Chitrakoot

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Author: :Laxman Burdak IFS (R)
Chitrakot on Map of Bastar district
Chitrakot falls in Bastar district

Chitrakoot (चित्रकूट) is town in Jagdalpur tahsil in Bastar district in Chhattisgarh. It is known for Chitrakoot Waterfalls.

Location

It is situated at 50 Km from Jagdalpur on Indravati River. It is known for [Chitrakoot]] waterfalls. It has been identified with Chakra Kotiya Kingdom of Nagavanshi Jat rulers.

Variants of name

History

Chitrakot is also the name of Chittorgarh in Rajasthan.[1]

Kalidasa in Meghaduta-Purvamegha 19 mentions about a hill named Chitrakuta in the south of Narmada:

सानुमांश्चित्रकूटस्तुंगेनत्वांजलद शिरसा वक्ष्यति श्लाघमान:[2]

According to Dilip Singh Ahlawat [3], The Naga Jats ruled over Kantipur, Mathura, Padmavati, Kausambi, Nagpur, Champavati, (Bahgalpur) and in the central India, in western Malwa, Nagaur (Jodhpur- Rajasthan). In addition they ruled the ancient land of Shergarh, (Kotah Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Chutiya Nagpur, Khairagarh, Chakra Kotiya and Kawardha. The great scholar, Jat Emperor, Bhoja Parmar, mother Shashiprabha was a maiden of a Naga Clan.

Chakra Kotiya (चक्र कोटिया) (also Chakra Kota, Chakrakota: चक्रकोट) was a kingdom of Nagavanshi Jats. Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State with capital at Jagdalpur. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakot, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, in Jagdalpur tahsil of present Bastar district in Chhattisgarh.

Other historical places around Chitrakut

Bhairamgarh is about 70 miles west of Jagdalpur and has three or four temples, together with remains of a fort and a ditch and several tanks. There is an inscription on a pillar, and at Potinar, a village near Bhairamgarh, there is a slab1 inscribed on four sides. Gadia is 20 miles west of Jagdalpur and has a stone temple with no idol, but built in the same style as those of Barsur.

About 400 yards away there is a big inscription, arid a linga was found buried in a brick mound. Narayanpal and Kuruspal are quite close to each other, the former being situated on the river Indravati. Near these villages are the forts of Rajapur and Bodra, and not far away the beautiful falls of the Indrvati at Chitrakut present a magnificent appearance.

Narayanpal is only 6 milea from Gadia and has an old temple, an image of Vishnu, and an inscription. Sunarpal and Chapka are -within 12 miles from Narayanpal. Chapka has a number of sati pillars, several of which are inscribed.

Tirathgarh also contains some temples and relics. Dongar is a place where according to custom the present Rajas go to be crowned. Here one of the queens, whose finger was chopped of by royal order and who ventured to inform her father, writing the letter with the blood BO wantonly spilt, was buried alive. The pit, which is still pointed out, was once disturbed by a greedy Raja of the same family , who also brought down the temple of Narayanpal and some others in search of supposed buried treasure.

Bilaigarh Plates of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)

