Parmar

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Parmar (परमार)[1] Parmara (परमार) Pramar (प्रमार)[2] is gotra of Jats. They were the neighbours of Aparantas (अपरान्त) in Suparak (सूपारक). Paranta later changed to Parmar or Pramar. [3] They are found in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[4] Parmar is a Gotra of the Anjana Jats in Gujarat.

History of Parmaras

Gotrachara

Agnivanshi

In Indian culture, the Agnivanshi are people who claim descent from Agni, the Vedic god of fire. The Agnivanshi lineage (Agnivansha or Agnikula) is one of the three lineages into which the Kshatriya clans are divided, the others being the Suryavanshi(descended from Surya, the sun god) and the Chandravanshi (descended from Chandra, the Moon god). According to Hindu legends, Parashurama was the son of sage Jamadagni and his wife Renuka, living in a hut. They have a celestial cow called Surabhi which gives all they desire (such a cow is known as kamdhenu). A king named Kartavirya Arjuna (not to be confused with Arjuna the Pandava) – learns about it and wants it. He asks Jamadagni to give it to him, but the sage refuses. While Parashurama is away from the hut, the king takes it by force. Parashurama learns about this crime, and is upset. With his axe in his hand, he challenges the king to battle. They fight, and Parshurama kills the king, according to the Hindu mythology, the sage does not congratulate Parashurama, but reprimands him stating that a Brahmin should never kill a king. He asks him to expiate his sin by going on pilgrimage. Before leaving he asked his mother whenever you need my presence, you call my name I'll appear there, after his leaving his father was killed by warriors seeking revenge, his mother call his name 21 times, and Parashurama appeared there, when he was told that his father was killed by Kshatriya warriors seeking revenge. Parashurama again picks up his axe and slaughtered Kshatriya 21 times. The only escapees were those who disguised themselves as women, those who fled leaving behind their swords and those who fell at his feet. The absence of any warriors led to a dark age, where rakshasas (demons) increased in number, Vedas came to be trampled under feet, and Hinduism was forgotten. The sages then visited Parashurama's cave on Mount Abu. There, all the gods, men and nāgas assembled and came up with a plan to destroy the demons. Vashistha erected a fire altar and worshipped Shiva, who appeared before the sages. But the demons disrupted the ceremony by throwing impurities like blood, flesh and garbage on the altar. Twenty sages, including their leader Vashistha, then invoked Brahma and Shiva. They erected a new altar and conducted a fresh ceremony, and performed Homa (ritual) singing hymns from the Sama Veda. Following this, Shiva put something in fire and a hero with a bow, a crown and golden armour emerged from the fire and the hero was named "Para mara" ("slayer of the enemy"), later he was known as Parmar, and gave him the power to rule the entire earth, respectively Vishnu created a hero and he was named "Chahamanas", because he was four-armed like Vishnu later it known as Chauhan. The sage Bhrigu told him that he would be protected by the goddess Shakti in his endeavours to kill the demons, and Solanki was created by Brahma, he was named "Chaulukyas:" means the followers of Brahma later known as Solanki, and later Indra performed a Homa (ritual) (fire offering) and this led to the appearance of a hero named Pratihara ("door-keeper"), later known as parihar, whom Vashistha placed on the road leading to the palace. Parashurama and Shakti blessed the newly created heroes.

The legend might have been invented by Padmagupta, a 10th-century court poet of the Paramara dynasty. His Nava-Sahasanka-Charita is the earliest source claiming an Agnivanshi origin for the Paramaras. He might have been motivated by the fact that the Paramaras were the only royal family in their region without a mythical account of heroic or divine origin. The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources are as follows. The rulers are sons of their predecessors, unless otherwise specified. Paramara, mythical ancestor mentioned in the Agnikula legend.

Besides theParamara sovereigns of Malwa, several branches of the dynasties ruled as feudatories at various places. These include:

  1. Maurya : to which belonged Chandragupta and Ashoka, and the rulers of Chittorgarh prior to the Guhilot.
  2. Sodha : the rulers of Amarkot and Dhat in the Thar desert.
  3. Sankhla : Chiefs of Pungal, and also found in Marwar.
  4. Khair : its capital was Khairalu.
  5. Umra and Soomra : originally found in the desert, became Muslim converts.
  6. Vihal, or Bihal : Rulers of Chandravati, lost to the Chahamanas.
  7. Mahipawat : of the ancient stock of Dhar.
  8. Balhar : found in the Northern desert.
  9. Kaba : celebrated in Saurashtra in ancient times, a few still found in Sirohi.
  10. Ujjainia : Rajas of Ujjain.
  11. Umata : Rajas of Umatwara in Malwa, for twelve generations.
  12. Rehwar : petty chiefs in Malwa.
  13. Dhunda : petty chiefs in Malwa.
  14. Sorathia : petty chiefs in Malwa.
  15. Harer : petty chiefs in Malwa.
  16. Gandhawaria : chiefs of Mithila.

