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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Location of Jhang on Pakistan Map

Shorkot (Hindi:शोरकोट, Urdu: شورکوٹ‎), Punjabi: شورکوٹ) is town located in the Jhang district of Punjab (Pakistan). Its ancient name was Sibipura.

Variants of name


The foundation of the city is attributed to a fabulous Raja Shor.[1]


It is situated in Shorkot Tehsil in Jhang district. It is located at 30°30'N 72°24'E.


The main tribes are Awan, Sial, Baloch, Jat, Rajput, Gondal, Syed, Arian, Cheema, Warraich, Taga, Shaikh. Small tribes are Sandhu (a Jat clan), Sidhu, Kang, Noul, Gill

Mention by Panini

Arishtapura (अरिष्टपुर) is a city mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]

Arishta (अरिष्ट) is name of a place mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Krishashvadi (कृशाश्वादि) ( group. [3]

Arishta (अरिष्ट) is name of a place mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Madhvadi (मध्वादि) (4.2.86) group. [4]

Shivapura (शिवपुर) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [5]

V S Agarwal[6] mentions....Arishtapura (अरिष्टपुर) (VI.2.100), same as Aritthapura (अरिट्ठपुर), a city of Sivi kingdom referred to in Buddhist literature.


V. S. Agrawala[7] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Uśīnara (उशीनर) (IV.2.118) - Panini mentions Ushinara as part of Vahika. Panini mentions three divisions of Vahika Country, viz Kekaya, Uśīnara and Madra. Fourth division to be added to Vahika country is Śavasa. Of these Kekaya and Śavasa may be located between Jhelum and Chenab, the first in the south and second in north respectively; Madra and Ushinara between the Chenab and Ravi River in the north and south respectively.

The Divyadana refers to the Shvasas in Uttarapatha with headquarters at Takshasila to which Ashoka was deputed by his father Bindusara as Viceroy to quell their rebellion. The name of Savasa or Shvasa seems to be preserved in in the modern name Chhiba comprising of Punchh, Rajauri and Bhimbhara. In literature Ushinaras are often associated with the Śibis (greek - Siboi) whose chief town Śibipura has been identified with Shorkot in Jhang district.

V. S. Agrawala[8] writes that Panini mentions Pura (IV.2.122) ending names of towns like Arishṭapura (Pali: Ariṭṭapura), a city in the kingdom of Shivi in Vahika. V. K. Mathur[9] tells us the location of Shivirashtra at Shorkot in Jhang district of Pakistan.

V. S. Agrawala[10] writes that Panini mentions Pura (IV.2.122) ending names of towns like Śivapura - northern town probably in the Shivi Country.

Prof. B.S. Dhillon[11] writes that today, Sibipura town is called "Shorkot" and is located in the Jhang district of Punjab, Pakistan. As per Diodorus [12], Arrian [13] and Strabo [14], the area surrounding Sibipura was occupied by a people called Sibi, during the time of Alexander's invasion of Punjab.

Professor Eggermont [15] said, "J. Ph. Vogel showed that the mound of Shorkot (Jhang district, between Chenab, Indus, and Ravi rivers) represents the site of Sibipura, the town (pura) of the Sibis, which is mentioned in a Shorkot inscription". Even today Sibi or Sibia is a well known Jat clan in Punjab. Furthermore, Professor Eggermont [16] said, "However, I cannot possibly pass over in silence that in the very Vessantara Jataka the town over which Sanjaya, king of Sibi, ruled is called Jettuttara and not Aritta-pura. It is probably more likely the word Jetuttara is Jetupura or Jatupura which means the place where Jats live. The word "pura" in Sanskrit means "place".

Aristha in Mahabharata

Aristha is mentioned in Mahabharata:

Arishta (अरिष्टा) (L) (I.59.12), (I.65),

Arishta (अरिष्ट) (I.61.77), (1.67), (V.128.46)

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 59 gives the Genealogy of Danavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakshas, Rakshasas: ....The daughters of Daksha Arishta is mentioned in verse (I.59.12).[17] ....The daughters of Daksha were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhika, Krodha, Pradha, Arishta, Vinata, Kapila, Muni, and Kadru.