English Translation
Success ! Ôm ! Adoration to Brahman !
  • (Veise.1) - Adoration to that reality Brahman, which is attributeless, all-pervasive, eternal and auspicious, the ultimate cause (of the universe) and supreme light conceivable by the mind.
  • (V. 2) The foremost luminary of the firmament is the sun, the Primeval Being. Then was born from him his son Manu, the first of kings. In his family there was Kârtavïrya born on the earth.
  • (V.3) - There was the king, the divine and illustrious Kârtavîtya, an ornament of the earth, who threw into bondage Râvana who had propitiated Siva with the embrace of (Parvati) the daughter of the Himalaya, who was terrified as he (the Râvana) lifted up the (Kailâsa) mountain with ease, and who (i.e. , Râvana) was greatly enraged when his offerings to the three-eyed (Siva), were washed away by the stream of the greatly flooded Rëvâ which was turned by the suddenly placed dam of his mighty arms.
  • (V. 4) - The king born in his family became known on the earth as Haihayas. An ornament of their family was that illustrious Kôkkala (I) endowed with all excellences who laid the fire of distress in the minds of (his) enemies, who accumulated fame after (amassing) the fortune of religious contemplation, (and) who was always dear to good people (as) one who made them happy.
  • (V. 5) - He had eighteen very valiant sons, who destroyed their enemies even as lions break open the frontal globes of elephants. The eldest of them, an excellent prince, became the lord of Tripuri and he made his brothers the lords of mandalas by his side.
  • (V. 6) - In the family of a younger brother of these there was born Kalingaraja who exterminated hostile kings with the fire of his valour and who was to the faces of the wives of the great warriors even as the full moon is to day-lotuses.
  • (V. 7)- From him also there was born a son who became famous by the name of Kamalarâja (and appeared) lovely with his far-spreading spotless glory. When the sun of his valour rose, the assemblages of lotuses bloomed even at night.
  • (V. 8) - Thereafter he begot Ratnarâja (I), whose face was like the moon, and who acquired a mass of religious merit by obliging the (whole) world; (and) who, destroying (his) enemies by the valour of the pair of his arms, spread (his) fame in the three worlds.
  • (V. 9) - (His wife) named Nônallâ was dear to him as valour is to a brave person. Their son was Prithvîdëva (I), the best of kings.
  • (V. 10) - The son of the queen Râjallâ, begotten by Prithvïdëva (I), was the brave king Jâjalladëva (I), the wish-fulfilling tree, bearing the fruit of fortune, which yielded their desired objects to good people, — (he) who was wont to worsbip ail gods; who was (annoying like) a thorn to his fierce foes, and the god of love incarnate to the extremely lovely ladies who saw him.
  • (Verse.11)- His son Prithvîdëva (II) of well-known fame, who has planted his lotus-like foot on the rows of hostile princes' heads, has become the lord of kings — (he) who, by devastating Chakrakota, overwhelmed the illustrious Ganga king with anxiety in regard to the crossing of the ocean which was the sole means (of saving his life).
  • (V. 12) - In the family of the sage Vatsa there was born formerly a Bràhmana named Hâpûka of great renown who, being foremost among those learned in the Vëdas, became dear to the world and possessed blameless prosperity, being smeared by whose glory, which in colour was as it were akin to powdered camphor and liquid sandal paste, the surface of the firmament shone all round.
  • (V. 13) - He had a well-known son named Jîmûtavâhana, who by his life sanctified the earth, and attracted prosperity by his merits, and in whose case the goddess of fortune herself gave up her natural fickleness.
  • (V. 14) - To him was born a wise son named Dëlhûka who has an intellect proficient in Vedântic principles and matchlessly radiant in regard to Smritis. Clever and noble as he is, his greatness is for obliging the (whole) world.
  • (V. 15) - Having learnt (from him) the Sakambhari vidyà, which is incomparable in all the worlds and having defeated his enemies with ease in the forefront of the battle Brahmadëva, the well-known feudatory (of Prithvïdêva II) regards him highly as the sole match for (Brihaspati) the preceptor of gods
  • (V. 16) - Prithvîdëva (II) granted him the village Paṇḍaratalāī in the Ēvaḍi mandala on the occasion of a solar eclipse.
  • (V. 17) - Those, who will be born in this family should confirm this copper (charter) so long as the serpent (Shesha) supports the earth with a thousand pillar-like hoods.
  • (V.18) - Whoever may hereafter be a king or a minister should also protect with care this religious gift of mine.
  • (Here follow four benedictive and imprecatory verses)
  • (V.23) - This prasasti incised on copper (plates) was composed by the illustrious Malhaṇa, the son of Śubhankara, who being well read is a bee on the lotuses in the form of poets and has used words with splendid significance in a large number of prabandhas (works).
  • (V.24) - These excellent copper-plates were prepared by Vâmana, written by a son of Kîrti, and incised by a son of Lakshmidhara.
The year 896 . .

