Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix III
First Edition 1980
Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064
|The digital text of this chapter has been developed into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak|
Here are some more clans of the Jats taken from A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/List of Jat Clans, the page and volume of which are put into brackets:
(2) Arwal (Vol. II, p. 21, Dera Ghazi Khan).
(7) Chakora (Vol. II, p. 147).
(8) Chankar (Vol. II, p. 153).
(9) Daha (Vol. II, p. 219).
(12) Gadar (Vol. II, p.255)
(13) Gahep (Vol. I, p. 50).
(l6a) Guda (Vol. II, p. 305)
(20) Jamun (Vol. 1I, p. 352).
(21) Jani (Vol. II p. 353).
(25) Kachela (Vol. II, p. 420).
(32) Langa (Vol. II, p. 30).
(33) Lahil (Vol. III, p. 10)
(35) Lar (Vol. III, p. 31).
(36) Lat (Vol. III, p. 32).
(37) Mair Vol. I, p. 369).
(38) Mihir (Vol. III, p. 45)
(44) Rad (Vol. III, p. 268).
(47) Sandhran (Vol. III, p. 369).
(48) Sarapiya (Vol. III, p. 374).
(49) Savera (Vol. III, p. 390).
(50) Saunch (Vol. III, p. 390, Jind area).
(51) Sipra (Vol. III, p. 427).
(53) Sura (Vol III, p. 445).
(55) Udhana (Vol. III, p. 481, Lower Derajat area).
Historical notices of some of the clans have already been given and here we are giving certain fresh material about the clan names added here as well as about those already discussed. It will be noted that right from the Rig Vedic times, the historical clans are today represented among the Jats. For example, the Arya,
(1) Arab: This clan is mentioned by the western writers under the name of Arabikes. Sec. 41 of Periplus mentions this country in the western part of India. So far, this clan and their country has not been correctly identified. The commentator Schoff of Periplus compares it with Latika.1 It has also been compared with Aprantika 2 and also with Aryantika.3 The compiler of Tribes and Castes suggests that it may te the clan of descendants of Arab invaders. All these suggestions are unacceptable. They cannot be the people from Arab countries, because much earlier to the rise of Islam, Varahamihira mentions them as Arava.4 Here too they are mentioned in the south-west region, somewhere near or in modern Gujarat state. All other authorities become unacceppable when we find these people still living under the same old name. Thus all the references to Arava or Araba or Arabikes are references to this clan only.
(2) Bheda : These are the people who were defeated by king Sudasa in the famous battle of 10 kings in the Rig Veda. At that time too they were residing near the Yamuna river because it was on the Yamuna river that they were so defeated. Today they are found slightly away from the river in the Jind, Sangrur area.
(5) Bath: This is again an ancient clan still existing in village Rajewal/Kulewal near Samrala, Ludhiana district. Their coins also have been found with the legend Vata Svaka. The first name is of the clan Vata orBata which is now written as Bath and the second name of course may be of the individual ruler. 5 The find spot of the coins also points to the Punjab source.
1. B.N. Mukherjee, The Kusanas and the Deccan, pp. 174-75.
2. IA, 1878, Vol. VII, p. 259. .
3. IA, 1936, pp. 73-74; and S, Chattopadhyaya. Sakas in India, p. 37.
4. Brihat Samhitii, XIV, 17.
5. John Allan, op. cit., p. CXXXIII, intro.
times when that area was called Dahal Desa. Piawan Inscriptions of 789 K.S. (A.D. 1038) mention Sri Dhahalan iti.6 'Kitabul-Hind of Beruni mentions a Dahala with its capital of Tripuri as one of the countries of India.7
(7) Dahiya: They have already been described. However, here we want to draw attention to the mention of their country and some of their princes. Asandivat is mentioned as the capital of Janmejaya in Ramayana and Panini. Commenting on Panini, Kāsikā mentions Āsandi along with Dahisthalam. Har Datta, the author of Padamanjarikara mentions Asandi and Dahisthalam as names of particular countries or areas.8
- आसंदी व् दहिस्थलम् देशविशेष: यत्रेदमुच्यते
Inscriptional evidence mentions Dahisthala on the bank of Saraswati river where Kshemarāja Chālukya of Anhilvāḍa did penance. 9
From the above discussion it is clear that the places mentioned is somewhere in the Haryana area. Now there is an important town near Panipat which is called Asandh even today and the area of Dahiya clan is not far from this place. It is therefore clear that the ancient Asandi or Asandivat is the present Asand town and Dahisthal is the country of the Dahiya clan. Kinsariya inscriptions of Chachha Dahiya of 1056-57 SV. are reported in El, Vol. XII, pp. 56-57. He is mentioned as "Kulam Dahiyākam Jātam" and the inscriptions gives at least four generations of that prince. Another inscription of Chandrāvati Sitaleshvara Mahadeva temple mentions a Rauta Bhivasiha Dahiya and his son Rauta Uda Dahiya (Sl. No. 1856 of Inscriptions of North India).