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 61 provides the Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas..... Arishta is mentioned in verse (I.61.77)[18]

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 128 mentions deeds of Krishna. Aristha is mentioned in verse (V.128.46)[19]...He hath also slain Aristha, and Dhenuka and Chanura of great strength, and Aswaraja, and Kansa, the doer of evil.

Visit by Xuanzang in 641 AD

Alexander Cunningham[20] writes about 3. Shorkot:[p.203]: Hwen Thsang calls the central district of the Panjab Po-fa-to, or Po-la-fa-to, for which M. Stanislas Julien proposes to read Parvata. But to this it may be objected that parvata, which means a " hill," could not be, and in fact never is, applied as a name to any place in the plains. The capital was situated at 700 li, or 117 miles, to the north-east of Multan, a position which agrees almost exactly with the site of Jhang, on the Chenab. But as this place lies at some distance above the junction of the Jhelam and Chenab, it is most probable that it belonged to the northern division of Taki. In this case the distance recorded by Hwen Thsang would be too great, which might be due to his overlooking the shortness of the kos in this part of the country, as I have already explained in my account of Singhapura. This kos is only 1 mile and 2½ furlongs, or just 21/32 of the common kos. At this valuation Hwen Thsang's distance would be only 76 miles, which is within a few miles of the position of

[p.204]: Shorkot, or Shur, as it is called in the 'Ayin Akbari.' Now the initial syllable po of the Chinese name is frequently interchanged with the syllable so, of which we have a notable instance in Po-lo-tu-lo for So-lo-tu-lo, or Salatura, the well-known birthplace of the famous grammarian Panini. It is quite possible, therefore, that the same interchange may have occurred in the name of Po-lo-fa-to, for So-lo-fa-to, or Soravati, which would be a synonym for Shorkot. This is a mere suggestion to account for the Chinese name of the capital, which does not affect the identification of the province, as it is quite certain, from its position to the north-east of Multan, that it must correspond with the parganah, or district of Shorkot. The people I take to be the Sudrakae, or Oxudrakae of the classical writers, a point which will be fully examined in my account of Ajudhan.

The province is described by Hwen Thsang as being 5000 li, or 833 miles, in circuit, which must be greatly exaggerated. On the cast the boundary was limited by the Satlej, which for 100 miles formed the frontier line of the kingdom of Gurjjara ; on the north it was bounded by the province of Taki for a distance of 200 miles from the Indus to the old junction of the Byas and Satlej, near Firuzpur ; on the south it was bounded by Multan for a distance of 150 miles from the Indus, near Dera Din-panah, to the Satlej, below Pakpatan ; on the west it was bounded by the Indus itself for about 50 miles. The total length of frontier is therefore not more than 520 miles, which is considerably less than the circuit recorded by Hwen Thsang. The discrepancy may perhaps be explained, as before, by the use of the short kos, which would

[p.205]: reduce the circuit of 833 miles to 531, which agrees very closely with the actual measurements.

Within these limits there are several important towns, and many ruined mounds, the remains of ancient cities, which once played an important part in the history of the Panjab. These are : —

Region City
Richna Doab 1. Shorkot.
2. Kot Kamalia.
3. Harapa.
Bari Doab 4. Akbar.
5. Satgarha.
Doab Jalandhar Pith 6. Depalpur.
7. Ajudhan.