Seal


The King, the illustrious Prithvîdëva.
Bilaigarh Plates of Prrithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)[4]

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 551-554


This inscription is of Prithvideva II from Kalachuris of Ratanpur mentions about a Naga Ruler named Jateshwara in Chakrakota.

Sanskrit Text

Bilaigarh Plates1.jpg
Bilaigarh Plates2.jpg
No 89 ; Plate LXXII

These plates were discovered in 1945 at Bilaigarh, the chief town of the former Bilaigarh Zamindarî, in the Raipur District of the Chhattisgarh Division in Madhya Pradesh. They were sent by the Commissioner of the Chhattisgarh Division to the Government Epigraphist for India. They are edited here for the first time from an excellent impression kindly supplled by the Government Epigraphist.

They are two copper-plates measuring 11 8" broad and 6 5" high. They weigh 137 tolas. They have their rims raised for the protection of the writing and contain marginal decorative designs on three sides. They were strung together by means of a ring, about 1.8 in diameter. The central portion of the ring was flattened into a round disk to serve as a seal of the plates. The upper half of this seal contains the figure of Gaja-Lakshmi in relief while the lower half has the legend Kāja-srīmat-Prithvīdevah engraved in two lines. The record consists of 36 lines, 18 being inscribed on the inner side of each plate. The average size of the letters is .25".

The characters are Nagari Worthy of note are the forms of the following letters : — Initial i consists of two curves with a looped end, turned in opposite directions and placed one below the other ; see iti, L-9 , dh is in a transitional form , its top does not yet show a horn, but the vertical stroke is slightly bent to the left, see -narādhipa-, L-16, the left limb of ś has become separated from the vertical on the right; see śūra- L-12. The avagraha is used to indicate the elision of a in lines 3, 10, 17, 20 and 29.

The language is Sanskrit Except for om namô Vrahmanë in, the first Line and the date in the last, the whole record is metrically composed. The verses, of which there are twenty-four, are all numbered The orthography shows the usual peculiarities, viz. , the use of v for b except in the form babhûvuh ; see vrahamanê, L.1 ; of s for ś as in sasvata-, L.4, and Vice versa in -sahaśrëna, L. 28, and the reduplication of the consonant following r; see nirggunam, L.1,

The inscription refers itself to the reign of Prithvïdëvâ II of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the royal grant of the village Paṇḍaratalāī situated in the Ēvaḍi-mandala to a Brâhmana named Dêlhûka on the occasion of a solar eclipse. The plates were granted in the year 896 of an unspecified era. The record was composed by Malhaṇa, the son of Śubhankara. The copper-plates were prepared by Vâmana and the charter was written on them by a son of Kîrti. The writer's personal name is not mentioned in the present inscription due to the exigencies of the metre, but he may be identical with Sûpata the son of Kïrtidhara, who wrote a grant of this very king Prithvîdëva II in the following year K 897. The record was incised by an unnamed son of Lakshmidhara. Lakshmïdhara incised the Sarkhô plates of Ratnadêva II, dated K 880 and the Amôdâ plates of Prithvîdëva II, dated K. 900. His son, who incised the present plates, may have been Dharanïdhara, mentioned in the grant of K. 897.


The date of the present inscription must evidently be referred to the Kalachun era. No details of the solar eclipse mentioned in it are given, but supposing that it occurred in the same year in which the plates were issued, as seems probable, we get some data for verification. According to the epoch of 247-48 A.C , there were two solar eclipses in the expired Kalachuti yeat 896, one of which occurred in the purnimànta Mâgha (on the 6th December 1144 A.C) and the other in the pûrmmànta Ashâdha (on the 22nd June -1145 AC), while there was none in the current Kalachuri year 896. The plates were therefore granted some time in the year 1144-45 A.C

The genealogy of Prithvïdëva II down to his father Ratnadëva II is given here in verses 3-10 which are repeated Verbatim from the earlier grants of the dynasty as the prasasti had then become stereotyped Verse 11 which describes the reigning king is, however, new and occurs only in the present grant.

