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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Veerabhadra Statue Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu

Virabhadra (वीरभद्र) was a warrior and follower of Shiva. The consort of Virabhadra was Bhadrakali. He was an attendant warrior of Shiva and ancestor of many Jat Clans. Historically Raja Vir Bhadra of the Puru dynasty was the ruler of Talkhapur near Haridwar, which also formed part of the area known as Shiv ki Jata.[1] Virabhadra had five sons and two grand sons named Pon Bhadra, Jakh Bhadra, Kalhan Bhadra, Brahma Bhadra, Ati Sur Bhadra, Dahi Bhadra and Anjana Jata Shankar. Seven major Jat gotras are named after these seven descendants of Vir Bhadra.


Jat Gotras decended from Virabhadra

Creation of Vīrabhadra

Virabhadra (वीरभद्र) is a super being created by Shiva. Vīrabhadra was a great warrior who eventually blinded Bhaga, broke Pusha's (Sun) teeth and other gods including Indra fled the battle field unable to sustain his power. Vīrabhadra defeated Vishnu and Brahma in the war against Daksha.

Sati was the youngest daughter of Daksha, the chief of the gods. When Sati grew up she set her heart on Shiva, worshipping him in secret. In the Swayamvara of Sati, Daksha invited all gods and princes except Shiva. Sati cast her wreath into air, calling upon Shiva to receive the garland; and behold he stood in midst of the court with the wreath about his neck. Daksha had no choice but to marry Sati with Shiva. [4]

One day Daksha made arrangements for a great horse sacrifice, and invited all the gods omtting only Shiva. Sati, being greatly humiliated, went to the banquet and Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Narada bore this news to Shiva. Shiva burned with anger, and tore from his head a lock of hair, glowing with energy, and cast upon the earth. The terrible demon Vīrabhadra sprang from it, his tall body reached the high heavens, he was dark as the clouds, he had a thousand arms, three burning eyes, and fiery hair; he wore a garland of skulls and carried terrible weapons. Vīrabhadra bowed at Shiva's feet and asked his will. [5][6]

Vīrabhadra Destroyed Daksha

Shiva directed Virabhadra: "Lead my army against Daksha and destroy his sacrifice; fear not the Brahmanas, for thou art a portion of my very self". On this direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama, scattered the gods on every side; the he returned to Kailash. [7] [8]

The compromise with Shiva

After the destruction of Daksha's sacrifice, the defeated gods sought Brahma and asked his counsel. Brahma advised the gods to make their peace with Shiva. Brahma himself went with them to Kailash. Brahma prayed Shiva to pardon Daksha and to mend the broken limbs of gods and rishis. Shiva accepted his advice and restored the burnt head of Daksha with that of goat's head, and the broken limbs were made whole. Then the devas thanked Shiva for his gentleness, and invited him to sacrifice. There Daksha looked on him with reverence, the rite was duly performed, and there also Vishnu appeared riding upon Garuda. He spoke to Daksha, saying: "Only the unlearned deem myself and Shiva to be distinct; he, I and Brahma are one, assuming different names for creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe. We as the triune Self, prevade all creatures; the wise therefore regard all others as themselves." Then all the gods and rishis saluted Shiva and Vishnu and Brahma, and departed to their places; but Shiva returned to Kailash and fell once more into his dream. [9]

In 'Puranas' there are several other accounts of his exploits against demons and of protecting the holy ones. Once sage Kashyapa and all other sages were devoured by the wild fire. Virabhadra swallowed the fire and by the power of incantation revived all sages to life. Once a naga (serpent) swallowed all gods. Virabhadra killed the serpent and saved gods. Alike once the demon Panchamedhra arrested in his mouth all gods, sages, Bali and Sugriva. Those who could escape did not dare go near him. Virabhadra fought against him, killed him and set all free from his grip.

The robust figure of Virabhadra has been consecrated under an arch rising from a couple of mythical elephants. The arch terminates on it's apex in a 'Shrimukha'. As usual with Mysore art the two corners above the arch have been embellished by arabesques. Virabhadra has around his face flames of fire symbolical of his swallowing wild fire. On his right there stands a Garuda-type divine figure, symbolising perhaps his exploit against serpent, and on his left a Devi, a probable form of Bhadrakali. Virabhadra has on his head a towering helmet type crown typical of South Indian art. In one of his four hands he is holding a sword, in two a bow and arrow and in the fourth a highly artistic angular shield type object. His entire body is covered with broad patterned ornaments and jewels.