(10) Ghuman: They have already been mentioned. However, an important inscription of a scion of this clan requires special
6. ASIAR, Vol. XXl, pp. 112-113.
7. S.C. Sachan, Alberuni's India, Vol. I, p. 202.
8. G.C. Awasthi, Veda Dhratala, p, 58,
9. RC. Ray, op. cit. ,p. 953,
10. John Allun. op. cit.
mention. This is the Manikiala silver plate inscription of Gomana Karavaka. Here the person named Karavaka is definitely from the Gomana or Ghumana clan. 11 Pargiter compares the name Gomana with Godhara and Gonanda. Both these are clan names, nowadays called Godara and Gondal, respectively. Similarly Goman is also a clan name. The fact that the clan name comes before the personal name is not of any significance because this was the practice in those days. The Gusur Simhabala and Saka Moda of the inscription have the clan name or the tribal name before the personal name.
13. Jāmun: They are mentioned as Yāmuna people in the Brihat Samhitā.
14. Kachela: They are mentioned in the Brihat Samhitā as Kachara. Mahabharata mentioned them as Kacha. 13 The other names mentioned are the Gopāl, Lāngal, Pangal (Pakhalla), Sindhu (Sindhu), etc. An inscription of 738 A.D. also has noticed them as Kachela, who were defeated by the Arab Muslim army along with the Maurya, Gurjar, etc.
- कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः
- किराता बर्बराः सिद्धा विदेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः Mahabharata (VI.10.55)
15. Kadyan: We have already quoted inscriptional evidence mentioning a Kadan who is also called "Goti-Putra". Ancient coins have also been found with the legend 'Kāḍasa' in early Brahmi characters. Kadasa (Sanskrit Kāḍasya) means "(the coins of the Kāḍas". According to John Allan, these coins have not yet been attributed. (Catalogue of the coins of ancient India, Orient Reprint, 1975, SS 103). It has been suggested that the name Kāḍa may be for Sanskrit Kala. Cunningham says that Kāḍa may be equated with Kadrava, the descendant of Kadru. 14 Both these suggestions are untenable and these coins really
11. EI, Vol. XII, p. 301,
12. Bhishma Parva, X, 55.
14. ASIAR, Vol. II, p. 10,
belong to the Kādān or as it is now written, Kadyan clan. The original name is Kaḍā which means high in Persian language and the suffix 'an' is added to it. The places like Kādyān near Amritsar and another place Kadān in Balochistan is named after them. As John Allan states, the name is a tribal name and not that of a ruler. The coins were found alongwith the coins of Kunindas and therefore, point to a Punjab provenance. They belonged to the third century B.C. or early second century B.C. The standing figure on the coins holds a spear or sceptre in the left hand. The symbols on the coins are those of the sun, the swastika, etc.
16) Khosar: In the history of Mauryas when they were attacking southern India we come across a warlike people who are named 'Kosar'. In fact these Kosar people were the vanguard of the Mauryan army as per Tamil literature. Like the Mauryas, they were also from the north and not from the south. They are to be identified as the Khosar clan of the Jats. 16
17) Kharpar : These people mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscriptions of Samudragupta are already identified with the present Kharap clan. The nine gems- of Vikramaditya's court, included one Ghaṭa Kharpar. 16 Even in 1251 A.D. Kharpar armies under Nasiruddin of the slave dynasty of Delhi were fighting in Madhya Pradesh area.
18) Kapāhi: These people, now found among the Jats as well as among the Khatris in Punjab, are to be identified with Kaphaios of Alexander's historians. It is also possible that the people called Ekpada (one footed) in Brihat Samhitā are but these people whose name is wrongly Sanskritised. Kapahi is very much like Ekapahi in pronunciation and means one footed in the later sense, hence this suggestion.
- कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः
- किराता बर्बराः सिद्धा विदेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः Mahabharata (VI.10.55)
20) Māna: They are already described. D.C. Sircar mentions a Māna country in south Maharāshtra. "Mānadesha Sambaddha Sarvādhikāri Brahmadeva Rānās." 17 Govindpur (Gay a distt., Bihar) inscription of 1059 Saka era mentions a Māna dynasty ruling in
15. For other details see Indian Culture, Vol. p. 97
16. R.B. Pandey, Vikramadita of Ujjayini.
17. IHQ, 1928, Vol. XXlV, pp. 71-79.
that area and its two kings, Mānalords, named Varṇa Māna and Rudra Māna are mentioned. 18
21) Malli/Mallhi: These people are mentioned as Mall, Malaya, Mala and Malloi. Their equation with Malavas of history and literature has been accepted by all.19 It is considered the Mallavas are non-existent today and have been absorbed in the Rajputs of today. 20 This is not correct and indicates only the pathetic plight of modern historians who never see beyond the Rajputs. This state of affairs is indicated by DHNI, which says that Mauryas are a sub-division of the Paramaras 21 and further that the Paramaras are descendants from Rastrakutas, through Akālavarsha, Krissnaraja (888 A.D.) of south Gujarat. 22 It is unthinkable that the ancient Mauryas were a clan of the 9th-10th century A.D. Paramaras. The hollowness of this claim is self-evident and need not be discussed further and such attempts are the result of the pathetic tendency mentioned above.
Now Malla or Malli/Mallh are still an existing clan among the Jats and on all tests of historicity they are proved to be the ancient Malavas or Mallas. Sanskrit grammarians and Chanakya mention the fact that these people were their own sacrificers. They did not employ the Brahmanas for priestly duties. Further Megasthenes in his Fragments mentions a special point about the Mallavas when he says that these people used to worship the grave mounds of their ancestors.
Now both these traditions are still maintained. The grave of the ancestors are in the form of a mound of earth on which a brick platform is raised. These platforms worshipped on important days like the birth of a son or marriage, etc., are called Jaṭher. Most of the Jat clans have such Jathers which are considered sacred. On the important fares held on these jathers, a person from a particular Jat clan officiates as priest and the offerings are taken away by the said 'priest' or by the clan as a whole. We
18. EI, Vol. II, p. 333, SI. No. 1105.
19. See Majumdar, Corporate Life in Ancient India, p. 273, also R.C. Douglas in
JASB, XIX, p. 42.
20. S.B. Chaudhari, The Mallavas, p. 179.
21. DHNI, p. 1154.
22. ibid., p. 842.
now quote from the Tribes and Castes to prove our point. The Chahals, Gills, Sindhus, Dhillons, etc., all have their sacred Jathers. Particularly the Mallhi Jats of Ludhiana have the Jather of Mari Lachhman at village Pabbian in Ludhiana district. The people belong to the Mallhi clan and the offerings at the fare are taken by the Mallhi Jats collectively. Another such fare is held annually at Mari village in Moga district, Ferozepore. "At the temple of Lachhman Sidh at Mari viIlage in Moga Tehsil a fare is held annually on the 14th Chet. Lachhman was a Mallhi Jat. The temple contains no image. Only a round platform which is kept covered with a sheet. A lamp is lit every evening by a Mallhi Jat of Mari. No Pujari is employed, but one from the tribe is chosen to officiate at the fare and he takes away the offerings".23
The Gill Jats hold a fare of Raja, who was a Jat, in village Rajiana, Tehsil Moga in Ferozepore. The temple "contains no image, only a platform of burnt bricks. Its administration is carried on by the Gill Jats, its votaries. They bring a Gill Jat Chela to officiate at the fare and he takes away the offerings".
Both these instances prove conclusively the correctness of the observations of Megasthenes and others. The Mallavas are still offering worship at the grave mounds of their ancestors and no special priest is employed. They are their own sacrificers. V.A. Smith was correct when he said that the Mallaoi were foreigners in India. 24
(22) Mihir: This clan is equated with the Maitraka clan of Vallabhi. Fleet held that Bhattaraka Maitraka belonged to a sun-worshipping people of foreign region. So far he is right. But he further suggested that Toramana and Mihiragula were from the Mihir clan 25. This view has been supported by others;26 But Toramana and Mihiragula have expressly stated on their coins that their clan was Jauvala and, therefore, they cannot belong to the Mihira clan, which is a separate clan of the Jats, and Mehrauli is named after them.
