and in the woods of Devadaru, or Deodar trees, Ravana is to be searched there and there, together with Seetha. [4-43-13]

लोध्र पद्मक खण्डेषु देवदारु वनेषु च ।
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गितव्या ततः ततः ॥४-४३-१३॥

Lodhra trees are of Tymplocos racemosa, and Devadaru tree is of Uvaria longifolia, commonly called as Deodar trees.

17. "Latter there will be a mountain overspread with various birds and adorned with varied trees named Devasakha which is a sanctuary for birds. [4-43-17]

ततो देवसखो नाम पर्वतः पतग आलय ।
नाना पक्षि समाकीर्णो विविध द्रुम भूषितः ॥४-४३-१७॥

37, 38a. "On crossing over that province there is a deep flowing river named Shailoda. On both of its riverbanks bamboo brakes called as Kichaka-s will be there. Those bamboos will be enabling the movement of siddha-s, accomplished souls, from one bank to the other. [4-43-37, 38a]

तम् तु देशम् अतिक्रम्य शैलोदा नाम निम्नगा ।
उभयोः तीरयोः तस्याः कीचका नाम वेणवः ॥४-४३-३७॥
ते नयंति परम् तीरम् सिद्धान् प्रत्यानयन्ति च ।
उत्तराः कुरवः तत्र कृत पुण्य प्रतिश्रियाः ॥४-४३-३८॥

Yuddha Kanda Sarga 89

Sanjīvanī (संजीवनी):Sanjeevani is a magical herb (Selaginella bryopteris) mentioned in the Ramayana when, Lakshmana is badly wounded and is nearly killed by Ravana. Hanuman was called upon to fetch this herb from the mount Dronagiri a.k.a Mahodaya in the Himalayas. Sushena took the life-giving plant and made Lakshman to smell its savour, so that he rose up whole and well.

CANTO CII.: LAKSHMAN HEALED.

Now, Hanumán, to thee I speak: Hie hence to tall Mahodaya's peak Where herbs of sovereign virtue grow Which life and health and strength bestow Bring thou the leaves to balm his pain, And Lakshman shall be well again.'

14 सौम्य शीघ्रम इतॊ गत्वा शैलम ओषधिपर्वतम

  पूर्वं हि कदितॊ यॊ ऽसौ वीर जाम्बवता शुभः

15 थक्षिणे शिखरे तस्य जाताम ओषधिम आनय

  विशल्यकरणी नाम विशल्यकरणीं शुभाम

16 सौवर्णकरणीं चापि तदा संजीवनीम अपि

  संधानकरणीं चापि गत्वा शीघ्रम इहानय
  संजीवनार्दं वीरस्य लक्ष्मणस्य महात्मनः

Mahabharata sources

K R Qanungo[16] mentions incidence from Mahabharata that there is a town named Sakala and river named Apaga where section of the Bahikas, known as the Jartikas, dwell. Their character is very repressible. He mentions about a Bahika who had to sojourn for a time in Kuru-jungal country sang the following song about the women of his country:

"Though a Bahika, I am at present an exile in Kuru-jangal country; that tall and fair-complexioned wife of mine, dressed in her fine blanket certainly remembers me when she retires to rest. Oh! when shall I go back to my country crossing again the Satadru (the Sutlej) and Iravati and see beautiful females of fair complexion, wearing stout bangles, dressed in blanket and skins, eye-sides coloured with dye of Manshila, forehead, cheek and chin painted wit collyrium (tatooing ?). When shall we eat under the pleasant shade of Shami (Prosopis ceneraria), Peelu (Salvadora oleoides) and Karir (Capparis decidua), loaves and balls of fried barley powder with waterless churned curd (kunjik), and gathering strength, take away the clothes of the wayfarers and beat them?"

The above sketch brings vividly before us a picture of the Land of the five rivers and its people in the classic age.Its first impression almost leads one to suppose that these Jartrikas, a branch of Bahikas, were the ancestors of the modern Jats. Qanungo further states that No doubt the orthodox Hindus of Sindh still contemptuously call the Jats of that province Baheka[17] or aliens; but it is least likely that the name of one insignificant tribe Jartika should be adopted by millions of the people, inhabiting the large stretch of country from Afghanistan to Malwa.

Legend of the Shami Tree

शमी वृक्ष

There is another and little-known legend associated with Dashahara festival, one associated with the Mahabharata. For reasons impossible to delineate here, the Pandavas underwent a period of exile, being 12 years of dwelling in the forest followed by a year of exile incognito. Disguise being indispensable during the latter period, the Pandavas found it necessary to lay aside, for the length of that year, the many divine and distinctive weapons that they possessed1. These they secreted in a 'Shami' tree in the vicinity2 of their chosen place of incognito residence. At the end of a year, they returned to the spot, found their weaponry intact, and worshipped in thanksgiving both the Shami tree and the Goddess Durga, presiding deity of strength and victory. Meanwhile, the Kauravas had invaded that area, suspecting the residence of the Pandavas there. Upon finishing their devotions, the Pandavas made straight to battle, and won the contest comprehensively. The day that all these events occurred on has since been known as "Vijayadashami", where "Vijaya" is the Sanskrit word for "Victory".