Vīrabhadra is prominently worshipped today in South India. The famous Lepakshi temple in Andhra Pradesh is dedicated to Lord Vīrabhadra. He is one of the primary Pancha-acharyas (gurus) for Lingayats.

Consort of Virabhadra - Bhadrakāli

Book 12: Santi Parva: Mokshadharma Parva: Section CCLXXXIV. p. 315 mentions that Mahadeva created from his mouth a terrible Being whose very sight could make one's hair stand on its end. The blazing flames that emanated from his body rendered him exceedingly awful to behold. His arms were many in number and in each was a weapon that struck the beholder with fear. p. 317. “I am known by the name of Virabhadra’’ and I have sprung from the wrath of Rudra. This lady (who is my companion), and who is called Bhadrakali, hath sprung from the wrath of the goddess.”

Consort of Virabhadra was Bhadrakali, also known as the gentle Kali, is generally an auspicious form of the goddess Kali, and the legend states that she came into being by Devi’s wrath, when Daksha insulted Shiva. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity, which was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. Sometimes, she assumes terrible aspect, and is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. [10]

Creation of Jats from Virabhadra

There is narration of story of creation of Virbhadra and destruction of Daksha in the book named Deva Samhita consisting of Sanskrit shlokas (verses). It mentions about characteristics of Jats (shloka – 15) and their creation from Virabhadra and Daksha’s daughtergana's. [11]

Deva Samhitā' of Gorakh Sinha from the early medieval period, when Pārvatī asks Shiva about characters of Jats, Shiva tells her like this in sanskrit shloka (verse)-15 as under:

महाबला महावीर्या, महासत्य पराक्रमाः Mahābalā mahāvīryā, Mahāsatya parākramāh

सर्वाग्रे क्षत्रिया जट्टा देवकल्पा दृढ़-व्रता: Sarvāgre kshatriyā jattā Devkalpā dridh-vratāḥ

Meaning - 'They are, like gods, firm of determination and of all the kshatriyās, the Jats are the prime rulers of the earth.'

Shiva explains Parvati about the origin of Jats in Shloka (verse) –16 of Deva samhita as under:

श्रृष्टेरादौ महामाये वीर भद्रस्य शक्तित: Shrishterādau mahāmāye Virabhadrasya shaktitaḥ

कन्यानां दक्षस्य गर्भे जाता जट्टा महेश्वरी Kanyānām Dakshasya garbhe jātā jatta maheshwarī.

Meaning – 'In the beginning of the universe with the personification of the illusionary powers of Virabhadra and Daksha’s daughtergana's womb originated the caste of Jats'.


The story of creation of Virabhadra from the Shiva’s lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabhadra and his ganas is mythical and not scientifically possible but has some historical facts in it. Thakur Deshraj has explained that there was a clan of Jats named Shivi who had a republic ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Paninis shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī given below. [12]

Many books of Sanskrit literature have used ganas and sanghas frequently. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini of 900 BCE has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or Jat Jhat Sanghate. This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous.[13]

The historical facts about the mythical creation of Virabhadra have been further clarified by the historian Ram Sarup Joon[14], who writes that ....The facts are that Shiva lived in Gangotri Hills which, due to Shiva's popularity, came to be known as Shiva's Jata. The mountain ranges in that area is now known as Shivaliks. Raja Virabhadra of the Puru dynasty was the ruler of 'Talkhapur' near Haridwar, which also formed part of the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata'.

This is the area around Haridwar. King Bhagiratha brought the Ganga to the plains in this region. According to legend the Ganga flows out from Shiva's Jata. Actually this also means that the Ganga flows out from the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata', the birthplace of the Jat Raja Virabhadra who was a follower and admirer of Shiva. On hearing of Sati's tragedy, Shiva went to the durbar of Virabhadra and pulled at his hair in fury while narrating the story. This infuriated Virabhadra and with his army, are invaded Kankhal and killed Daksha. [15]

Ram Sarup Joon[16] writes that ....Raja Vir Bhadra had five sons and two grand sons named Pon Bhadra, Jakh Bhadra, Kalhan Bhadra, Brahma Bhadra, Ati Sur Bhadra, Dahi Bhadra and Anjana Jata Shankar. Seven major Jat gotras are named after these seven descendants of Vir Bhadra. A detailed account of these is found in the family history of Rana of Dholpur. This proves the descent of some Jats from Vir Bhadra.