It gives the interesting information that Prithvïdëva II filled the contemporary Ganga king with anxiety when he devastated Chakrakota, as the Ganga king realised that the only way to save his life was to cross the ocean. Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakuta, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.[5] The Ganga adversary of Prithvïdëva II is not named, but as the devastation of Chakrakôta had taken place some time before 1144-45 AC, when the present grant was made, it must have occurred during the reign of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga. This mighty Ganga Emperor had invaded the Kalachuri kingdom towards the close of the reign of Ratnadëva II, but he suffered an ignominious defeat. Soon after his accession Prithvidëva II seems to have attacked and devastated Chakrakôta. The Rajim stone inscription, dated in the same year as the present grant, viz , K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modem Kānker, which borders the former Bastar State on the north, during the reign of Prithvïdëva II. The Kalachuri kings were often at war with the Naga rulers of Chakrakôta. Prithvïdëva II's grandfather Jâjalladëva I had taken the Nâga king Sômêsvara prisoner and released him only at the intercession of his mother. The history of the Nâga kingdom of Chakrakôta is still enveloped in obscurity. Sômësvara was succeeded by Kanharadëva who was reigning 1111 AC. His successor, whose name is still unknown, must have been the adversary of Prithvïdëva II.

Prithvïdëva II's devastation of Chakrakôta is said to have struck terror in the heart of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga, who ruled over the neighbouring kingdom of Kalinga. The Kalachuri king does not seem to have attacked the Ganga kingdom on this occasion. Jagapâla's inscnption also does not mention any victory over the Ganga king though it mentions the conquest of Bhramaravadradësa which was probably identical with the Bhramarakôtyamandala in the Nâga kingdom. Prithvïdëva invaded the Ganga territory later on during the reign of Jateśvara alias Madhukāmārnava, the son and successor of Anantavarman.

The pedigree of the donee begins in verse 12. His grandfather was Hāpūka Who belonged to the Vatsa gôtra. He was famous for his knowledge of the Vëdas. His son was Jīmûtavâhana and the latter's son was Dêlhûka to whom the present grant was made. He is eulogised as proficient in the Vëdânta philosophy and the Sakambhari vidyâ.


Of the geographical names which occur in the present grant, Kôsala has already been shown to be the ancient name of Chhattisgarh and the adjoining territory to the east. Paṇḍaratalâï, the village granted may be identical with that mentioned min the Shëorinârâyan inscription of K 919, where Amanadëva, a scion of a collateral branch of the Kalachuri family, made some benefactions. There are several vjllages of the name Pendri or Pendriâ in Chhattisgarh, but the one nearest to Bilaigarh and Shëorinaràyan is Pendriâ, about 7 miles north-west of the latter place Èvaḍi, the head-quarters of the mandala of the same name, cannot be identified.


Wiki editor notes -

  • Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakot, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.
  • Kākayara - The Rajim stone inscription, dated in K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modem Kānker. Kak is a Jat Gotra.
  • Somesvara - Somesvara has been mentioned in Narayanpal Stone inscription of Queen Gunda-mahadevi, the mother of Somesvaradeva (Nagavanshi) 1111 AD.

Chitrakoot Waterfalls

Chitrakoot falls are located in the middle of Vindhya ranges. 50 Km from Jagdalpur is the crescent moon shaped Chitrakoot waterfalls. It is often compared with the Niagra falls of the US for its shape, although it is smaller. River Indravati plummets down from the Vindhya mountain ranges and forms these waterfalls. The waterfall is formed by the Indravati River in Chattisgarh region which is a tributary of Narmada. Chitrakoot waterfall is the largest waterfall in India. The height of the falls is 100 feet. The breadth of the waterfall varies as the water level in the river changes drastically. During monsoon the waterfall turns wild and violent.