23. Vol. I, p. 282.
24. CCIM, Vol. 1. p. 174-76.
25. CII, Vol. 1lI, p. XII.
26. IHQ, 1928, p. 457; and JPASB, 1909, p. 183.
gift of horses.27 They were a people living on the Yamuna river.28 Vedic Index describes Pārāvata as a tribe. Vāmana Purana mentions a country called Pārāvata in the north of Kumāra Dvipa.29 The present Paravey clan is similarly situated on Yamuna river and the name alone is sufficient to point to the identity.
(24) Sategrah: This clan is to be identified, for the first time, with the people called Sattygraoi in the Persian Inscriptions and by Greek writers. So far the clan of these people is a puzzle for the historians.
(25) Sangha: They are the Singhai of Megasthenes. They were free people having no king and occupying mountain regions where they had built many cities.30 At the time of Alexander's invasion, these people are mentioned as Sangaeus on the frontier of India.31
(28) Wijhi: Perhaps they are to be identified with the Vijji/ Vajji who are associated with the famous Licchavis. It is further possible that the Naich clan may be the same as Licchavi because the latter name is also mentioned as Nichavi. This is a suggestion which requires further consideration. "These Licchavis were distinguished for their bright coloured and variegated dresses and equipages and all the evidence seems to point to these people being a branch of the Yue-che".32 Others hold that the Licchavis were Hinduised foreigners. 33 D.C. Sircar concurs with this view.34
28. ibid., 8/34/18.
30. S. Mukerji; p. 45.
31. PHAI. 1938. p. 210.
32. S. Beal, op. cit., Vol. III, p, 308; EHI. pp. 162-63; lA, Vol. XXXII, p. 233-35 and Vol. XXXVII, p. 78·80.
33. JASB, Vol. p. 142-43.
34. H.N. Jha The Licchvis Varanasi.
story that they are the descendants of a son of Yudhishthira does not seem to be correct because Nakula in his conquest of the western countries fought against Yaudheyas. Had they been the sons and grand sons of this Pandava family, then there was no question of their mutual fighting. Even otherwise the descendants of a son of Yudhishthira cannot be so innumerous as to give battle to the Pandavas who were their grandfathers. M.K. Saran is quoted below from his recent book, Tribal Coins, A Study, "The Jats who had opposed the army of Mahmood Ghaznavi on his return journey from Somnath, near Multan, were actually these Yaudheyas only".35 "The Jat soldiers (the Yaudheyas) were strong and sturdy. They resisted the imperial tyranny as rebels. The national spirit it and craving for freedom at times, gave them shocks during the course of their struggle for liberation but they boldly withstood them."36 Significantly, M.K. Saran has brought evidence showing that they did not believe in the rules of caste system. (Na Yatra Varnāshramaadharma Vrittaya.)
(30) Tangal: We know a people called Ganganoi connnected with Tanganoi by St. Markni and followed by others.37 Gangana never appears as a tribal name in any Indian source. On the other hand, Tangana or Tungana is the appellation of a fairly well-known people of ancient India."38 Tungli, conquered by the Kushana, may be "the Tanganoi (in place of Ganganoi) of Ptolemy 36. Their capital was Shachi, identified with Saketa by F.W. Thomas. 40 J. Kennedy suggests that Tungli may denote Magadha.41 This coincides the Tangals with the "Murunda" rulers of Patliputra prior to the Kushunas.42 This discussion shows that Tanganoi of the Greek writers and Tungli of the Chinese, may be the country of Tangal clan of the Jats, conquered by the Kusuan (Kushana) clan.
35. op. cit., p. 75
36. ibid. p. 147.
37. J.S. Negi, Some Indological Studies, p. 132.
38. B. N. Mukerji. Kushanas and the Deccan, p. 39.
39. ibid., p. 60.
40. New· IA, Vol. VII, p. 90-92.
41. JRAS, 1912, p. 679.
42. B. N. Puri, op. cit., p. 51.