The fact of the comprehensive success of the Pandavas in their endeavour has been extrapolated to the everyday ventures of the common man today. Even to this day, people exchange Shami leaves and wish each other victory in their own ventures and efforts. The following shloka is used, sometimes, to signify this:

शमी शमयते पापम् शमी शत्रुविनाशिनी ।
अर्जुनस्य धनुर्धारी रामस्य प्रियदर्शिनी ॥
करिष्यमाणयात्राया यथाकालम् सुखम् मया ।
तत्रनिर्विघ्नकर्त्रीत्वं भव श्रीरामपूजिता ॥
shamī shamayate paapam shamī shaTruvinaashinī | arjunasya dhanurdhaari raamsya priyadasrshinī || karishyamaaNayaatraayaa yayaakaalam sukham mayaa | tatranirviGnakrtrItvam bhava shrīraamapUjitaa ||[18]

Notes - 1. – Arjuna's Gandeeva bow was one among them.

2. – It is said that the Shami tree chosen by the Pandavas stood inside a cremation ground. It was chosen to render detection that much less likely. The Pandavas wrapped their weapons in a white cloth and concealed this on that shami tree, making the weapons look like a dead body. Mahabharata Book IV Virata Parva Chapter 5 mentions that on the southerns bank of River Yamuna in Viratanagara hides his bow Gandiva in Shami tree. That Shami tree was in the midst of an out-of-the way forest abounding in beasts and snakes, and was in the vicinity of a dreary cemetery.[19]

इयं कूटे मनुष्येन्थ्र गहहा महती शमी
भीम शाखा थुरारॊहा शमशानस्य समीपतः (Mahabharata:IV.5.12)

Mahabharata Book II: Sabha Parva

The Mahabharata in Sanskrit Book 2 Sabha Parva Chapter 47 (SECTION L) mentions that The king of Kamboja gave innumerable skins of the best king, and blankets made of wool, of the soft fur of rodents and other burroughers, and of the hair of cats,--all inlaid with threads of gold. And he also gave three hundred horses of the Titteti and the Kalmasha species possessing noses like parrots. And he also gave three hundred camels and an equal number of she-asses, all fattened with the Pilu, Shami and the Anguda. [20]

अश्वांस तित्तिरि कल्माषांस तरिशतं शुकनासिकान
उष्ट्रवामीस तरिशतं च पुष्टाः पीलु शमीङ्गुथैः (Mahabharata:II.47.4)

Mahabharata Book II Sabha Parva :Chapter 48 (SECTION LI) mentions about Kichaka Venu (काँटा बांस) : When tribute presented unto Yudhishthira by the kings of the earth, who dwell by the side of the river Sailoda flowing between the mountains of Meru and Mandara and enjoy the delicious shade of topes of the Kichaka Venu (bamboo) viz., the Khashas, Ekasanas, the Arhas, the Pradaras, the Dirghavenus, the Paradas, the Kulindas, the Tanganas, and the other Tanganas, brought as tribute heaps of gold.

मेरुमन्दरयॊर मध्ये शैलॊदाम अभितॊ नदीम
ये ते कीचक वेणूनां छायां रम्याम उपासते (Mahabharata: II .48.2)
खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा दीर्घवेनवः
पशुपाश च कुणिन्दाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्ग (Mahabharata: II .48.3)

Mahabharata Book III: Vana Parva

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 174 (III.174.23) mentions [21]

....The Holy-fig , the Rudaraksha, the Rohitaka, the Cane and the Jujube, the Catechu, the Sirisha, the Bel and the Inguda and the Karira and Pilu and Sami trees grew on the banks of the Saraswati. Wandering about with contentment in (the vicinity of) the Saraswati which was, as it were, the home of the celestials, and the favourite (resort) of Yakshas and Gandharvas and Maharshis, those sons of kings lived there in happiness.

पलक्षाक्ष रौहीतक वेतसाश च; सनुहा बथर्यः खथिराः शिरीषाः
बिल्वेङ्गुथाः पीलु शमी करीराः; सरस्वती तीररुहा बभूवुः (Mahabharata:III.174.23)
तां यक्षगन्धर्वमहर्षिकान्ताम; आयाग भूताम इव थेवतानाम
सरस्वतीं परीतियुताश चरन्तः; सुखं विजह्रुर नरथेव पुत्राः (Mahabharata:III.174.24)

Mahabharata Book IV:Virata Parva

Mahabharata Book IV Virata Parva Chapter 5 mentions that on the southerns bank of River Yamuna in Viratanagara hides his bow Gandiva in Shami tree. That Shami tree was in the midst of an out-of-the way forest abounding in beasts and snakes, and was in the vicinity of a dreary cemetery.[22]

इयं कूटे मनुष्येन्थ्र गहहा महती शमी
भीम शाखा थुरारॊहा शमशानस्य समीपतः (Mahabharata:IV.5.12)

Mahabharata Book 4 - Virata Parva, Go-harana Parva, Section 57 mentions that Virata's son Saradwat proceeds to the spot Kripa. .... Saradwat with one of arrows cuts off the yoke of his adversary's car, and with four pierced his four steeds, and with the sixth he severed the head of his antagonist's car-driver from off his body. And with three that mighty car-warrior pierced, in that encounter, the triple bamboo-pole of Kripa's car and with two, its wheels.