Shorkot - Shorkot is a huge mound of ruins, which gives its name to the parganah, or division of Shor, or the lower half of the Richna Doab.1 It was visited by Burnes2 who describes the place as "a mound of earth, surrounded by a brick wall, and so high as to be seen for a circuit of six or eight miles." He adds that it is much larger than Sehwan, which, following the measurement of De la Hoste, is 1200 feet long, by 750 feet broad.3 According to my information, Shorkot is much smaller than Harapa, and about the size of Akbar, that is, 2000 feet by 1000 feet, but loftier than either of them. The mound is surrounded by a wall of large-sized bricks, which is an undoubted sign of antiquity. Burnes was informed by the people that their town had been destroyed by some king from the westward, about 1300 years ago. The locality leads

1 See Map No. VI. 2 ' Bokhara and Panjab,' i. 113.

3 ' Journ. Asiat. Soc., Bengal, 1840, p. 913.

[p.206]: him to fix on it as the place where Alexander was wounded, and to assign its downfall to Alexander himself. I received the same tradition about its destruction, which I would attribute to the White Huns, who must have entered the Panjab from the westward during the sixth century, or about the very time specified in the tradition.

The foundation of the city is attributed to a fabulous Raja Shor, of whom nothing is known but the name. I think it probable that Shorkot may be the Alexandria Soriane, Σωριάνη, of Stephanus Byzantinus, who gives no clue to its position save the bare fact that it was in India. The names agree so exactly that I feel tempted to suggest that Shorkot may have been enlarged and strengthened by Philip, whom Alexander left behind as governor of the Oxudrakae and Malli. This suggestion seems the more probable when we remember that Shorkot was in the direct line of Alexander's route, from the junction of the Hydaspes and Akesines to the capital of the Malli.

I would, therefore, identify it with the city of the Malli, which, according to Diodorus and Curtius, surrendered after a short blockade.1 Curtius2 places it at 250 stadia, or 28¾ miles, from the junction of the rivers, a position which corresponds exactly with that of Shorkot. The account of Arrian differs from that of the other two historians in several very important particulars. He states that the first city taken by Alexander after leaving the confluence of the rivers was inland 400 stadia, or 46 miles,3 distant from the Akesines, and that it was captured by assault. I

1 ' Diodorus,' xvii. 52 ; Curtius, " corona cepit."

2 Vita Alex., ix. 4, 10. 3 ' Anabasis,' vi. 7.

[p.207]: infer that this city was Kot Kamalia, and I would explain the discrepancy in the two narratives by a reference to the details of this campaign which are given by Arrian. Alexander divided his army into three great bodies, of which the advanced division, commanded by Hephsestion, marched five days ahead ; the centre was commanded by himself, and the rear division, which was commanded by Ptolemy, followed three days behind. As the campaign was directed against the Malli, I conclude that the army marched by the direct route, via Shorkot towards Multan, which was certainly the capital of the Malli. Shorkot would thus have fallen to Hephsestion, who commanded the advanced division of the army. Alexander's own route will be described presently, when I come to speak of Kot Kamalia.

The antiquity of Shorkot may be ascertained approximately by the coins which are found in its ruins. These consist chiefly of Indo-Scythian copper pieces of all ages, with a few Hindu specimens, and a large number of Muhammadan coins. A single copper piece of Apollodotus was obtained by Burnes. From these data I would infer that the town was certainly occupied as early as the time of the Greek kings of Ariana and the Panjab, and that it was in a flourishing state during the sway of the Indo-Scythians, or from B.C. 126 down to A.D. 250, or perhaps later. But as the Hindu coins which I obtained from Shorkot were entirely confined to the Brahman kings of the Kabul valley and the Panjab, I conclude that the place was either deserted, or, at least, in a very decayed state, during the middle ages ; and that it was either re-occupied or restored in the tenth century by one of these Brahman kings.

Jat History

H.A. Rose writes that Bhangu (भंगू), Bhanggu (भंग्गु), a Jat tribe which does not claim Rajput origin. The Bhangu and Nol were among the earliest inhabitants of the Jhang District and held the country about Shorkot, the Nol holding that round Jhang itself before the advent of the Sials, by whom both tribes were overthrown. Probably the same as the Bhango, supra. [21]

Ram Sarup Joon[22] writes:

84. Shavi: Shavi was the son of the king Ushinar. He was a Yogi and an ascetic. He was married to, Sati the daughter of king Daksha. After her death he married Parvati. His seat of tapasya was on the Gangotri Mountain. He had two sons, Smokartik and Ganpati (Ganesh).