Ram Sarup Joon[17] writes that ....It has already been stated that Raja Vir Bhadra was the ruler of the area known as Shiv Ki Jata. He was of Puru Vansh and ancestor of seven Jat gotras. In the same dynasty, the Jat gotras Midh, Midhan, Mel and Ajmel claim their descent from Raja Hasti of Hastinapur. Therefore, the continuous chain of Jat rule is traced back to Raja Yudhishtra, ruler of Hastinapur and Indraprastha, later known as Delhi. The third ruling Jat dynasty in this line was Dhillon whose descendants are the present Jat gotras Dhillon, Dhilwal and Dhill.

Chronology of Virabhadra

The Branch of Puru

The historian Ram Swarup Joon[18] has given the chronology of Virabhadra, obtained from the records of the Bards of Dholpur.

(Obtained from the records of the Bards of Dholpur - after English Generation)
From : 		      Sanyati:
			 Vir Bhadra( 4 sons)
|	             |	         | 	             | 
Pon Bhadra  KalhanBhadra Atisur Bhadra          Jakh Bhadra
(Originator (Originator	    |	           (Originator
Punya	      Kalhan       |		        Jakhar
Gotra)	     Gotra)	        |	        Gotra)
			    Anjana Jata Shankar
			   	    |		            |
			   Dahi Bhadra	              Brahma Bhadra

Note: According to the Bhats (bards) of the Dahiya Gotra, the descendants Of the above spread to the following areas

(a) Pon Bhadra’s to Haryana, Brij, and Gwalior
(b) Kalhan Bhadra’s to KathiAwar and Gujrat.
(c) Atisur Bhadra’s to Malwa
(d) Jakh Bhadra’s to Punjab and Kashmir
(e) Dahi Bhadra’s to Punjab and Central Asia
(f) Brahma Bhadra’s by the name of Bamroliya to Jammu and Kashmir, Haridwar and Punjab (the ruling family of Dholpur is from this branch)

Ram Swarup Joon[19] writes that ....Raja Vir Bhadra had five sons and two grand sons named Pon Bhadra, Jakh Bhadra, Kalhan Bhadra, Brahma Bhadra, Ati Sur Bhadra, Dahi Bhadra and Anjana Jata Shankar. Seven major Jat gotras are named after these seven descendants of Vir Bhadra. A detailed account of these is found in the family history of Rana of Dholpur. This proves the descent of some Jats from Vir Bhadra.

Veerabhadra temple Lepakshi

Veerabhadra temple Lepakshi
Veerabhadra temple Lepakshi

Veerabhadra temple in Lepakshi is located near Anantapur which is 15 km east of Hindupur in the Anantapur district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India. Bangalore is the nearest large city.

The temple, a wonderful example of the Vijayanagara Architecture style and art, was built in the 16th century and sits on a mount. The presiding deity is Veerabhadra.[20]

In the exquisite shrine is a wealth of magnificent sculpture in the intricate mandapams. One mandapam has pillars with life-sized images of dancers, musicians and other sculptures, created by the artisans of the Vijayanagar empire. The huge granite Nandi Bull is carved out of a single stone. The ceilings have breathtakingly beautiful mural paintings.[21]

The temple is dedicated to the Virabhadra, a fierce incarnation of Lord Shiva. Built in the 16th century, the architectural features of the temple are in the Vijayanagara style with profusion of carvings and paintings at almost every exposed surface of the temple. It is one of the centrally protected monuments of national importance and is considered one of the most spectacular Vijayanagara temples.[22][23] The fresco paintings are particularly detailed in very bright dresses and colours with scenes of Rama and Krishna from the epic stories of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas and they are well preserved. There is a very large Nandi (bull), mount of Shiva, about 200 metres (660 ft) away from the temple which is carved from a single block of stone, which is said to be one of the largest of its type in the world. The temple is home to many Kannada inscriptions as its located close to Karnataka border.