Mahabharata Book VII: Drona Parva

Drona Parva Chapter 175 (SECTION CLXXVIII) mentions the battle that took place between Bhima's son Ghatotkacha and Alayudha at Kurukshetra: [23]

...And they struck each other, tearing up many kinds of large-branched trees such as Sami and Pilu and Karira and Champaka, O Bharata, and Inguidi and Vadari and flowering Kovidara and Arimeda and Plaksha and banian and peepul, and also with diverse mountain-summits and diverse kinds of metals. The clash of those trees and mountain-summits became very loud like the roar of driving thunder.

शमी पीलु करीरैश च शम्याकैश चैव भारत
इङ्गुथैर बथरीभिश च कॊविथारैश च पुष्पितैः (VII.153.24)
पलाशैर अरिमेथैश च पलक्षन्यग्रॊधपिप्पलैः
मयथ्भिः समरे तस्मिन्न अन्यॊन्यम अभिजघ्नतुः (VII.153.25)
विविधैः पर्वताग्रैश च नानाधातुभिर आचितैः
तेषां शब्धॊ महान आसीथ वज्राणां भिथ्यताम इव (VII.153.26)

Mahabharata Drona Parva Book VII Chapter 34 describes Abhimanyu's encounter with Drona in battle of Mahabharata.We find mention of Bamboo:

Fragrant with many perfumes, while life was in them, they could speak words both agreeable and beneficial. Diverse cars, well-equipped, and looking like the vapoury edifices in the welkin, with shafts in front and excellent bamboo poles and looking beautiful with the standards set up on them, were deprived of their Janghas, and Kuvaras, and Nemis, and Dasanas, and wheels, and standards and terraces. And the utensils of war in them were all broken.

Mahabharata Book VIII: Karna Parva

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 verse 24 mentions tree species as Sami, Pilu and Karir tree species as under in Sanskrit and IAST:

शमी पीलु करीराणां वनेषु सुखवर्त्मसु (śamī pīlu karīrāṇāṃ vaneṣu sukhavartmasu)
अपूपान सक्तु पिण्डीश च खाथन्तॊ मदितान्विताः (apūpān saktu piṇḍīś ca khādanto mathitānvitāḥ) (VIII.30.24)
Meaning - "When shall I be amongst those ladies eating cakes of flour and meat and balls of pounded barley mixed with skimmed milk, in the forests, having many pleasant paths of Sami and Pilu and Karira!" (VIII.30.24)

Mahabharata Book IX: Shalya Parva

Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 36 mentions the biodiversity of River Sarasvati (Sapta-Saraswat). Numerous feathery creatures have their home there. And it abounded with Vadari (Ipomea digitata - Giant potato), Inguda (Balanites roxburghii), Kashmarya (Barberis vulgaris), Plaksha (Balsamodendron mukul -Guggul), Aswattha (Ficus religiosa - Pippal), Vibhitaka (Terminalia bellirica - बहेड़ा ), Panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus - Jack fruit or Kat-hal), Palasa (Butea monosperma), Karira (Caparis decidua), Pilu (Salvadora oleoides), and diverse other kinds of trees that grow on the banks of the Sarasvati. And it was adorned with forest of Parushaka (?), Bilwa (Aegle marmelos - Bel), and Amrataka, and Atimukta (Hiptage benghalensis - Madhumalati) and Kashanda (?) and Parijata (nyctanthes arbortristis). This is mentioned in shlokas 58-60

बदरेङ्गुद काश्मर्य पलक्षाश्वत्द विभीतकैः
पनसैश च पलाशैश च करीरैः पीलुभिस तदा (IX.36.58)
सरस्वती तीररुहैर बन्धनैः सयन्थनैस तदा
परूषक वनैश चैव बिल्वैर आम्रातकैस तदा (IX.36.59)
अतिमुक्त कषण्डैश च पारिजातैश च शॊभितम
कथली वनभूयिष्ठम इष्टं कान्तं मनॊरमम (IX.36.60)

The Mahabharata in Sanskrit Book IX: Chapter 46

In English translation of this in Chapter 47, Janamejaya said, "For what reason did Agni, the Creator of all the worlds, disappear? How also was he discovered by the gods? Tell me all this in detail."