The Shavi dynasty prospered well. The Descendants of his dynasty are famous as Takshak, Bachak, Bharhaich, Nags etc. Shavi founded the country of Shavisthan (Siestan) in Iran and also the Island of Jatoli. They also founded kingdoms of Turkistan and Scandinavia.

The Shavi rulers constructed the Shorkot fort in Jhang.

In Iran there is a Mausoleum of prophet Shish. Hieun T-sang and Fahien have also called Iran as Shavi country.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[23] ने लेख किया है ...शोरकोट (AS, p.913) एक ऐतिहासिक स्थान, जो ज़िला झंग, पाकिस्तान में स्थित है। प्राचीन शिबिराष्ट्र की स्थिति शोरकोट के निकट ही कही जाती है। शोरकोट के इलाके को मुग़ल बादशाह अकबर के दरबारी विद्वान अबुल फ़ज़ल ने 'आइना-ए-अकबरी' में शोर कहा है। 'शोर' शिबिपुर का अपभ्रंश जान पड़ता है।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[24] ने लेख किया है ...अरिष्टपुर (AS, p.39) पाणिनि कालीन एक नगर का नाम था। बौद्ध साहित्य के अनुसार यह शिबि जनपद का नगर था। पाणिनि की 'अष्टाध्यायी' (6,2,100) में इस नगर का उल्लेख हुआ है। [25] बौद्ध साहित्य में इसे शिवियों के राज्य के अंतर्गत माना गया है।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[26] ने लेख किया है ...जेत्तुतर बौद्ध ग्रंथ 'अभिधानप्पदीपिका' में दी हुई बीस नगरों की सूचि में उल्लिखित एक स्थान था, जो श्री नं. ला. डे के मत में मध्यमिका या चित्तौड़ के निकट रहा होगा। इतिहासकार हेमचन्द्र रायचौधरी ने जेत्तुतर को 'शिविराष्ट्र' का नगर माना है। जेत्तुतर का उल्लेख 'वेस्संतरजातक' में भी है। अलबेरूनी ने इसे 'जात्तरौर' कहा है और मेवाड़ की राजधानी बताया है। (अलबेरूनी, पृ. 202)

शिवी और जाट संघ

ठाकुर देशराज[27] ने लिखा है ....शिवि - यह खानदान बहुत पुराना है। वैदिक काल से लेकर किसी न किसी रूप में सिकंदर के आक्रमण के समय तक इनका जिक्र पाया जाता है। पुराणों ने शिवि लोगों को उशीनर की संतानों में से बताया है। राजा ययाति के पुत्रों में यदु, पुरू, तुर्वषु, अनु और द्रुहयु आदि थे। उशीनर ने अनु खानदान के थे। पुराणों में इनकी जो वंशावली दी है वह इस प्रकार है:- 1. चंद्र 2. बुद्ध 3. पुरुरवा 4. आयु 5. नहुष 6. ययाति* 7. (ययाति के तीसरे पुत्र) अनु 8. सभानर 9. कालनर 10. सृजय 11. जन्मेजय 12.

