Virabhadra

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Virabhadra (वीरभद्र) is a gotra of Jats. [1] [2] Raja Virabhadra was an attendant warrior of Shiva and ancestor of many Jat Clans.

राजा वीरभद्र

राजा वीरभद्र - इन्हें जाटों का प्रथम राजा कहा जाता है, जिन्होंने हरद्वार पर राज किया। इनके नाम पर हरद्वार के पास रेलवे स्टेशन है। इनका वर्णन देव संहिता में है। नील गंगा को जाट खोद कर लाये थे जिसे आज भी जाट गंगा कहा जाता है।[3]

Vīrabhadra: a great warrior

Veerabhadra temple Lepakshi
Ma Bhadrakali Temple Ujjain

Virabhadra ( वीरभद्र, IAST: Vīrabhadra) is a super being created by Shiva. Vīrabhadra was a great warrior who eventually blinded Bhaga, broke Pusha's (Sun) teeth and other gods including Indra fled the battle field unable to sustain his power. Vīrabhadra defeated Vishnu and Brahma in the war against Daksha. The consort of Virabhadra was Bhadrakali. Raja Vir Bhadra had five sons and two grand sons named Pon Bhadra, Jakh Bhadra, Kalhan Bhadra, Brahma Bhadra, Ati Sur Bhadra, Dahi Bhadra and Anjana Jata Shankar. Seven major Jat gotras are named after these seven descendants of Vir Bhadra.

Jat Gotras decended from Virabhadra

Creation of Vīrabhadra

Sati was the youngest daughter of Daksha, the chief of the gods. When Sati grew up she set her heart on Shiva, worshipping him in secret. In the Swayamvara of Sati, Daksha invited all gods and princes except Shiva. Sati cast her wreath into air, calling upon Shiva to receive the garland; and behold he stood in midst of the court with the wreath about his neck. Daksha had no choice but to marry Sati with Shiva. [4]

One day Daksha made arrangements for a great horse sacrifice, and invited all the gods omtting only Shiva. Sati, being greatly humiliated, went to the banquet and Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Narada bore this news to Shiva. Shiva burned with anger, and tore from his head a lock of hair, glowing with energy, and cast upon the earth. The terrible demon Vīrabhadra sprang from it, his tall body reached the high heavens, he was dark as the clouds, he had a thousand arms, three burning eyes, and fiery hair; he wore a garland of skulls and carried terrible weapons. Vīrabhadra bowed at Shiva's feet and asked his will. [5][6]

Vīrabhadra Destroyed Daksha

Shiva directed Virabhadra: "Lead my army against Daksha and destroy his sacrifice; fear not the Brahmanas, for thou art a portion of my very self". On this direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama, scattered the gods on every side; the he returned to Kailash. [7] [8]

The compromise with Shiva

After the destruction of Daksha's sacrifice, the defeated gods sought Brahma and asked his counsel. Brahma advised the gods to make their peace with Shiva. Brahma himself went with them to Kailash. Brahma prayed Shiva to pardon Daksha and to mend the broken limbs of gods and rishis. Shiva accepted his advice and restored the burnt head of Daksha with that of goat's head, and the broken limbs were made whole. Then the devas thanked Shiva for his gentleness, and invited him to sacrifice. There Daksha looked on him with reverence, the rite was duly performed, and there also Vishnu appeared riding upon Garuda. He spoke to Daksha, saying: "Only the unlearned deem myself and Shiva to be distinct; he, I and Brahma are one, assuming different names for creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe. We as the triune Self, prevade all creatures; the wise therefore regard all others as themselves." Then all the gods and rishis saluted Shiva and Vishnu and Brahma, and departed to their places; but Shiva returned to Kailash and fell once more into his dream. [9]

In 'Puranas' there are several other accounts of his exploits against demons and of protecting the holy ones. Once sage Kashyapa and all other sages were devoured by the wild fire. Virabhadra swallowed the fire and by the power of incantation revived all sages to life. Once a naga (serpent) swallowed all gods. Virabhadra killed the serpent and saved gods. Alike once the demon Panchamedhra arrested in his mouth all gods, sages, Bali and Sugriva. Those who could escape did not dare go near him. Virabhadra fought against him, killed him and set all free from his grip.