Paramaras of Bhinmal (also known as the Paramaras of Kiradu) : Branched off from the Paramaras of Chandravati

Paramaras of Chandravati (also known as Paramaras of Abu) : Became feudatories of the Chaulukyas of Gujarat by the 12th century.

Paramaras of Vagada : Ruled at Arthuna as feudatories of the Paramaras of Malwa

Paramaras of Jalor : Supplanted by the Chahamanas of Jalor

The rulers of several princely states claimed connection with the Paramaras. These include:

Baghal State: It is said to have been founded by Ajab Dev Parmar, who came to present-day Himachal Pradesh from Ujjain in the 14th century.

Danta State : Its rulers claimed membership of the Parmar clan and descent from the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain

Dewas State (Senior and Junior): The Maratha Puar rulers of these states claimed descent from the Paramara dynasty.

Dhar State : Its founder Anand Rao Puar, who claimed Paramara descent, received a fief from Peshwa Bajirao I in the 18th century.

Gangpur State : Its rulers claimed Paramara ancestry. According to David Henige, this claim is doubtful.

Muli State : Its rulers claimed Paramara descent, and are said to have started out as feudatories of the Vaghela.

Narsinghgarh State

Jagdishpur and Dumraon : The Panwars of Bhojpur district in present-day Bihar, who styled themselves as Ujjainiya Panwar, started claiming descent from the royal family of Ujjain in the 17th century. The Rajas of Jagdishpur and Dumraon in Bihar claimed descent from the Ujjainia branch of Paramaras.

The Gandhawarias of Mithila and the Ujjainiyas of Bhojpur also claim descent from the Paramara dynasty.

Bijolia: Located in present-day Rajasthan. It is the Head House of Parmars. It was taken over by Rao Ashok Parmar of Jagner (present day Uttar Pradesh) from the Hada and Chouhan rulers of Bundi State. During the 13-14 Century Afghan Invasion on Dhar State, main ruling took refuge here and settled here.

In Parmara kings, king Vikramaditya was Chakravarti Samrat, whom after Vikrmi Smbat Calender was issued. After king Vikramaditya Raja Bhoj was famous king among all Pamar kings, who ruled over Abu, Ujjain and Dhar. After him there is a famous saying that: “Ek Ujjain Dhar, bejo Abu Besno”

Parmar kul in which kings like Samrat Vikramaditya and Raja Munja, Raja Bhoja, Raja Jagdeva, Rao Sodha, Samrat Chandragupt Maurya, Samrat Ashoka, Rana Hamir, Rana Prashad, Rana Ratansingh, Rana Chandersingh were born, is the same kul in which saints like Bharthari, Gopichand, Peer Pithora were also born.

There are six famous Maha Shakti were born in Parmar Kul;

  • Rajkumari Vinkal Devi daughter of Raja Jagdev
  • Rajkumari Sachiya Devi daughter of Kaling Parmar
  • Malhan Devi daughter of Parmar king Viru of Janri (Malhan Devi’s temple is in Harihar).
  • Rajkumari Roopa Devi daughter of Raja Badree Parmar.
  • Rajkumari Jog Mata daughter of Rao Mungero
  • Rajkumari Kalyan Kaur aka Sachiya Mata sister of Sodho and daughter of Chahar Rao.

Parmara Rulers

According to the book Tod Rajasthan by James Tod, Parmar was born from Agni Kunda , after him his seven generations ruled over Abu, but in 8th generation Raja Chandersen was born, who moved his capital from Abu to Dhar Nagar. Its said that

“Jahan Parmar tahaan Dhaar aur Dhaar tahaan parmar, Dhaar bina Parmar nahi aur nahi Parmar bina Dhaar”

In the 4th generation of Raja Chandersen Raja Bhimak was born whose daughter Rukmani was married to Lord Krishna.

King Vikramaditya and his sixteen generations ruled over Ujjain then Pamars moved their capital to Junagadh near Barmer and then Keraro. Parmars from Abu to Ujjain were called “Maharaja” but after Raja Bhoja to Raja Jagdeva they were called “Raja”, raja Jagdev ruled over Muli, Jamnagar Gujarat, After making Keraro the capital Parmars were called “Rao” and then in Sindh with the title of “Rana”.