The waterfalls and surrounding areas are spectacular in their beauty and extreme challenge for adventurer’s.

चक्रकूट

चक्रकूट (AS, p.324): प्राचीनकाल में वर्तमान छत्तीसगढ़ के पूर्वी और उड़ीसा के पश्चिमी भाग के अंतर्गत था. गोदावरी इसकी पश्चिमी सीमा पर बहती थी. इंद्रावती नदी इसी प्रदेश की मुख्य नदी है. वर्तमान जगदलपुर जिला बस्तर के पास बहती है. आज भी जगदलपुर के निकट इंद्रावती के प्रपात को चित्रकोट कहते हैं जो चक्रकूट या चक्रकोट का रूपांतर हो सकता है.[6]

चित्रकूट जलप्रपात

चित्रकूट अथवा चित्रकोट जलप्रपात सभी मौसम में छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य के बस्तर ज़िले में इन्द्रावती नदी पर स्थित एक सुंदर जलप्रपात है। हालांकि छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य में और भी बहुत-से जलप्रपात हैं, किन्तु चित्रकूट जलप्रपात सभी से बड़ा है।आप्लावित रहने वाला यह जलप्रपात पौन किलोमीटर चौड़ा और 90 फीट ऊँचा है। इस जलप्रपात की विशेषता यह है कि वर्षा के दिनों में यह रक्त लालिमा लिए हुए होता है, तो गर्मियों की चाँदनी रात में यह बिल्कुल सफ़ेद दिखाई देता है। जगदलपुर से 40 कि.मी. और रायपुर से 273 कि.मी. की दूरी पर स्थित यह जलप्रपात छत्तीसगढ़ का सबसे बड़ा, सबसे चौड़ा और सबसे ज्यादा जल की मात्रा प्रवाहित करने वाला जलप्रपात है। इस प्रपात से इन्द्रावती नदी का जल प्रवाह लगभग 90 फुट ऊंचाई से नीचे गिरता है। चित्रकूट जलप्रपात बहुत ख़ूबसूरत हैं और पर्यटकों को बहुत पसंद आता है। सधन वृक्षों एवं विंध्य पर्वतमालाओं के मध्य स्थित इस जल प्रपात से गिरने वाली विशाल जलराशि पर्यटकों का मन मोह लेती है।[7]

'भारतीय नियाग्रा' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध चित्रकूट प्रपात वैसे तो प्रत्येक मौसम में दर्शनीय है, परंतु वर्षा ऋतु में इसे देखना अधिक रोमांचकारी अनुभव होता है। वर्षा में ऊंचाई से विशाल जलराशि की गर्जना रोमांच और सिहरन पैदा कर देती है। आकार में यह झरना घोड़े की नाल के समान है और इसकी तुलना विश्व प्रसिद्ध नियाग्रा झरनों से की जाती है। वर्षा ऋतु में इन झरनों की ख़ूबसूरती अत्यधिक बढ़ जाती है। जुलाई-अक्टूबर का समय पर्यटकों के यहाँ आने के लिए उचित है। चित्रकोट जलप्रपात के आसपास घने वन विराजमान हैं, जो कि उसकी प्राकृतिक सौंदर्यता को और बढ़ा देती है। रात में इस जगह को पूरा रोशनी के साथ प्रबुद्ध किया गया है। यहाँ के झरने से गिरते पानी के सौंदर्य को पर्यटक रोशनी के साथ देख सकते हैं। अलग-अलग अवसरों पर इस जलप्रपात से कम से कम तीन और अधिकतम सात धाराएँ गिरती हैं।[8]

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References


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