The robust figure of Virabhadra has been consecrated under an arch rising from a couple of mythical elephants. The arch terminates on it's apex in a 'Shrimukha'. As usual with Mysore art the two corners above the arch have been embellished by arabesques. Virabhadra has around his face flames of fire symbolical of his swallowing wild fire. On his right there stands a Garuda-type divine figure, symbolising perhaps his exploit against serpent, and on his left a Devi, a probable form of Bhadrakali. Virabhadra has on his head a towering helmet type crown typical of South Indian art. In one of his four hands he is holding a sword, in two a bow and arrow and in the fourth a highly artistic angular shield type object. His entire body is covered with broad patterned ornaments and jewels.

Vīrabhadra is prominently worshipped today in South India. The famous Lepakshi temple in Andhra Pradesh is dedicated to Lord Vīrabhadra. He is one of the primary Pancha-acharyas (gurus) for Lingayats.

Consort of Virabhadra - Bhadrakāli

Book 12: Santi Parva: Mokshadharma Parva: Section CCLXXXIV. p. 315 mentions that Mahadeva created from his mouth a terrible Being whose very sight could make one's hair stand on its end. The blazing flames that emanated from his body rendered him exceedingly awful to behold. His arms were many in number and in each was a weapon that struck the beholder with fear. p. 317. “I am known by the name of Virabhadra’’ and I have sprung from the wrath of Rudra. This lady (who is my companion), and who is called Bhadrakali, hath sprung from the wrath of the goddess.”

Consort of Virabhadra was Bhadrakali, also known as the gentle Kali, is generally an auspicious form of the goddess Kali, and the legend states that she came into being by Devi’s wrath, when Daksha insulted Shiva. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity, which was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. Sometimes, she assumes terrible aspect, and is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. [10]

Creation of Jats from Virabhadra

There is narration of story of creation of Virbhadra and destruction of Daksha in the book named Deva Samhita consisting of Sanskrit shlokas (verses). It mentions about characteristics of Jats (shloka – 15) and their creation from Virabhadra and Daksha’s daughtergana's. [11]

Deva Samhitā' of Gorakh Sinha from the early medieval period, when Pārvatī asks Shiva about characters of Jats, Shiva tells her like this in sanskrit shloka (verse)-15 as under:

महाबला महावीर्या, महासत्य पराक्रमाः Mahābalā mahāvīryā, Mahāsatya parākramāh

सर्वाग्रे क्षत्रिया जट्टा देवकल्पा दृढ़-व्रता: Sarvāgre kshatriyā jattā Devkalpā dridh-vratāḥ

Meaning - 'They are, like gods, firm of determination and of all the kshatriyās, the Jats are the prime rulers of the earth.'

Shiva explains Parvati about the origin of Jats in Shloka (verse) –16 of Deva samhita as under:

श्रृष्टेरादौ महामाये वीर भद्रस्य शक्तित: Shrishterādau mahāmāye Virabhadrasya shaktitaḥ

कन्यानां दक्षस्य गर्भे जाता जट्टा महेश्वरी Kanyānām Dakshasya garbhe jātā jatta maheshwarī.

Meaning – 'In the beginning of the universe with the personification of the illusionary powers of Virabhadra and Daksha’s daughtergana's womb originated the caste of Jats'.

History

The story of creation of Virabhadra from the Shiva’s lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabhadra and his ganas is mythical and not scientifically possible but has some historical facts in it. Thakur Deshraj has explained that there was a clan of Jats named Shivi who had a republic ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Paninis shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī given below. [12]

Many books of Sanskrit literature have used ganas and sanghas frequently. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini of 900 BCE has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or Jat Jhat Sanghate. This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous.[13]

The historical facts about the mythical creation of Virabhadra have been further clarified by the historian Ram Sarup Joon[14], who writes that ....The facts are that Shiva lived in Gangotri Hills which, due to Shiva's popularity, came to be known as Shiva's Jata. The mountain ranges in that area is now known as Shivaliks. Raja Virabhadra of the Puru dynasty was the ruler of 'Talkhapur' near Haridwar, which also formed part of the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata'.

This is the area around Haridwar. King Bhagiratha brought the Ganga to the plains in this region. According to legend the Ganga flows out from Shiva's Jata. Actually this also means that the Ganga flows out from the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata', the birthplace of the Jat Raja Virabhadra who was a follower and admirer of Shiva. On hearing of Sati's tragedy, Shiva went to the durbar of Virabhadra and pulled at his hair in fury while narrating the story. This infuriated Virabhadra and with his army, are invaded Kankhal and killed Daksha. [15]

Ram Sarup Joon[16] writes that ....Raja Vir Bhadra had five sons and two grand sons named Pon Bhadra, Jakh Bhadra, Kalhan Bhadra, Brahma Bhadra, Ati Sur Bhadra, Dahi Bhadra and Anjana Jata Shankar. Seven major Jat gotras are named after these seven descendants of Vir Bhadra. A detailed account of these is found in the family history of Rana of Dholpur. This proves the descent of some Jats from Vir Bhadra.