  • 1. Aditya Paramar (2710 – 2716) Kali Yuga (392 – 386 BCE).
  • 2. Mahamara (386 – 383 BCE).
  • 3. Devapi (383 – 380 BCE).
  • 4. Devdatta(380 – 377 BCE).
  • Unknown Kings (377-182), Defeated by Sakas. Left Ujjain and Had gone to Srisailam. Inefficient and nameless Kings. Their names are not mentioned in the puranas.
  • 5. Gandharvasena I (182 – 132 BCE)
  • 6. Sankharaja (132 – 102 BCE) (son of Gandharvasena), went to forest for meditation and died without a child.
  • 7. Gandharvasena II returned from exile and took over the throne again (102 – 82 BCE.
    • Bharathari, married Rani Pingla and had issue;
      • Bharmal
    • Vikramaditya (qv)
    • Prabhata
  • 8. Vikramaditya (born in 101 BCE i.e. 3001 kali yuga), (82 BCE – 19 CE), married Rani Chiterlekha (Padmani), had one son and one daughter, started Vikram Samvat in 57 BCE, he rule about 117 years.
  • 9. Aditya Vardhana aka Devabhakta (19 -78).
  • 10. Shalvahana (78 BCE -138 CE), founded Shalvahana dynasty, and started Saka era in 78 AD. After Salvahana his generations ruled from (138 AD- 638 AD).
  • 11. Salihotra
  • 12. Salivardhana
  • 13. Suhotra
  • 14. Havirhotra
  • 15. Indrapala
  • 16. Malayavan
  • 17. Sambhudatta
  • 18. Bhaumaraja
  • 19. Vatsaraja
  • 20. Bhojraja (638 AD - 693 AD).
  • 21. Sambhudatta
  • 22. Bindupala
  • 23.Rajapala
  • 24. Mahinara
  • 25. Somavarma
  • 26. Kamavarma
  • 27. Bhumipala or (Virasimha)
  • 28. Rangapala
  • 29. Kalpasimha
  • 30. Maharaja Krishnaraja Upendra : (c. 800 – c. 818).
  • 31. Maharaja Vairisimha (I) : (c. 818 – c. 843)
  • 32. Maharaja Siyaka (I) : (c. 843 – c. 893)
  • 33. Maharaja Vakpati (I) : (c. 893 – c. 918); called Vappairaja or Bappiraja in Harsola copper plates
  • 34. Maharaja Vairisimha (II) : (c. 918 – c. 949)
  • 35. Maharaja Siyaka (II) (reigned c. 949-972 CE), also known as Harsha, he was the son of Vairisimha II. The Harsola copper plates issued by Siyaka are dated 31 January 949 CE. According to the Parmara court poet Padmagupta's 'Nava-sahasanka-charita, Siyaka defeated Huna princes, and turned their harems into a residence of widows. He started out as a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, and participated in their campaigns against the Pratiharas. After the death of the Rashtrakuta emperor Krishna III, he fought against the new king Khottiga, and sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta in 972 CE. This ultimately led to the decline of the Rashtrakutas, and the establishment of the Paramaras as an imperial power. He had two sons;
  • 36. Maharaja Munja (reigned c. 972-990s CE), also known as Vakpati II, and with the title of Prithvi Vallabha. Munja achieved military successes against the Chahamanas, the Guhilas, the Hunas, the Kalachuris, and the ruler of Gurjara region (possibly a Chaulukya or Pratihara ruler). He also achieved some early successes against the Western Chalukya king Tailapa II. Tilaka-Manjari, a work composed by Munja's court poet Dhanapala euologizes him as an archer hero. Munja married with Kusumavati (according to Rajavallabha's Bhojacharitra) but had no child, after Munja his brother Sindhuraja set on the throne.
  • 37. Maharaja Sindhuraja (reigned c. 990s-1010 CE), the Udaipur Prashasti inscription of a later Paramara king mentions that Sindhuraja defeated a Huna king, also raided the territories the Shilaharas of Konkan. He also conquered Lata (southern Gujarat). The Nava-Sahasanka-Charita credits him with several other victories. According to the text, he defeated the rulers of Kosala, and also achieved military successes against Vagada and Muralas. Tilaka-Manjari, a work composed by the Paramara court poet Dhanapala euologizes him as a great hero and "a lion for the line of rutting elephants of Indra". He had three sons;
    • Bhoja
    • Udayaditya (qv)
    • Rao Mang, married and had issue.
      • Rao Mahap, married and had issue, the Mahipawat Rajput clan.
      • Rao Jalap, married and had issue, the Jalpawat Rajput clan.
  • 38. Raja Bhoja (reigned c. 1010–1055 CE), at its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east. Bhoja is best known as a patron of arts, literature, and sciences. The establishment of the Bhoj Shala, a centre for Sanskrit studies, is attributed to him. He was a polymath, and several books covering a wide range of topics are attributed to him. He is also said to have constructed a large number of Shiva temples, although Bhojeshwar Temple in Bhojpur (a city founded by him) is the only surviving temple that can be ascribed to him with certainty. Bhoja married multiple women as part of matrimonial alliances with other ruling dynasties. His chief queen was Liladevi or Lilavati. His other queens included Padmavati (princess of Kuntala), Chandramukhi (princess of Anga) and Kamala. Had issue;
    • Jayasimha
  • 39. Raja Jayasimha (reigned c. 1055-1070 CE), jayasimha's titles and name are given as "Parama-bhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara Jayasimha-deva". The poet Bilhana mentions that the Western Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI (r. 1076 – 1126 CE) helped re-establish the rule of a king in Malwa. Bilhana does not name the king of Malwa, but it appears that he was Jayasimha.
  • 40. Raja Udayaditya (reigned c. 1060–1086), Udayaditya appears to have had the hereditary fondness for literature and art, and to have brought up his sons as scholars, and his second son Naravarman is believed to have been the author of more than one Prashasti. The gold coins issued by Udayaditya are of 4.05 g weight. On the obverse of these coins the image of seated Lakshmi is depicted. On the reverse, the Devanagari legend, Shrimad Udayadeva is inscribed in three lines. Udayaditya had six sons and one daughter;
    • Lakshmadeva
    • Naravarman married had issue;
      • Yashovarman
    • Jagdeva (qv)
    • Rao Rindhawal aka Ranchhod(by Rani Vagheliji) aka Raja Ramdhawal Dev, 1st Raja of Dharanagar 1097, married and had issue.
      • Raja Roop Mahal, married and had issue;
        • Rajas of Dhalbhum
        • Raos of Bijolian
        • Maharajas of Dhar
        • Rajas of Dewas
    • Rao Sidhdhawal, married and had issue;
      • Rao Sumar (branch of Parmara known as Sumra)
    • Rao Mangaro, married and has issue;
      • Rao Umat (branch of Parmara known as Umat, mostly found in Narsingh Gadh).
    • Shyamaladevi, was married to the Gohi prince Vijaysinha and become the mother of Alhandevi afterwards wife of the Chedi king Gayakarnadeva.