Replete with idols of Nandi, Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha, Bhadrakali, etc., the typical Vijayanagara architectural style is very evident all over the temple with its awe-inspiring sculptures and detailed paintings on the walls and ceiling. The sculptures of gods, goddesses, musicians and dancers are similar to what one would find in the more famous Hampi. The various artworks showcase tales from the epics and the Puranas. These include a 24-feet-by-14-feet fresco of the fourteen avatars of Shiva (one of them being Veerabhadra) on the ceiling. And the deity of course — almost life-sized, armed and fierce, with a garland of skulls![24]

History: The temple was built in 1530 AD (1540 AD is also mentioned[25]) by Virupanna Nayaka and Viranna , both brothers who were Governors under the Vijayanagar Empire during the reign of King Achutaraya, at Penukonda who were native to Karnataka. The temple consists only Kannada inscriptions The cost of building the temple was defrayed by the government.[26] According to Skanda Purana, the temple is one of the divyakshetras, an important pilgrimage site of Lord Shiva.[27]

The legend: The significance of the place dates back to the Indian epic Ramayana. It is believed that the bird Jatayu, wounded by the king of Lanka Ravana, fell here after a battle against the king who was carrying away Sita, the wife of Rama, the king of Ayodhya. When Rama reached the spot, he saw the bird and said compassionately to him, “ Le Pakshi” — meaning “arise, bird” in Telugu.[28]

वीरभद्र की उत्पत्ति

वीरभद्र हिंदू पौराणिक कथाओं के एक पात्र हैं और कथाओं के अनुसार यह शिव के एक बहादुर गण थे और प्रथम अवतार थे जिन्होने शिव के आदेश पर दक्ष प्रजापति का सर धड़ से अलग कर दिया। देवसंहिता और स्कंद पुराण के अनुसार शिव ने अपनी जटा से 'वीरभद्र' नामक गण उत्पन्न किया। देवसंहिता गोरख सिन्हा द्वारा मद्य काल में लिखा हुआ संस्कृत श्लोकों का एक संग्रह है जिसमे जाट जाति का जन्म, कर्म एवं जाटों की उत्पति का उल्लेख शिव और पार्वती के संवाद के रूप में किया गया है।

वीरभद्र की उत्पत्ति - ठाकुर देशराज[29]लिखते हैं कि जाटों की उत्पत्ति के सम्बन्ध में एक मनोरंजक कथा कही जाती है। महादेवजी के श्वसुर राजा दक्ष ने यज्ञ रचा और अन्य प्रायः सभी देवताओं को तो यज्ञ में बुलाया पर न तो महादेवजी को ही बुलाया और न ही अपनी पुत्री सती को ही निमंत्रित किया। पिता का यज्ञ समझ कर सती बिना बुलाए ही पहुँच गयी, किंतु जब उसने वहां देखा कि न तो उनके पति का भाग ही निकाला गया है और न उसका ही सत्कार किया गया इसलिए उसने वहीं प्राणांत कर दिए। महादेवजी को जब यह समाचार मिला, तो उन्होंने दक्ष और उसके सलाहकारों को दंड देने के लिए अपनी जटा से 'वीरभद्र' नामक गण उत्पन्न किया। वीरभद्र ने अपने अन्य साथी गणों के साथ आकर दक्ष का सर काट लिया और उसके साथियों को भी पूरा दंड दिया। बाद में भगवान ब्रह्मा के अनुरोध पर भगवान शिव ने दक्ष को उनके शीश के स्थान पर बकरे का शीश लगाकर जीवित किया।

वीरभद्र का विवाह और सन्तान: भगवान वीरभद्र का विवाह देवी भद्रकाली के साथ हुआ। उनके 6 पुत्र हुए। जिनके नाम निम्नलिखित हैं -: 1. पोनभद्र (गोत्र: पूनिया) 2. कल्हनभद्र (गोत्र: कल्हण) 3.अतिसुरभद्र (गोत्र: आंजना), 4.जखभद्र (गोत्र: जाखड), 5. ब्रह्मभद्र (गोत्र: भीमरौलिया), 6.दहीभद्र (गोत्र: दहिया)

राजा वीरभद्र

राजा वीरभद्र - इन्हें जाटों का प्रथम राजा कहा जाता है, जिन्होंने हरद्वार पर राज किया। इनके नाम पर हरद्वार के पास रेलवे स्टेशन है। इनका वर्णन देव संहिता में है। नील गंगा को जाट खोद कर लाये थे जिसे आज भी जाट गंगा कहा जाता है।[30]