Vaishampayana said, "Agni of great energy became very much frightened at the curse of Bhrigu. Concealing himself within the entrails of the Sami wood, that adorable god disappeared from the view. Upon the disappearance of Agni, all the gods, with Vasava at their head, in great affliction, searched for the missing god. Finding Agni then, they saw that god lying within the entrails of the Sami wood. (Mahabharata:IX.46.16-18)

ततस तत्राप्य उपस्पृश्य थत्त्वा च विविधं वसु
अग्नितीर्दं महाप्राज्ञः स जगाम परलम्बहा
नष्टॊ न थृश्यते यत्र शमी गर्भे हुताशनः (IX:46.12)
भृगॊः शापाथ भृशं भीतॊ जातवेथाः परतापवान
शमी गर्भम अदासाथ्य ननाश भगवांस ततः (IX:46.16)
परनष्टे तु तथा वह्नौ थेवाः सर्वे सवासवाः
अन्वेषन्त तथा नष्टं जवलनं भृशथुःखिताः (IX:46.17)
ततॊ ऽगनितीर्दम आसाथ्य शमी गर्भस्दम एव हि
थथृशुर जवलनं तत्र वसमानं यदाविधि (IX:46.18)

Mahabharata Book XIII: Anusasana Parva

Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 4 shloka 27 mentions that -

When you two (Satyavati and Richika) shall bathe in your season, she shall embrace a Ashwattha ( peepul tree), and thou, O excellent lady, shalt likewise embrace a Udumbara (fig tree), and by so doing shall ye attain the object of your desire.
ऋतुस्नाता च साश्वत्थं तवं च वृक्षम उदुम्बरम
परिष्वजेथाः कल्याणि तत इष्टम अवाप्स्यथः (XIII.4.27), (XIII.4),

The Mahabharata, Book 13: Anusasana Parva: Chapter 54 (Section LIV) mentions [24] that when King Kusika (कुशिक) awoke and went through his morning rites accompanied by his wife he then proceeded towards that wood which the Rishi had selected for his residence. .....And the king saw many open glades and open spots carpeted with grassy verdure, and resembling level fields of gold. King Kusika country was on the banks of the Ganga belonging to the Gandharvas. Arrived there, the monarch saw a palatial mansion made entirely of gold. Possessed of a thousand columns each of which was made of gems and precious stones, it looked like an edifice belonging to the Gandharvas. Kusika beheld in every part of that structure evidences of celestial design. And he beheld hills with delightful valleys, and lakes with lotuses on their bosom; and mansions full of costly and curious articles, and gateways and arches, O Bharata. And the king saw many open glades and open spots carpeted with grassy verdure, and resembling level fields of gold. And he saw many trees on which lotuses of all varieties bloomed in all their beauty, and some of which bore flowers of every season.

And he saw many Sahakaras (Mangifera Indica) adorned with blossoms, and Ketakas (Pandanus Odoratissimus) and Uddalakas (Mimosa Sirisca), and Dhavas and Asokas, and blossoming Kundas (Jasminum pubescens), and Atimuktas (Gaertinera racemosa). And he saw there many Champakas and Tilakas (Symplocos racemosa) and Bhavyas (Dillenia indica) and Panasas and Vanjulas and Karnikaras adorned with flowers. And the king beheld many Shyama (Salvadora Persica) , Varanapushpas (Colophyllum inophyllum) and the creepers called Ashtapadika (Vallaris dichotoma) all clipped properly and beautifully. 2 And the king beheld trees on which lotuses of all varieties bloomed in all their beauty, and some of which bore flowers of every season.

सह कारान परफुल्लांश च केतकॊथ्थालकान धवान
अशॊकान मुचुकुन्थांश च फुल्लांश चैवाति मुक्तकान (Mahabharata:XIII.54.4)
चम्पकांस तिलकान भाव्यान पनसान वञ्जुलान अपि
पुष्पितान कर्णिकारांश च तत्र तत्र थथर्श ह (Mahabharata:XIII.54.5)
शयामां वारणपुष्पीं च तदाष्टा पथिकां लताम
तत्र तत्र परिकॢप्ता थथर्श स महीपतिः (Mahabharata:XIII.54.6)
वृक्षान पथ्मॊत्पलधरान सर्वर्तुकुसुमांस तदा
विमानच छन्थकांश चापि परासाथान पथ्मसंनिभान (Mahabharata:XIII.54.7)

Note 2. Some of these trees and creepers are identifiable. Sahakara is Mangifera Indica, Linn. Ketaka is a variety of Pandanus Odoratissimus, Linn. Uddalaka is otherwise called Vahuvara and sometimes Selu. It is the Cordia Myxa, Linn. It may be a misreading for Uddanaka, which is the well-known Cirisha or the Mimosa Sirisca of Roxburgh. Dhava is Conocarpus latifolia, Roxb. Asoka is Saraca Indica, Linn., syn, Jonesia Asoka, Roxb. Kunda is Jasminum pubescens, Linn. Atimukta is otherwise called Madhavi. It is Gaertinera racemosa, Roxb. Champaka is Michelia Champaca, Linn. Tilaka sometimes stands for Lodhra, i.e., Symplocos racemosa, Roxb. The word is sometimes used for the Aswattha or Ficus religiosa, Linn. Bhavya is Dillenia Indica, Linn. Panasa is Artocarpus integrifolia, Linn. The Indian Jack-tree. Vyanjula stands for the Asoka, also Vetasa (Indian cane), and also for Vakula, i.e., Mimusops Elengi, Linn. Karnikara is Pterospermum accrifolium, Linn. Cyama is sometimes used for the Pilu, i.e., Salvadora Persica, Linn. Varanapushpa or Nagapushpa or Punnaga is Colophyllum inophyllum, Linn. Astapadika or padika is otherwise called Bhardravalli. It is the Vallaris dichotoma, Wall., Syn., Echites dichotoma, Roxb.