Udayaditya was succeeded by his son Lakshmandeva and then Lakshmandeva by his brother Naravarman.

  • 41. Raja Jagdeva 1079-1151AD), was the son of king Udayadit of Dhar (Udayaditya) and his Solanki (Chaulukya) wife. Jagdeva married 1stly, Rani Virmati, daughter of the Chavda ruler of Tuktoda, and his wife, a daughter of Raja Karandev, Raja of Gujarat 1064/1093, married 2ndly, a daughter of Raja Siddhraja Jaisinh I, Raja of Patan, Gujarat. After staying some years in Gujrat, Raja Jagdev with some of his followers turned to north and in year 1151 Vikrami against 1094 AD, this small caravan settled at about 2 miles north-east of Akhnoor, which was then known as Wrat Nagari at a place Amba Rann, Raja Jagdev was worshipper of Mata Amba and Rai was his dynasty which till now Rajas of Dhara state Maharajas and other Parmar Rajas use it. Therefore the place where Raja Jagdev stayed was named as AMBARAI which later on changed to AMBA RAIAN. People of coming generations of Raja Jagdev Panwar were thus known as AMBA RAIAN. Panwar dynasty has ruled the Akhnoor state for 600 years. Founder of Akhnoor Raja Jagdev had also built a fort and palace about 5 miles west of Aknoor at village Gari.