वीरभद्र से जाट गोत्रों की उत्पत्ति

उत्तरकाशी जिले का मानचित्र

दलीपसिंह अहलावत[31] ने लिखा है...शिवजी महाराज का राज्य कैलाश पर्वत से काशी तक जिसमें शिवालक (शिवजी की जटायें - राज्य की जटायें) पहाड़ी क्षेत्र और हरद्वार शामिल थे।

उसी समय पुरुवंशी राजा वीरभद्र हरद्वार के निकट तलखापुर का राजा था। यह क्षेत्र भी शिव की जटा कहलाता था। राजा वीरभद्र शिवजी का अनुयायी था। शिवजी महाराज को जब सती के मरने का समाचार मिला तो वे राजा वीरभद्र के दरबार में पहुंचे और क्रोध में आकर उसके सामने अपनी जटा खसोट डाली और वीरभद्र को, दोषी राजा दक्ष को दण्ड देने का आदेश दिया। राजा वीरभद्र ने अपनी सेना तथा गणों को लेकर कनखल पर चढाई कर दी और दक्ष को मार दिया। आज भी उस महान् योद्धा वीरभद्र के उस स्थान पर, उसके नाम का एक रेलवे स्टेशन वीरभद्र है जो हरद्वार से ऋषिकेश को जाने वाली रेलवे लाइन पर ऋषिकेश से दो मील पहले है। इस वीरभद्र नाम के स्थान पर भारत सरकार ने दवाइयां बनाने का एक बड़ा कारखाना स्थापित कर रखा है। राजा वीरभद्र का राज्य वह स्थान था, जहां पर गंगा नदी पहाड़ों से उतरकर मैदानी क्षेत्र में बहने लगती है । पुराणों की कथानुसार गंगा का निकास शिव की जटाओं से है। इसका अर्थ भी साफ है कि शिवजी के राज्य की जटाओं या पहाड़ियों से सम्राट् भगीरथ खोदकर इस गंगा को लाया था और वह पहाड़ियों से बहती हुई हरद्वार में आकर मैदान में बहने लगती है। लगे हाथों जाटगंगा का वर्णन करना उचित है जो इस प्रकार से है –

भैरों घाटी जो कि गंगोत्री से 6 मील नीचे को है, यहां पर ऊपर पहाड़ों से भागीरथी गंगा उत्तर-पूर्व की ओर से और नीलगंगा (जाटगंगा) उत्तर पश्चिम की ओर से आकर दोनों मिलती हैं। इन दोनों के मिलाप के बीच के शुष्क स्थान को ही भैरों घाटी कहते हैं। जाटगंगा के दाहिने किनारे को 'लंका' कहते हैं। इस जाटगंगा का पानी इतना शुद्ध है कि इसमें रेत का कोई अणु नहीं है। भागीरथी का पानी मिट्टी वाला है। दोनों के मिलाप के बाद भी दोनों के पानी बहुत दूर तक अलग-अलग दिखाई देते हैं। जाटगंगा का पानी साफ व नीला है इसलिए इसको नीलगंगा कहते हैं। महात्माओं और साधुओं का कहना है कि भागीरथी गंगा तो सम्राट् भगीरथ ने खोदकर निकाली थी और इस नीलगंगा को जाट खोदकर लाये थे इसलिए इसका नाम जाटगंगा है। इसके उत्तरी भाग पर जाट रहते हैं। इस कारण भी इसको जाटगंगा कहते हैं। इस जाट बस्ती को, चीन के युद्ध के समय, भारत सरकार ने, वहां से उठाकर सेना डाल दी और जाटों को, हरसल गांव के पास, भूमि के

जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-103

बदले भूमि देकर आबाद किया। जाटों ने यहां गंगा के किनारे अपना गांव बसाया जिसका नाम बघौरी रखा। यह गांव गंगा के किनारे-किनारे लगभग 300 मीटर तक बसा हुआ है जिसमें लगभग 250 घर हैं। लोग बिल्कुल आर्य नस्ल के हैं। स्त्री-पुरुष और बच्चे बहुत सुन्दर हैं। ये लोग बौद्ध धर्म को मानते हैं। इनके गांव में बौद्ध मन्दिर है। ये लोग भेड़ बकरियां पालते हैं। और तिब्बत से ऊन का व्यापार करते हैं। ये अपने घरों में ऊनी कपड़े बुनते हैं।1