The Mahabharata in Sanskrit Book 13 Anusasana Parva: Chapter 109 mentions about Venu (Bamboo)

वीणानां वल्लकीनां च वेणूनां च विशां पते
सुघॊषैर मधुरैः शब्थैः सुप्तः स परतिबॊध्यते (Mahabharata:XIII.109.47)

Buddhist literature

  • Bo-tree (Ficus religiosa) - Gautama wandered along the banks of the river Nairanjara and took his seat under a bo-tree (Ficus religiosa), and there received a simple meal from the hands of Sujata.
  • Bamboo - Mentioned in the Jataka story titled The Six-tusked Elephant. Once upon a time the Buddha-elect was born as the son of the elephant chief of a herd of eight thousand royal elephants, who lived near to a great lake in the Himalayas. In the middle of this lake was clear water, and round this grew sheets of white and coloured water-lilies, and fields of rice and gourds and sugar-cane and plantains; it was surrounded by a bamboo grove and a ring of great mountains. In the north-east corner of the lake grew a huge banyan-tree, and on the west side there was an enormous golden cave. In the rainy season the elephants lived in the cave, and in the hot weather they gathered under the branches of the banyan to enjoy the cool shade. One day the Buddha-elect with his two wives went to a grove of sal-trees. (Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists:p.252)
  • Nyagrodha banyan tree - During the sixth week he sat by the Lake Muchalinda, where a naga of the same name sheltered him from storms of rain; in the seventh week he sat in a grove of Nyagrodha trees. (Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists,p. 272)
  • Sal tree - While residing in the city of Pawa he was entertained by a good smith named Chunda. He prepared an offering of pork, which was the cause of a sickness resulting in death. Buddha lay down on a couch in a grove of sal-trees near Kushinagara. (Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists,p. 283)
  • Sal tree - Mentioned in the Jataka story 'The Tree-God'. The lordly sal-tree, straight and beautiful, worshipped alike by village and town and royal family found suitable for the construction of palace of Brahmadatta, theking of Benares. (Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, p. 255)
  • Rajaratana Tree - The seventh week, the two merchants Tapussa and Bhalika offered rice cakes and honey to the Buddha under the Rajaratana tree (Buchanania latifolia) at the end of the seventh week. [26]

Shiva and trees

अश्वत्थः (पीपल)
  • Pipal-tree (Ficus religiosa) - In the story of Shiva and Daksha, Shiva's gana Virabhadra destroys the horse sacrifice of Daksha. They broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, and insulted the priests; finally Virabhadra cut off Daksha's hea. The defeated gods sought Brahma and asked his counsel. Brahma advised the gods to make their peace with Shiva, who could destroy the universe at his will. Brahma himself went with them to Kailas. They found Shiva plunged in deep meditation in the garden of the kinnaras called Fragrant, under a great pipal-tree a hundred leagues in height, its branches spreading forty leagues on either side. (Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists:P.290-291)

From other stories

  • Plaksha - Mentioned in the story of 'Pururavas and Urvashi'. The sorry king Pururavas wandered all over Hindustan wailing for his darling. At last he reached a lake called Anyata-plaksha. (Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists:P.343)
  • Asvattha & Shami trees - Mentioned in the story of 'Pururavas and Urvashi'. ...When morning came, " Let me be one of your very selves," Pururavas said. But Gandharvas answered : " Forsooth the sacred fire burns not upon earth which could make a man as one of us." They gave him fire in a dish and said : " Sacrifice therewith, and thou shalt become a gandharva like ourselves." What had been the fire was an Asvattha tree; and what the dish, a Shami tree. ...Gandharvas counselled him : " Make fire with an upper stick of the Asvattha tree, and a lower stick of the Shami ; the fire thereof shall be the very fire thou didst receive from us." Then Pururavas made fire with sticks of the Asvattha and the Shami, and making offerings therewith, he was made one of the gandharvas and dwelt with Urvashi evermore.

Puranic sources

According to Puranic cosmography, the earth is divided into seven concentric island continents (sapta-dvipa vasumati) separated by the seven encircling oceans, each double the size of the preceding one. The seven continents of the Puranas are stated as Jambudvipa, Plaksadvipa, Salmalidvipa, Kushadvipa, Krounchadvipa, Shakadvipa, and Pushkaradvipa. Seven intermediate oceans consist of salt-water, sugarcane juice, wine, ghee, curd, milk and water respectively.[27],[28]

  • Agni Purana mentions about many sages had assembled in the forest naimisharanya. The most important of these sages was Shounaka. All these holy men wished to hear what the Agni Purana had to say. And that is how Suta came to relate the Purana. .....In the forest that is known as naimisharanya, Shounaka and the other rishis (sages) were performing a yajna (sacrifice) dedicated to the Lord Vishnu. Suta had also come there, on his way to a pilgrimage. ....As the churning continued, terrible poison named kalakuta emerged from the depths of the ocean and was swallowed by Shiva. Shiva’s throat became blue from this poison and he is therefore known as Nilakantha, blue of throat. The goddess Varuni, the goddess of wine (sura), came out next. The gods readily accepted her and thus they came to be known as suras. But the demons rejected Varuni and were therefore known as asuras. She was followed by the parijata tree, a beautiful tree that came to occupy the pride of place in Indra’s garden. [29]