There are many famous stories about the valorous of Raja Jagdev including cutting of his head and offered to goddess Kali of Dhar seven times and each time goddess saved him but one cannot miss the famous story of daan (Donation) by Raja Jagdev in the court of King Jaisal which shows the ultimate courage and greatness of Raja Jagdev: Power of giving Dan/ Sabse bada Dani - Raja Jagdev Panwar- In the court of the the great King of Jaisal (Jaisalmer) the wife of the Bhat (Genealogist) used to come to the court of the great king to accept the daan. One day when she came to the court of the King Jaisal, Raja Jagdev Panwar was also sitting in the court. The Bhat woman looked at Raja Jagdev and covered her head with her shawl. King Jaisal then asked her why she covered her head: “Evereyday you come here and you don’t cover your head, why have you done so today.” The Bhat woman said: “Today in your court sits the greatest giver of daan.” For this reason I have covered my head. King Jaisal replied: “Who is greater giver of daan than I?” The Bhat woman said: “He is Jagdev Panwar.” King Jaisal said: “Tomorrow, you go to his house to accept daan, and then come back here. I will see what sort of daan he gives and I will give ten times that amount in daan.” The Bhat woman went away, and Raja Jagdev went back to his house. At night Raja Jagdev said to his Queen: “Today we have been made equal to the King Jaisal. But Jaisal said that he would give ten times as much in daan as I give. So what daan should I give, so that he will not be able to surpass it?” The queen said to Raja Jagdev: “You have done a very wrong thing. You are a very small king, and he is a very great King. We cannot do anything in comparison with him.” Raja Jagdev replied: “We are of the Panwar gotr, we can never be defeated; in place of wealth or pomp, we can give our lives.” The queen then asked : “What daan will you give that King Jiasal will not be able to surpass?” Raja Jagdev said: “I will give my own head as daan, and then we will see how he will give ten times of that.” Morning came. Raja Jagdev took a bath and then cut off his head with his own hand, and the queen wrapped it in some cloth. Then the Bhat woman came, and she said: “Raja Jagdev said that he would give me daan, yesterday in the court, the great king said that I should first accept daan from Raja Jagdev’s house. And then return to the court. And he said that he would give me ten times that amount in daan.” The queen then put Raja Jagdev’s head wrapped in the cloth in the jholi of the Bhat woman. On her way the Bhat woman saw what had been given in daan, she saw the head of Raja Jagdev. She went to the court of King Jaisal. King Jaisal said: “Show me what daan you have brought from there. I will give ten times that in daan.” The Bhat woman said: “You will never be able to give ten times this in daan, You have been defeated.” King Jaisal said: “Show it to me.” Then in front of the whole court, the Bhat woman put Raja Jagdev’s head on a table. The whole court of the King was sorrowful and the great King Jaisal had to accept the defeat and said: “A greater daan than this could never be given.” The Bhat woman took the head back to Raja Jagdev’s house, and gave it to his wife. The queen then joined it to the body of Raja Jagdev and prayed to god for the life of her husband. The God made him live and everyone began saying : “Victory to Jagdev Panwar, the greatest giver of daan". Raja Jagdeva had five sons;

    • Rao Iyashu Dev
    • Rao Gyan Dev (qv)
    • Rao Hardev, his descendents are the rulers of Shakarpura.
    • Rao Bhadri Dev
    • Rao Kaba (after him Kaba branch of Parmar formed, first the rulers of Saurashtera now found in Sirohi).
    • Rajkumari Malavya Devi, married Raja Sammala Varman of East Bengal.
  • 42. Rao Gyan Dev : had son named Rao Dhundhmar.
  • 43. Rao Dhundhmar : he had two sons;
    • Rao Dharni Virah
    • Rao Amarsingh, who established the city of Amarkot in 1015 AD.
  • 44. Rao Dharni Virah : distributed nine castles in his nine brothers Mandor to Sanwat, Ajmer to Sindhsu, Pungal to Gajmal, Jalandhar to Bhojraj, Dhat to Jograj and Parkar to Hanso. He had two sons;
    • Rao Mahipal aka (Devraj), he succeeded his father Dharni Virah.
    • Bahar Rao aka Vagupt (thats why Barmer also known as Vgupt Meru).
  • 45. Bahar Rao : established a city Bahar Meru later known as Barmer, had one son;
    • Chahar Rao aka (Char Rai) who founder city Chahatsar now (tehsil Chohtan, Barmer, Rajasthan)
  • 46. Chahar Rao : according to some Gujarati folklores he married an Apsara (nymph) of Swarga Loka,had two sons and one daughter;
    • Sodho (qv)
    • Vaghji aka Sankhlo (from him another branch of Parmar formed known as Sankhla, the rulers of Pungal).
    • Kalyan Kaur (Sachiya Mata) aka Osiya Mata, according to some legends she was incarnation of Harsidhi Mata. Once upon a time in Ujjain, some evil spirits entered in the bodies of king Vikrmaditya's family members and controlled over them, king was not able to defeat spirts, so on Kalidasa's suggestion he went to Koyla Dungar at Miyani near Dwarka, Gujarat and prayed Harsidhi Mata, but she gave no response for couple of days so king chopped off his head and presented Mataji, she was pleased by his action and asked him for boon, king then brought her to Ujjain and she destroyed the evil spirts and gave boon to king that I will born in your lineage, and she took birth as Sachiya Mata to Apsara and king Chahar Rao.