* कुछ लोग राजा ययाति की राजधानी शाकंभरी अर्थात सांभर झील को मानते हैं जो कि इस समय जयपुर जोधपुर की सीमा पर है।

[पृ.92]:महाशील 13. महामना 14. महामना के दूसरे पुत्र उशीनर और 15. उशीनर के पुत्र शिवि। प्रसिद्ध दानी महाराज शिवि की कथाओं से सारी हिंदू जाति परिचित है।* ईसा से 326 वर्ष पूर्व जब विश्वविजेता सिकंदर का भारत पर आक्रमण हुआ था, उस समय शिवि लोग मल्लों के पड़ोस में बसे हुए थे। उस समय के इनके वैभव के संबंध में सिकंदर के साथियों ने लिखा है:- "कि इनके पास 40,000 तो पैदल सेना थी।" कुछ लोगों ने पंजाब के वर्तमान शेरकोट को इनकी राजधानी बताया है।हम 3 स्थानों में इनके फैलने का वर्णन पाते हैं। आरंभ में तो यह जाति मानसरोवर के नीचे के हिस्से में आबाद थी। फिर यह उत्तर-पूर्व पंजाब में फैल गई। यही पंजाब के शिवि लोग राजपूताना में चित्तौड़ तक पहुंचते हैं। जहां इनकी मध्यमिका नगरी में राजधानी थी। यहां से इनके सिक्के भी प्राप्त हुए हैं जिन पर लिखा हुआ है- 'मज्झिम निकाय शिव जनपदस' दूसरा समुदाय इनका तिब्बत को पार कर जाता है जो वहां शियूची नाम से प्रसिद्ध होता है। कई इतिहासकारों का कहना है कि कुशान लोग शियूची जाति की एक शाखा थे।

* शिवि जाति के कुछ प्रसिद्ध राजाओं का हाल परिशिष्ट में पढ़िए।

यह शेरकोट पहले शिविपुर कहलाता था। कुछ लोग धवला नदी के किनारे के शिवप्रस्थ को शिवि लोगों की राजधानी मानते हैं।

[पृ.93]: महाराजा कनिष्क कुशान जाति के ही नरेश थे। तीसरा दल इनका जाटों के अन्य दलों के साथ यूरोप में बढ़ जाता है। स्केंडिनेविया और जटलैंड दोनों ही में इनका जिक्र आता है। टसीटस, टोलमी, पिंकर्टन तीनों ही का कहना है कि-" जट्टलैंड में जट लोगों की 6 जातियां थी। जिनमें सुएवी, किम्ब्री हेमेन्द्री और कट्टी भी शामिल थीं, जो एल्व और वेजर नदियों के मुहाने तक फैल गईं थीं। वहां पर इन्होंने युद्ध के देवता के नाम पर इमर्नश्यूल नाम का स्तूप खड़ा किया था।” बौद्ध लोगों का कहना है कि भगवान बुद्ध तथागत ने पहले एक बार शिवि लोगों में भी जन्म लिया था। इन लोगों में हर-गौरी और पृथ्वी की पूजा प्रचलित थी। संघ के अधिपति को गणपति व गणेश कहते थे। इनकी जितनी भी छोटी-छोटी शाखाएं थी वह जाति राष्ट्र में सम्मिलित हो गई थी।

आरंभकाल में भारत में शिवि लोगों को दक्ष लोगों से भी भयंकर युद्ध करना पड़ा था। वीरभद्र नाम का इनका सेनापति दक्षनगर को विध्वंस करने के कारण ही प्रसिद्ध हुआ था। एक बार इन में गृह कलह भी हुआ था। जिसका समझौता इस प्रकार हुआ कि हस्ति शाखा के प्रमुख को पार्लियामेंट का इनको सर्वसम्मति से प्रधान चुनना पड़ा।* मालूम ऐसा होता है

* पुराणों में यह कथा बड़े गोलमोल के साथ वर्णन की गई है। हस्ति कबीले के लोग पीछे काबुल नदी के किनारे बसे थे। उनका हस्तीनगर आजकल न्यस्तन्यस कहलाता है।