Origin of Saka (Scythian) Jats from Teak

Our indepth study of Rigveda shows the yadus, who were assisted by the Sakas [30] in their infructuous wars against Bahu and Sagar, were living as republican Yadava-jna[31]. Their habitat was in the southern and the south-western portion of Saraswati region including north-west Rajasthan and Sindh territories extending uptote mouth of the saraswati close sea-shore.[32]. It is very significant and pertinent also to mention here tat a part of Sapta Sindhu country was known as Sakaladvipa[33] in the Mahabharata (3102 BC). The dvipa is said to have derived its name from Sakas, who were descendents of Narishyanta.[34]

In Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 6 Dhritarashtra asks Sanjay:The names of rivers, mountains, provinces, forests. Sanjay describes Geography of Varsha that is called after Bharatavarsha, The Mountains, The Rivers. The Provinces, Kings & Kshatriyas : Long list of 300 tribes. He tells that there are many hilly tribes, and many tribes residing on lands laying at the foot of the hills, and the Angamalajas, and the Manavarjakas (Maan)+(Bardak); the Pravisheyas, and the Bhargavas, O king; the Pundras, the Bhargas, the Kiratas, the Sudeshnas, and the Yamunas, the Sakas, the Nishadhas, the Anartas, the Nairitas, the Dugulas, the Pratimatsyas, the Kuntalas etc. This includes Shaka tribe as well.

शका निषादा निषधास तदैवानर्तनैरृताः
दुगूलाः परतिमत्स्याश च कुशलाः कुनटास तदा (Mahabharata:VI.6.50)


According to Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria) Some writers think that Saka (Scythian) is a Sanskrit word which means Sagwan or Teak (Tectona grandis), generally grown in monsoon region, the shape of which and that of its river deltas was like that of teak leaf [35], and the people popularly known as Sakas used to be the inhabitants of this land. S. M. Ali [36] identifies Saka-dvipa with land mass in the south-east of Meru [37] which falls climatically in the monsoon region and teak is its distinctive tree in its natural and artificial vegetation. The Sapta Sindhu, original home of Aryans, in the south of Meru, we find that the country fulfills all the requisites of Saka-dvipa, viz, teak leaf shape of the country as well as that of the deltas of Sarasvati and Indus river. The Mahabharata's reading, alluded to above, that there was Sakala-dvipa, the name of which is attributed to the Sakas, in the Sapta Sindhu, evidently carries much weight. There is every possibility that the people of Sapta Sindhu, as a whole, might have besides their eponymous and ethnoyms, been known as Sakas also.[38]

Movement of animals and birds

The movement of animals and birds can provide strong evidences which can help to study the migration of Jats? Normally pastoral people like Jats in prehistoric times have been moving from colder to hotter areas in search of grasslands for their animals. We can take evidences from some birds also which migrate from Siberia to India. The most common example is SIBERIAN CRANE. This bird "SIBERIAN CRANE" moves every year during winters from Siberia to India. The Siberian crane visits the wetlands of Bharatpur every winter. It stays in India during winter and returns back to Siberia after it. It is to be noted here that Bharatpur has been jat dominated area in the ancient past and present also.

Dhaman is a non-poisonous large snake. [39] Similarly Dhaulya is white snake found in the areas of Rajasthan from where came famous personalties amongst Jats, the Tejaji, regarded as a folk deity.

Carbon dating

Carbon dating method can be used to determine the age of living trees in the past. This technique will give age of a tree when it became dead wood.It has become thus possible from specimens of wood, charcoal, etc., found in excavations by archaeologists to fix period when a particular prehistoric culture flourished. The Indian cultures have been dated as under: [40]


Place of excavation Carbon-dating finding
Atnur (South India) 2300 BC Neolithic Culture
Eran & Navadatoli (M.P.) 2300-1400 BC Central Indian Culture
Kalibangan (Rajasthan) and Lothal (Gujarat) 2100 BC Harappa Culture
Ahar (Rajasthan) 1800-1300 BC Banas Culture
Newasa and chandoli (Maharashtra) 1300-1100 BC Chalkolithic Culture

Association of trees and plants with Jat gotras

Some of the indigenous trees and plants of India are listed below which bear the similarity of their names in local languages and sanskrit (A-Assames, B-Bengali, G-Gujarati, H-Hindi, Hr-Haryanavi, K-Kashmiri, Kn-Kannada, M-Marathi, O-Oriya, Ml- Malayalam, P-Punjabi, R-Rajasthani, S-sanskrit, T-Tamil, Te-Telugu) to resemble with Jat gotras.