Ram Sarup Joon[17] writes that ....It has already been stated that Raja Vir Bhadra was the ruler of the area known as Shiv Ki Jata. He was of Puru Vansh and ancestor of seven Jat gotras. In the same dynasty, the Jat gotras Midh, Midhan, Mel and Ajmel claim their descent from Raja Hasti of Hastinapur. Therefore, the continuous chain of Jat rule is traced back to Raja Yudhishtra, ruler of Hastinapur and Indraprastha, later known as Delhi. The third ruling Jat dynasty in this line was Dhillon whose descendants are the present Jat gotras Dhillon, Dhilwal and Dhill.

Chronology of Virabhadra

The Branch of Puru

The historian Ram Swarup Joon[18] has given the chronology of Virabhadra, obtained from the records of the Bards of Dholpur.

(Obtained from the records of the Bards of Dholpur - after English Generation)
From : 		      Sanyati:
			     |
			 Vir Bhadra( 4 sons)
                       |
_________________________________________________________
|	             |	         | 	             | 
Pon Bhadra  KalhanBhadra Atisur Bhadra          Jakh Bhadra
(Originator (Originator	    |	           (Originator
Punya	      Kalhan       |		        Jakhar
Gotra)	     Gotra)	        |	        Gotra)
 
			    Anjana Jata Shankar
			   	    |		            |
			   Dahi Bhadra	              Brahma Bhadra
			   (Originator
			   Dahiya
			   Gotra)

Note: According to the Bhats (bards) of the Dahiya Gotra, the descendants Of the above spread to the following areas

(a) Pon Bhadra’s to Haryana, Brij, and Gwalior
(b) Kalhan Bhadra’s to KathiAwar and Gujrat.
(c) Atisur Bhadra’s to Malwa
(d) Jakh Bhadra’s to Punjab and Kashmir
(e) Dahi Bhadra’s to Punjab and Central Asia
(f) Brahma Bhadra’s by the name of Bamroliya to Jammu and Kashmir, Haridwar and Punjab (the ruling family of Dholpur is from this branch)

Ram Swarup Joon[19] writes that ....Raja Vir Bhadra had five sons and two grand sons named Pon Bhadra, Jakh Bhadra, Kalhan Bhadra, Brahma Bhadra, Ati Sur Bhadra, Dahi Bhadra and Anjana Jata Shankar. Seven major Jat gotras are named after these seven descendants of Vir Bhadra. A detailed account of these is found in the family history of Rana of Dholpur. This proves the descent of some Jats from Vir Bhadra.

Veerabhadra temple Lepakshi

Veerabhadra temple in Lepakshi is located near Anantapur which is 15 km east of Hindupur in the Anantapur district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India. Bangalore is the nearest large city.

The temple, a wonderful example of the Vijayanagara Architectural style and art, was built in the 16th century and sits on a mount. The presiding deity is Veerabhadra.[20]

In the exquisite shrine is a wealth of magnificent sculpture in the intricate mandapams. One mandapam has pillars with life-sized images of dancers, musicians and other sculptures, created by the artisans of the Vijayanagar empire. The huge granite Nandi Bull is carved out of a single stone. The ceilings have breathtakingly beautiful mural paintings.[21]

External links

Reference

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ब-94
  2. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.50, s.n. 1648
  3. Hawa Singh Sangwan: Asli Lutere Koun/Part-I,p.60
  4. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  5. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  6. Mahabharata Shanti Parva
  7. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  8. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp043.htm SACRIFICE OF DAKSHA, From the Váyu Puráńa.
  9. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  10. Anna Dallapiccola: Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend ISBN 0-500-51088-1
  11. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  12. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  13. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  14. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.16
  15. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  16. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.17
  17. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 44
  18. History of the Jats/Chapter II, pp.21-28
  19. History of the Jats/Chapter II, pp.17
  20. http://www.anantapur.com/travel/lepakshi.html
  21. http://www.templenet.com/Andhra/veerlepa.html

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