Sodha

  • 47. Rao Sodho : According to Shaktidan Charan’s Sodhayan, Sodho’s elder sister Kalyan Kaur aka Sachiya Mata gave him boon to be the king of Sindh, after Chahar Rao Sankhlo become the king and Sodho moved to Sindh, after the journey of six days finally on seventh day he reached Rata Kot (Red Fort), where he killed Rata Mughal and captured Rata Kot in 1181 vikermi samvat, had son named Chachak Dev.
  • 48. Rana Chachak Dev' : Sodho and his son Chachak Dev ruled Rata Kot for about one hundred years then Chachak Dev’s son Raj Dev aka Rai Dev set on the throne of Rata Kot.
  • 49. Rana Rai Dev : He attacked Amarkot in 1226 AD (1282 Vikrami), he killed about 125 Soomras and captured the fort of Amarkot.
  • 50. Rana Jai Bhram : had set on the throne of Amarkot.
  • 51. Rana Jasdhar : aka Jessar he was very generous king, he gave daan to Jeniph Detha Charan of about 1.5 crore rupees it included many horses, buffalos, cows and elephants, and fifteen hundred acres land of Kharori village, now a very few population of Charans live in Kharori, they all are descendants of Jeniph Charan.
  • 52. Rana Someshvar : Rana of Amarkot.
  • 53. Rana Dharavarsh : lost the reign of Amarkot, Sodha ruled Amarkot for 104 years from 1226 to 1330, from 1330 to 1439 Amarkot's reign was in the hands of Soomras for about 109 years, Sodha recaptured Amarkot in 1439 and ruled till 1709 for about 270 years. Dharavarsh had four sons;
    • Durjansjal (qv).
    • Aasra, established his empire in Nangarparkar.
    • Tejmal Singh
    • Jagat Singh
      • Ratan
        • Mujoji, moved to Muli, Gujarat in 1474, died in battle against Brahmins, Rabaris (cowherds) and Harijans, 100 Parmars killed about 500 rivals and established new kingdom in Muli
        • Lakhdheerji, current Sodha of Muli are descendants of Lakhdhirji known as Lakhdhirani.
  • 54. Rana Durjanshal : had five sons and one daughter;
    • Khenraj (qv)
    • Kelhan (branch of Sodha)
    • Sangrasi (branch of Sodha), had five sons;
      • Lakhoji
      • Bharoji
      • Ramoji
      • Meghraj
      • Saranji
    • Nangar (branch of Sodha)
    • Veerji
      • Bhanji (Bhaan), branch of Sodha
        • Mandanji
          • Pir Pithora, from where Bhaan achieved the title of Peer
    • Natalde married to Rao Ramdevji, son of Raja Ajmalji of Pokhran..
  • 55. Rana Khenraj : married with the daughter of Maha Raval of Jaisalmer, he gave fifteen hundred horses in daan, after him “Rano Khenro” geet is used to sing in marriages still, had six sons;
    • Avtarde (Avtar Dev) (qv)
    • Jaisingh
      • Askaran (branch of Sodha)
      • Kanddeji
        • Surjanji
          • Seeshmalji
            • Ugoji
              • Beebhoji ((branch of Sodha known as Beebha)
                • Sangoji
                • Sanwloji
                • Togoji
    • Prithviraj
    • Satoji
    • Patoji
    • Samat
      • Doda (branch of Sodha)
  • 56. Rana Avtarde : married with Rajkumari Phool Kanwar daughter of Rai Chundaji of Mandor, during his time Hariya named person of Janri Village of Rajasthan, migrated to Sindh, also took the local deity Malhan Devi with himself, Rana Avtarde built village for Hariya and a temple of Malhan Devi, that village is now called Harihar after Hariya. Had issue;
    • Kunwar Thira
    • Bisalde (Vishal Dev), married had issue;
      • Rana Mahendra, hero of famous follore Mumal Mahendra.
  • 57. Rana Thira : married had issue;
    • Kunwar Hamir
    • Kunwar Rata (branch of Sodha known as Rata Sodha)
    • Kunwar Lakhdheer
    • Kunwar Randheer (branch of Sodha known as Thiriya)
    • Kunwar Shahat
      • Kunwar Soora (branch of Sodha known as Soora Sodha)
  • 58. Rana Hameer, who attacked Pir Pithora soon realized his power and become his devote. Married had issue;
    • Kunwar Veesal
  • 59. Rana Dadu he took over the throne, later Mataji killed him and set Veesal on the throne of Amarkot.
  • 60. Rana Veesal He recaptured the throne of Amarkot with the help of Mataji, had six sons;
    • Tejsi (qv)
    • Sadoor (branch of Sodha),had four sons, known as the four sub branches of Sadoor Sodha.
      • Jagmal
      • Seenho