नोट - हरसल गांव दोनों गंगाओं के मिलाप से लगभग 7 मील नीचे को गंगा के दाहिने किनारे पर है। बघौरी गांव हरसल से लगा हुआ है2

जटाओं से उत्पन्न हुए वीरभद्र आदि गणों को जाट मान लेने की कथा के अन्दर जो ऐतिहासिक तत्त्व छिपा हुआ है, वह यह है –

चन्द्रवंशी सम्राट ययाति के पुत्र अनु की 9वीं पीढी में राजा उशीनर जिसके कई पुत्रों में एक का नाम शिवि था (देखो प्रथम अध्याय, अनु की वंशावली)। इसी प्रसिद्ध दानी सम्राट् शिवि से शिविवंश प्रचलित हुआ जो कि जाटवंश (गोत्र) है। इस चन्द्रवंशी शिवि जाटवंश का विस्तार से वर्णन तृतीय अध्याय में लिखा जायेगा।

पुरुवंशी राजा वीरभद्र जाट राजा था जिसके शिविवंशी गण (संघ) शिव की जटा (शिवालक पहाड़ियों) में थे। इसकी राजधानी हरद्वार के निकट तलखापुर थी। शिवपुराण में लिखा है कि वीरभद्र की संतान से बड़े-बड़े जाट गोत्र प्रचलित हुए

वीरभद्र की वंशावली राणा धौलपुर जाट नरेश के राजवंश इतिहास से ली गई है जो निम्नलिखित हैं।

राजा वीरभद्र के 5 पुत्र और 2 पौत्रों से जो जाटवंश चले (जाट इतिहास पृ० 83 लेखक लेफ्टिनेंट रामसरूप जून) -


(1) पौनभद्र (पौनिया या पूनिया गोत्र) (2) कल्हनभद्र (कल्हन गोत्र) (3) अतिसुरभद्र (अंजना गोत्र) (4) जखभद्र (जाखड़ गोत्र) (5) ब्रह्मभद्र (भिमरौलिया गोत्र) (6) दहीभद्र (दहिया गोत्र)

1, 2. उत्तराखण्ड हिमालय के प्रसिद्ध योगी संसार की योग संस्थान के अध्यक्ष श्री योगेश्वरानन्द जी महाराज (ब्रह्मचारी व्यासदेव जी) के शिष्य ब्रह्मचारी सदाराम योगाचार्य ग्राम लोहारहेड़ी जिला रोहतक (हरयाणा) ने यह वर्णन मुझे मौखिक बताया। वह वहां पर काफी समय तक रहकर आये हैं। (लेखक)

जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-104

  1. पौनभद्र के नाम से पौनिया (पूनिया) गोत्र चला। यह जाट गोत्र हरयाणा, राजस्थान, बृज, उत्तरप्रदेश, पंजाब तथा पाकिस्तान में फैला हुआ है।
  2. कल्हनभद्र के नाम से कल्हन जाट गोत्र प्रचलित हुआ। इस गोत्र के जाट काठियावाड़ एवं गुजरात में हैं।
  3. अतिसुरभद्र के नाम से अंजना जाट गोत्र प्रचलित हुआ। ये लोग मालवा, मेवाड़ और पाकिस्तान में हैं।
  4. जखभद्र के नाम से जाखड़ जाट गोत्र चला। ये लोग हरयाणा, राजस्थान, पंजाब, कश्मीर और पाकिस्तान में फैले हुए हैं।
  5. ब्रह्मभद्र के नाम से भिमरौलिया जाट गोत्र चला। जाट राणा धौलपुर इसी गोत्र के थे। धौलपुर की राजवंशावली में वीरभद्र से लेकर धौलपुर के नरेशों तक सब राजाओं के नाम लिखे हुए हैं। इस जाट गोत्र के लोग हरयाणा, हरद्वार क्षेत्र, पंजाब, जम्मू-कश्मीर और पाकिस्तान में हैं।
  6. दहीभद्र से दहिया जाट गोत्र प्रचलित हुआ। दहिया जाट हरयाणा, उत्तरप्रदेश, राजस्थान, पंजाब तथा मध्य एशिया में फैले हुए हैं।
नोट - ऊपरलिखित नामों पर, चन्द्रवंशी क्षत्रिय आर्यों के संघ से ये जाट गोत्र प्रचलित हुए।