[पृ.94]:शिवि लोगों के संघ में जब कि वह जाति राष्ट्र के रूप में परिवर्तित हुआ सभी शिवि लोग शामिल हो गए थे। यह भी सही बात है कि नाग लोग भी शिव लोगों की ही शाखा के हैं। क्योंकि पूनिया जाट कहा करते हैं कि आदि जाट तो हम हैं और शिवजी की जटाओं से पैदा हुए हैं। इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं कि शिवि जाटों की संख्या एक समय बहुत थी। क्योंकि सिकंदर के समय में 40 हजार तो उनके पास पैदल सेना ही थी। यदि हम दस आदमियों पीछे भी एक सैनिक बना दे तो इस तरह वे 4 लाख होते हैं और जबकि उनके दो बड़े-बड़े समूह चीन और यूरोप की ओर चले गए थे। यदि समस्त शिवि जाटों की अंदाज से ही गिनती करें तो वह 10 लाख के करीब साबित हो सकते हैं।

शायद कुछ लोग कहें कि 'यह माना कि शिवि एक महान और संपन्न जाति भारत में थी किंतु यह कैसे माना जाए किसी भी शिवि लोग जाट थे'? इसका उत्तर प्रमाण और दंतकथा दोनों के आधार पर हम देते हैं।

(1) पहली दंतकथा तो यह है कि जाट शिव की जटाओं में से हुए हैं। अर्थात शिवि लोग जाट थे।

(2) जाट शिव के गणों में से हैं अर्थात गणतंत्री शिवि जाट थे।

(3) जाट का मुख्य शिव ने बनाया, इसके वास्तविक माने यह है कि 'जाट-राष्ट्रों' में प्रमुख शिवि हैं।

यह इन दंतकथाओं के हमारे किए अर्थ न माने जाएं, तब भी इतना तो इन दंतकथाओं के आधार पर स्वीकार करना ही पड़ेगा कि जाट और शिवि लोगों का कोई

[पृ.95]: न कोई संबंध तो है ही। हम कहते हैं कि संबंध यही है कि शिवि लोग जाट थे। इसके लिए प्रमाण भी लीजिए। "ट्राइब्स एंड कास्ट्स ऑफ द नॉर्थ वेस्टर्न प्रोविन्सेज एंड अवध" नामक पुस्तक में मिस्टर डबल्यू क्रुक साहब लिखते हैं:

The Jats of the south-eastern provinces divide them selves into two sections - Shivgotri or of the family of Shiva and Kashyapagotri.

अर्थात् - दक्षिणी पूर्वी प्रान्तों के जाट अपने को दो भागों में विभक्त करते हैं - शिवगोत्री या शिव के वंशज और कश्यप गोत्री ।

इसी तरह की बात कर्नल टॉड भी प्रसिद्ध इतिहासकार टसीटस (Tacitus) के हवाले से लिखते हैं:- "स्कंदनाभ देश में जट नामक एक महापराक्रमी जाति निवास करती थी। इस जाति के वंश की बहुत सी शाखाएं थी। उन शाखाओं में शैव और शिवि लोगों की विशेष प्रतिष्ठा थी। "

हिंदुओं के प्राचीन ग्रंथकारों ने शिवि लोगों को शैवल और शैव्य कर के भी लिखा है। इनमें कई सरदार बड़े प्रतापी हुए हैं। उनके जीवन पर परिशिष्ट भाग में थोड़ा सा प्रकाश डालेंगे।

Sivi or Sibi Jats

Historian Bhim Singh Dahiya has provided proofs of Sivis being Jats. The first proof is of course the name itself. Sibi or Sivi, is the original name of their ancestor and Sibiya/Sibia is derivative meaning the descendants of Sibi. This clan name is only found in the Jats and in no other population group of India. These Sibia Jats are still existing. Shri Gurbax Singh Sibia, ex-minister in Punjab Cabinet was a scion of this ancient clan. The second proof is in the name of their city - Jattararur (Chittor) - which is based on the word Jatta-city of Jats. Incidentally, this is another proof of the fact that Mewar was under the Jats for very long time. Hence the names of its cities like Jaisalmer, Sikar, Sirohi, etc. The last two are names of the Jat clan also. [28]