Botanical name of tree Names in Indian languages Similarity with Jat gotra/Ruler/Place
Acacia catechu H-Khair, T-Baga Khairwa, Bagga
Acacia nilotica H-Babul, T-Karuvelum Babal, Kharvel
Acacia senegal H-Khor Khor
Acacia sunda Sunda
Acalypha indica H-Khokali, G-Venchhi, M-Khikali Khokar
Acrocarpus flaxinifolius H-Mundani Munda, Manda
Aegle marmelos H-Bel, S-Vilva Belwal, Shiva's offerings
Albizia amara H-Lallel, Lal
Albizia lebbek/lebbock H-Siris, T-Vegei Sirsa
Apium graeveolens H-Shalari Salaru
Andrographis paniculata H-Kirayat, Kulufnath, S-Kirata Kirim
Aquilaria agallocha H-agar Agre
Arctium lappa E-Greater Burdock Burdak
Atropa acuminata H-Angurshafa, Sagangur, G-Dhatoora Dhatrawal
Azadirachta indica H-Neem, G-Limba, M-Limba Neema,Lamba
Balanites aegyptica H-Hingan Henga
Bauhinia vahlii H-Mahul, Mahla
Bauhinia parpurea H-Khairwal Khairwar
Bauhinia racemosa H-Jhinjhora Jhinja , Jhijhwaria
Bauhinia variegata H-Kachnar, Gujaral, T-Chemmandarei Gujar
Bombax ceiba H-Semal, G-Sawar, M-Saur, S-Salmali Sinwar/Salmalidvipa
Buchanania lanzan H-Achar Achra
Butea monosperma H-Dhak, palas, Tesu, S-Palasha,T-Porasu Dhaka, Poras
Calligonam poligonoides R-Phog Phogat
Calotropis gigantea H-Ak, S-Madar Madra
Cannabis sativa H-Bhang Bhangu
Capparis decidua H-Karir Karir
Celtis australis H-Kharik, Kharak, Kharra
Ceriops tagal H-Goran Gora
Colchicum luteum H-Hirantutiya, K-Irkim, Moond, S-Hiranyatuth Moond
Commiphora wightii H- Guggal, Gugal, G-Gugad Gugad
Cymbopogon martinii H-Rosha, Roshisha, Gandhvel Rosa
Dalbergia sisoo H-Shisham, B-Sisu, S-Sinsaka Sinsinwar/Shakadvipa
Datura stramonium H-Dhatura, G-Dholo Dhaturo, S-Dhatura Dhatrawal
Datura stramonium H-Dhatura, G-Dholo Dhaturo, S-Dhatura Dhatrawal/Shivashekhara
Dipterocarpus turbinatus H-Gurjan Gurjar
Duabanga grandiflora H-Khokan Khokhar
Eleocarpus varuna H-Bhadraik Bhadrecha
Ephedra gerardiana H-Asmania, Phok, Khanda,G-Asmaniya, P-Budshur, Khanda, Badsar, Phogat
Euphorbia hirta H-Lal Dudhi, G-Dudheli, S-Nagarjuni, Pusitoa Dudi, Naga
Euphorbia nerilifolia H-Sehund, Thuhar R-Thor, S-Snuhi, P-Danda Thor Thori
Ferula narthex H- Hing, S-Agudagandha, Balhika, T-Perungayam Bahika, Henga
Ficus glomerata H- Gular Guleria
Grevia optiva H-Bhimal, Biul, Dhaman Dhama, Grewal
Hardwickia binata H-Anjan Anjane
Hemidesmus indicus H- Anantmul, M-anantavel, S-Nagajihya, T-Nannari, central india-kali Dudhi, Chhoti Dudhi Naga,Dudi
Holorrhena antidysentrica H-Indrajau, Korai, Kurchi, S-Kalinga, O-Kherwa, Kalinga, Khairwa
Jatropha curcas H-Jatropha Jat
Madhuka indica H-Mahua, G-Mahudo, S-Madhuka Madhu, Mahua,Mahure
Machilus gammieana H-Lali Lal/Lali
Nardostachys grandiflora H-Jatamansi, G-Jatamansi, S-Jatamansi, K-Bhitijatt Jat
Nelumbo nucifera H-Kamal Kamal
Nerium indicum White Kaner , S-Karavira Nehra, Karavira
Operculina Turpethum H-Nisoth, Pithori, B-Dudiya Kalmi, G-Nashatar, S-Kalaparni, T-Sivathai Dudi, Shiva, Tur, Thori
Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm H-Khajur, Khajuria
Piper longum H-Pipali, B-Jatya, S-Magathi, Pippali Jat
Podophylum hexandrum H-Banbaigan,Papri, G-Venivel Beniwal
Prosopis cineraria H-Chheonkar, Chhonkara R-Khejari, Janti, Sangri, Khokha, P-Jand, G-Sami, Sumri T-Jambu Chhonkar, Chhonkara, Sangwa, Khokhar, Sumra
Salvadora oleoides H-Pillu, Peelu, R-Pilwan, Jāl, P-Vann Pilania
Saraca asoka H-Ashok Ashoka
Saussurea lappa H-Kuth, B-Kur, G-Kuth, S-Agada, Kushta Kath, Kuru
Schleichera oleosa H-Kusum Kaswan
Shorea robusta H-Sal, Shaku, S-Shal Saka, Salyan
Sida acuta H-Banmethi, S-Bala T-Malaitangi Bal
Sida cordifolia H-Kharenti,Kungi, G-Baladana, B-Bala S-Jayanti Kharinta, Kang, Bal
Sida rhombifolia H-Svetbarela, S-Atibala T-Chitramutt Bal
Sida spinosa H-Gulsakri, S-Nagbala Guliya,Naga,Bal
Stephegyne parvifolia H-Kaim, S- Jaglan ancestor is also worshipped at the village shrine called deh, which is always surrounded by kaim trees, and if a woman who has married into a Jaglan family, passes a kaimn tree (Stephegyne parvifolia), she always veils her face as if it were her older relative of her husband.[41]
Sterculia urens H-Gulu, Karai, Kulu G-Kadayo, Kandol, Te-Ponaku Gulia, Ponia, Karia, Kundu
Sterculia foetida H-Poon Poonia
Syzygium cumini H-Jamun, A-Jamu, B-Bada Jam, Jam, Kala Jam, G-Jambu, Kn-Nirale, M- Jambal, O-Jamkuk, Ml-Yavel, S-Jambul, T-Naga Jamun/Jambudvipa/Naga
Tamarindus indica H-Imli, T-Ruli Ruhela
Tecomella undulata H-Rohida, S-Rohitika Ruhela, Rohtak
Tectonan grandis H-Sagwan, T-JMal, S-Saka Sangwan/Saka
Terminalia alata H-Asna, Sain, M-Saj, Sejwar
Thevetia neriifolia H-Pili kaner, S-Karavir Tevatia
Terminalia bellirica H-Bahera, G-Bahedan, S-Telaphala, Te-Tadi, Tandra Tandi, Tanda
Tinospora cordifolia H-Giloy, B-Gulancha, G- Galac, Garo, K-Amrutha balli, M- Guduchi, Gulvel, Ml-Amruthu, Chittamruthu, O- Guluchi, P-Gllow, S- Guduchi, Amrta, Chinnodbhava, T-Shindilakodi, Te-Tippa-teega, Gill
Urgenia indica H-Ban Piaz, Kolikanda, G-Jangli Kando, S-Kolakanda Kalkhande
Vernonia anthelmintica H-Banjiri, Somraj, G-kalijiri, S-Somaraji, Te-Adavijilakara Lakra
Woodfordia fruiticosa H-Dhaula Dhaulya
Ziziphus nummularia H-Ber, Jharber, S-Badari Beriya, Berwal
Ziziphus jujuba H-Ber, Jharber Beriya, Berwal