      • Lakho
      • Bakhar
    • Bhujbal (branch of Sodha known as Bhujbal Sodha)
      • Bhavar Das
        • Mandanji
          • Naran
          • Mehajal (branch of Sodha known as Mehajal Sodha)
          • Vankiatji
    • Panchayan
    • Tilok
      • Madoji (branch of Sodha known as Mada Sodha)
    • Arjan (branch of Sodha known as Arjan Sodha)
  • 61. Rana Tejsi, had four sons;
    • Kunwar Champoji (qv)
    • Kunwar Roopsi
      • Kunwar Narpat (branch of Sodha known as Nara Sodha)
      • Kunwar Nabaji (branch of Sodha known as Naba Sodha)
      • Kunwar Veera (Veesal), had 7 sons, after five sons there are sub branches of Naba Sodha.
        • Kunwar Panchayan
        • Kunwar Deva, rulers of Kertee
          • Thakur Kanji
            • Thakur Gangdas
              • Thakur Kumpji
                • Thakur Ravaji, captured Kirtigadh (now Kertee).
                  • Thakur Maghji, descendents known as Maghani aka Maghjiyani.
              • Thakur Ramdas
              • Thakur Kirshansingh
        • Kunwar Raib, rulers of Veesasar
        • Kunwar Vanka, rulers of Bhadari
        • Kunwar Bhana
        • Kunwar Meghoji, settled in Ninhai village.
        • Kunwar Meroji, settled in Ninhai village.
    • Kunwar Maldev, (branch of Sodha known as Maldev Sodha).
    • Kunwar Govind
      • Kunwar Vijera (branch of Sodha known as Vijera Sodha).
      • Kunwar Dodo (branch of Sodha known as Doda Sodha).
      • Kunwar Naran
        • Kunwar Ram (branch of Sodha known as Ram Sodha).
        • Kunwar Versi (branch of Sodha known as Versi Sodha).
        • Kunwar Gangdas (branch of Sodha known as Gangdas Sodha).
  • 62. Rana Champa : married and had issue;
    • Kunwar Ganga
    • Kunwar Hampa
    • Kunwar Raghuji
      • Narsingh (branch of Sodha known as Narsingh Sodha, found in only one village).
  • 63. Rana Ganga: during his time Jaisalmer’s king Har Raj attacked Amarkot, Ganga fought bravely but lost the war and was captured by Har Raj and was brought to Jaisalmer and died there, married and had issue;
    • Kunwar Prashad
  • 64. Rana Prashad : was set on the throne of Amarkot, who gave refugee to Mughal king Humayun when he lost war from Sher Shah Suri and flew away, Mughal king Akbar was also born under the shelter of Rana Prasahd, had son;
    • Kunwar Chandersen
  • 65. Rana Chandarsen, married and had issue;
    • Kunwar Bhojraj
  • 66. Rana Bhojraj , married and had issue:
    • Kunwar Essar Das
    • Baijilal Atarangde [Maharani Antarde of Jaisalmer], she married Maharawal Manohar Das, Maharawal of Jaisalmer 1634/1648, and had issue.
    • Baijilal Chand Kanwar : Married Maharawal Ramchandra, Maharawal of Jaisalmer 1648/1651.
  • 67. Rana Essar Das : set on the throne of Amarkot, Essar Das was set off from the throne by the king Rawal Sabal Singh of Jaisalmer in 1653 AD (1710 vikermi), Rawal Sabal made Jaisingh aka Jagsingh the grandson of Ganga the Rana of Amarkot.
  • 68. Rana Ganga Das : married and had issue.
    • Kunwar Jaisingh
    • Baijilal Deo Kanwar, married Maharawal Amar Singh, Maharawal of Jaisalmer 1661/1702
    • Baijilal Deep Kanwar, married Maharawal Amar Singh, Maharawal of Jaisalmer 1661/1702
  • 69. Rana Jaisingh : had four sons and one daughter;
    • Bhojraj (branch of Sodha known as Bhojraj Sodha)
    • Surtan (branch of Sodha known as Surtan Sodha)
    • Surjmal (branch of Sodha known as Surjmal Sodha)
    • Mansingh (branch of Sodha known as Mansingh Sodha)
    • Baijilal Suraj Kanwar, married Maharawal Jaswant Singh, Maharawal of Jaisalmer 1702/1708.
  • 70. Rana Surtansingh, married and had issue;
    • Kunwar Askaransingh
  • 71. Rana Aaskaransingh, married and had issue;
    • Kunwar Ishwar Das
  • 72. Rana Ishwar Das : Rana of Amarkot (1708), married and had issue.
    • Kunwar Bahabutsingh
    • Baijilal Har Kanwar, married Maharawal Akhay Singh, Maharawal of Jaisalmer 1722/1762.
  • 73. Rana Bahabut Singh : Rana of Amarkot, married and had issue.
    • Kunwar Mehraj Singh (qv)