कड़वास स्टेट

ठाकुर देशराज[32] ने लिखा है .... [पृ.567]: शिवि वंशी वीरभद्र की एक शाखा बमरोलिया जाटों की है। गोत्र इनका है राणाउत्तर प्रदेश के बमरोली गांव से मध्य भारत में जाने के कारण बमरोलिया गोत्र हुआ।

गोहद के राणाओं की यह एक शाखा है। गोहद मध्य भाग में मराठों के पहले एक शक्तिशाली राज्य था। महादजी सिंधिया ने जब गोहाद पर चढ़ाई की तो गोहाद को फतह करने में कुछ दिन तक नाकामयाब रहा।

आखिर महादजी सिंधिया की विजय हुई। तब उसने इस खानदान के कुछ प्रभावशाली लोगों को खुश रखने के लिए स्वतंत्र जागिरें दी। राजा अमानसिंह, अचलसिंह और ठाकुरदास जी को महादजी सिंधिया ने अकाझिरी कैंप में बुलाकर अंताकी, कड़वास, अतरसोहा, छिरेटा, अंतऊआ, चित्तौड़ा आदि गांव जागीर में दिये।

अब यह स्टेट तीन हिस्सों में बटी हुई है। राजा उदयभान सिंह, श्री गणेशसिंह और दीवानसिंह इन तीनों हिस्सों के अधिपति हैं।

राजा उदयभान सिंह जी एक योग्य और शिक्षित सरदार हैं। सिंधिया हाई स्कूल में आपने शिक्षा पाई है। ग्वालियर राज्य सभा के प्रेसिडेंट रहे हैं। हिम्मत के आप बड़े धनी हैं। दुश्मन से घबराते नहीं हैं। आप

[पृ.568]: संत मत के अनुयाई हैं। आपके भतीजे भगवानसिंह जी श्री गणेशसिंह जी के सुपुत्र हैं। कौमी सेवा में भाग लेते हैं। ग्वालियर राज्य जाट सभा को उन्होंने अपनी सेवाएं दे रखी हैं। तीसरे दीवानसिंह जी का स्वर्गवास हो गया है। राजा उदयभान सिंह जी इस समय 42-43 साल के नौजवान व्यक्ति हैं और बड़े उत्साही हैं।

लेपाक्षि (अनंतपुर)

लेपाक्षि (अनंतपुर) में भारत के आन्ध्र प्रदेश राज्य के अन्तर्गत के अनंतपुर जिले का एक गाँव है। यह हिन्दुपुर से 15 किमी पूर्व में तथा बंगलुरु से 120 किमी उत्तर में स्थित है। यह स्थान सांस्कृतिक एवं पुरातात्विक दृष्टि से महत्वपूर्ण है। यहाँ विजयनगर साम्राज्य के काल (1336–1646) में निर्मित शिव, विष्णु एवं वीरभद्र के कई मन्दिर हैं।

Baijnath Shiva (Viadyanatha) temple Inscription Saka samvat 1126 (1204 AD)

File:Baijnath Inscription.pdf

Brief description of names and places appearing in text of Inscriptions is given below for ready reference of the readers. Genealogy of Lakshmanachandra is also given in these inscriptions.

1. Bainath Shiva (Viadyanatha) temple (left hand wall of porch) Inscription Saka samvat 1126 (1204 AD) tells mentions:

  • (V.8 L.9): Two brothers Manyuka (मन्युक) and Ahuka (आहुक)
  • (V.10 L.10,11): Village Kiragrama (कीरग्राम) in Trigarta (त्रिगर्त), rivulet Binduka (बिन्दुक), Rajanaka Lakshamana (राजानक लक्ष्मण)
  • (V.11-18): Genealogy Rajanaka Kanda (राजानक कन्द) → Buddha (बुद्ध) → Uddhura (उदधुर ) → Vigraha (विग्रह) → Brahma (ब्रह्म) → Dombaka (डोंबक) → Bhuvana (भुवन) → Kalhana (कल्हण) → Bilhana (बिल्हण) (wife:Lakshanika D/O Hridyachandra of Trigarta) → Rama + Lakshmana
  • (V.22-23): When Lakshmanachandra's wife Mayatalla was protecting the village Kiragrama, there lived two sons Manyuka and Ahuka sons of merchant Siddha.
  • (V.31) : Lakshna mother of Rajanaka donated land from village Pralamba to Shiva
  • (V.34) : Manyuka and Ahuka donated 4 hala cultivable land from village Navagrama for Shiva.
  • (V.37) : Bhringaka's (भृंगक) son created this eulogy, eulogy engraved by Guhaka of the region of Chabedha (चबेढ़), the land of Shiva.