The Buddhist Sibi Jataka (No. 499) contains their history and legends, and Vesantara Jataka, is named after a son of Sibia King of Jattaraur (Chittor). Their capital in Punjab was Sibipura (Modern Shorkot) [29] Rig Veda mentions the Sibi people and Baudhayana Srauta Sutra mentions, their king, Usinara , whom Indra saved from foreign aggression. They are the Sibai of Arrian and Siboi, of Deodorus. [30] [31]

Dr Pema Ram writes that after the invasion of Alexander in 326 BC, the Jats of Sindh and Punjab migrated to Rajasthan. They built tanks, wells and Bawadis near their habitations. The tribes migrated were: Shivis, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Madras etc. The Shivi tribe which came from Ravi and Beas Rivers founded towns like Sheo, Sojat, Siwana, Shergarh, Shivganj etc. This area was adjoining to Sindh and mainly inhabited by Jats. The descendants of Shivi in Rajasthan are: Seu, Shivran, Shivral, Sihot, Sinwar, Chhaba etc. [32]


The city is famous for the tombs of Sufis Sultan Bahu, Shah Mehmood Ghazi (also known as "Ghazi Pir") and Syed Mahboob Alam Shah Gilani. The tomb of the latter is in the centre of the town. He was sent to the Shorkot by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, to spread Islam.[33]

Notable persons

External Links


  1. Alexander Cunningham: The Ancient Geography of India/Ransi,p.206
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.64, 71
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.503
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.505
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.64
  6. V S Agarwal: India as Known to Panini, p.71, sn.15.
  7. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.53
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.64
  9. V. K. Mathur:Aitihasik Sthanavali,p.38
  10. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.64
  11. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 7,p.104
  12. Diodorus (first century B.C.), Diodorus of Sicilly, translated by C.B. Welles, Vol. 8, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1946, pp. 397, 401, 405
  13. Arrian (95-175 A.D.), Anabasis of Alexander, translated by E.I. Robson, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1966, pp. 37, 59, 69-72, 131-139 (Vol. II).
  14. Strabo (first century A.D.), The Geography of Strabo, translated by H.L. Jones, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1954, pp. 57-58 (Vol. VIII).
  15. Eggermont, P.H.L., Alexander's Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy's List of Indo- Scythian Towns, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica I, 1970, pp. 89, 86.
  16. Eggermont, P.H.L., Alexander's Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy's List of Indo-Scythian Towns, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica I, 1970, pp. 89, 86.
  17. अदितिर दितिर दनुः काला दनायुः सिंहिका मुनिः, क्रॊधा प्रावा अरिष्टा च विनता कपिला तथा (I.59.12)
  18. अरिष्टायास तु यः पुत्रॊ हंस इत्य अभिविश्रुतः, स गन्धर्वपतिर जज्ञे कुरुवंशविवर्धनः (I.61.77)
  19. अरिष्टॊ धेनुकश चैव चाणूरश च महाबलः, अश्वराजश च निहतः कंसश चारिष्टम आचरन (V.128.46)
  20. Alexander Cunningham: The Ancient Geography of India/Ransi,pp.203-207
  21. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/B , p.84
  22. History of the Jats/Chapter V,p.101
  23. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.913
  24. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p. 39
  25. पाणिनीकालीन भारत |लेखक: वासुदेवशरण अग्रवाल |प्रकाशक: चौखम्बा विद्याभवन, वाराणसी-1 |संकलन: भारतकोश पुस्तकालय |पृष्ठ संख्या: 85 |
  26. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.369
  27. Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Pancham Parichhed ,pp.91-95
  28. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.79
  29. Epigraphica Indica, 1921, p. 16; also Panini, IV/ 2/109
  30. Indica, 5, 12
  31. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 289
  32. Dr Pema Ram:Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, ,p.14
  33. Auliya-e-Jhang, by Iqbal Zuberi, Jhang Adabi Academy. Jhang Sadar, Pakistan 2000

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