Template:To be expanded

References

  1. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp.4-5
  2. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp.7-8
  3. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp.7-8
  4. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp. 9
  5. Arrian Anabasis Book/5a Chapter XI
  6. http://www.jatland.com/home/Arrian_Anabasis_Book/Indica_1
  7. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp. 98-99
  8. Plant Myths and Traditions in India, NAB088 by Shakti M.Gupta (2001), Munshiram Manoharlal, ISBN 81-215-1007-4
  9. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.226
  10. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.226
  11. Bharat mien jati bhed, pp.111-12
  12. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.227
  13. Majumdar D.N. pp346-47
  14. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.227
  15. Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria):The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, p. 223
  16. History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.7
  17. Asia by A.H. Keene, p. 296
  18. http://www.telugupedia.com/wiki/index.php?title=Dasara
  19. http://www.jatland.com/home/Virata_Parva,_Mahabharata/_Book_IV_Chapter_5
  20. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m02/m02050.htm
  21. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m03/m03176.htm
  22. http://www.jatland.com/home/Virata_Parva,_Mahabharata/_Book_IV_Chapter_5
  23. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/vimanas/drona_parva/m07175.htm
  24. http://www.bharatadesam.org/Mahabharata/m13/m13b019.htm
  25. http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/am/ajapala_nigrodha.htm
  26. http://myanmartravelinformation.com/mti-bagan/mahabawdi.htm
  27. Agni Purana 108.1-2
  28. Matsya Purana 121-122
  29. http://www.tamilbrahmins.com/philosophy-traditions/2735-agni-purana.html.
  30. Pusalker, op. cit. pp. 290, Pargiter, op. cit., pp. 206
  31. RV 8.2.1.48
  32. RV 6.2.5.12; 4.3.9.17
  33. Mahabharata Karna Parva, 44.7;44.10
  34. Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jats, Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, pp.193
  35. (Satya Sharva, Sakas in Ind., New Delhi, 1981, pp. 3f; cf. also Mat. Pur. 123.36. Viswa Prakasa Kosha, p.4, shloka no. 25; p. 5, shloka no. 35, Nanarthasabad Kosha, p.3, st. 35 and 36; p. 87, shloka no. 36)
  36. (Geog. of the Puranas, pp. 39)
  37. (MBT, Ch. 14.21-25)
  38. Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jats, Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, pp.207-208
  39. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp. 102
  40. K P Sagreiya: Forests and Forestry, National Book Trust, India, 2005, ISBN 81-237-1126-3, pp. 250
  41. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.339

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