2. Baijnath Shiva (Viadyanatha) temple (right hand wall of porch) Inscription Saka 1126 AD (1204 AD) of Jayachandra mentions:

  • V.1-20: Contain eulogy of Shiva and Parvati. No historical content.
  • V.21: Rajanala Lakshmanachadra
  • V.27: Merchant named Manyuka, S/O Siddha, his mother Chinna
  • V.30: Rich merchant Manyuka
  • V.32: Donation of two dronas paddy to Shiva from village Navagrama
  • V.33: Ganeshvara S/O Brahman Govinda donated 2 hala land to temple
  • V.34: Merchant Jivaka S/O Devika and Malhika donate land to temple
  • V.35: Shiva temple constructed by Manyuka and Ahuka
  • V.38: Poet Rama S/O Shrangara and Bhringaka composed eulogy.
  • V.39: On the first Lunar Day of the bright fortnight of month Jyeshtha ,when the 80th year has been completed during the reign of Jayachandra, Eulogistic poem composed by Rama on day of Sun. Elapsed year of the Saka era 1126

Notes by Wiki editor - This inscription is important for Jat History for the following reasons:

1. Baijnath is a Jat Gotra

2. Salutes Virabhadra too in addition to Shiva. Both are ancestors of Jats.

3. Jalandhar is named after Jalandhara, a demon king who lived in water as his name suggests Jal (water) and Andhar (in). Others say Jalandhar is derived from the fact that it is located between two rivers Jal and Andhar. In fact we find Andhar as a gotra of Jats, Origin of the which was place called Attock in Sindh.[33] This way the city was founded by Andhar Jats.

4. Trigarta gave rise to many Jat clans.

5. Rajan (राजन) is a Jat Gotra.

6. Pralamba - Pralamba (प्रलंब) is name of a place mentioned in Ramayana. It was part of Bijnor and Garhwal region. Mahabharata mentions Pralamba as an Asura who was killed by Balarama. Parlya Jat clan is derived from Pralamba.

7. Bharangar (भरंगर) is a Jat clan. Bhringaka's (भृंगक) son created this eulogy.

8. The eulogy engraved by Guhaka of the region of Chabedha (चबेढ़), the land of Shiva. Chaba (चाबा) is a Jat clan.

8. Brahma (ब्रह्म) is a Jat clan.

9. The statues at Baijnath Shiva Temple includes that of Shiva defeating Asura Andhaka. Andhaka (अंधक) was a janapda known to Panini and mentioned in Mahabharata. Various Jat clans have originated from Andhaka.

Laxman Burdak (talk) 16:53, 27 March 2022 (UTC)

External links


  1. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.16
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ब-94
  3. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.50, s.n. 1648
  4. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  5. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  6. Mahabharata Shanti Parva
  7. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  8. [ SACRIFICE OF DAKSHA, From the Váyu Puráńa.
  9. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  10. Anna Dallapiccola: Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend ISBN 0-500-51088-1
  11. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  12. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  13. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  14. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.16
  15. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  16. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.17
  17. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 44
  18. History of the Jats/Chapter II, pp.21-28
  19. History of the Jats/Chapter II, pp.17
  22. "Centrally Protected Monuments". Archeological Survey of India.
  23. Dallapiccola, Anna Libera; Majlis, Brigitte Khan; Michell, George (2019). Lepakshi: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Niyogi Books. ISBN 978-93-86906-90-8.
  25. Michell, George (1 May 2013). Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums. Roli Books Private Limited. ISBN 978-81-7436-903-1.
  26. Michell, George (1 May 2013). Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums. Roli Books Private Limited. ISBN 978-81-7436-903-1.
  27. Knapp, Stephen (1 January 2009). Spiritual India Handbook. Jaico Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-8495-024-3,pp.608-609
  29. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter II,p.86
  30. Hawa Singh Sangwan: Asli Lutere Koun/Part-I,p.60
  31. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat, p.103-105
  32. Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.567-568
  33. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998

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