    • Rana Ratan Singh : Rana of Amarkot -/1865, he is a well-known figure in Sindhi literature and culture, and is even remembered to the present day, in the entire Sindh area as the subject of the famous folk song "Mor Tho Tilley Rana", he was said to be very handsome and well-dressed in the traditional Sindhi style, and many women were fascinated by him; married and had issue, one son. He died 1865.
  • 74. Rana Mehraj Singh : 23rd Rana of Amarkot 1865/1899; born 1826, married and had issue. He died 1899.
    • Kunwar Arjun Singh
  • 75. Rana Arjun Singh, 24th Rana of Amarkot 1899/1947, born 1885, married Baisa Dev Kanwar [Rani Dev Kumari of Amarkot], daughter of General Thakur Bheru Singhji, 1st Thakur Saheb of Khatipura, and had issue. He died in January 1947.
    • Kunwar Chander Singh : succededed as Rana Chandra Singh (qv).
    • Thakur Saheb Inder Singhji, born 1934.
    • Thakur Saheb Balbeer Singhji, born 1938, married Rani Indira Kumari, youngest daughter of Rawat Jai Singhji, 3rd Rawat Saheb of Meja, and had issue, four children.
    • Kunwar Rajvir Singh, married Kanwarani Uma Kanwar, daughter of Rawat Sawai Hari Singhji II of Begun, and his first wife, Rani Kanchan Kunwar.
    • Kunwar Vikram Singh, married Rajkumari Kirti Kumari, daughter of Rao Indrajit Singhji, Rao Saheb of Garhi, and his wife, Rani Sampat Kumari, daughter of Maharaj Shri Ajit Singh Sahib of Jodhpur, and has issue.
      • Kunwarani Kiran Kumari, married 2015, Kunwar Dhruv Singh, younger son of Thakur Gaj Singh, present Thakur Saheb of Alsisar.
    • Kunwarani Sarita Kumari, married Kunwar Himmat Singh, son of Thakur Sajjan Singhji of Ghanerao.
    • Kunwar Trilokh Singh, married to Kanwarani Priya Rathore, daughter of Maharaj Kishore Singh of Khawaja.
  • 76. Rana Chandra Singh : 25th Rana of Amarkot 1947/2009, born 1931 in Rana Jagir, Tharparkar District, he was one of the founder members of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan from Umerkot, seven times with the PPP between 1977 and 1999; he served as Minister for Agriculture and Revenue, and was Chairman of the National Commission of Minorities; married Rani Subhadra Kumari, daughter of Rawat Tej Singhji of Rawatsar in Bikaner, and his wife, Rani Lakshmi Kumariji, and had issue, four sons and one daughter. He died 1st August 2009 in Karachi and was cremated at Rana Jagir.
    • Kunwar Jungvijay Singh, born 5th February 1956.
    • Kunwar Hamir Singh, succededed as Rana Hamir Singh (qv)
    • Kunwar Bhopal Singh, born 7th October 1959. (U.S.A.)
    • Kunwar Dr. Pritipal Singh Sodha, presently employed with the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi; married Kunwarani Ronilla Singh Ranawat, Administrative Coordinator of the Foundation Public School, daughter of Col. Thakur Ran Vijay Singh Ranawat of Kankarwa, and has issue, two sons.
      • Bhanwar Shivdan Singh Sodha
      • Bhanwar Bhawani Singh Sodha
    • Rajkumari Sangeeta Kumari, married to Thakur Narpat Singh Ranawat of Shahpura in Jaipur, and has issue, two children.
      • Kunwar Shatrunjay Pratap Singh, Conservationist working for the survival of tigers in India.
      • Kunwar Aditya Singh
  • 77. Rana Hamir Singh : 26th and present Rana Saheb of Amarkot since 2009 (Rana Jagir, Pakistan), born March 1957, Minister for Agriculture in the Sindh Government, married Rani Nalini Prabha Kanwar, daughter of Rao Gansham Singh of Tantoti, and his wife, Rani Partap Kanwar, and has issue, one son and three daughters.
    • Kumari Deval Sodha, married 10th February 2004, Bhanwar Rudra Pratap Singh, son of Kanwar Gajendra Singh of Auwa, and his wife, Kanwarani Vishalakshi Devi, and has issue, one son.
    • Kumari Aprajita Sodha [Yuvrani Aprajita Devi of Awagarh], married April 2004, Yuvraj Ambrish Pal Singh, son of Raja Anirudh Pal Singh of Awagarh.
    • Maharaj Kumarani Mahalaxmi Sodha, married February 2008, Maharaj Kumar Jayendra Pratap Singh, son and heir of Maharaja Bahadur Dharmendra Prasad Singh of Balrampur, and his wife, Maharani Vandana Rajya Lakshmi.
    • Kunwar Karni Singh Sodha, married on 20th February 2015 to Baijilal Padmini Singh, daughter of Thakur Man Singh Rathore of thikana Kanota and has issue, one son. [TOI] [NDTV] [India-Today] [Asian-Age] [Rajasthan Patrika]
    • Bhanwar Vishwaraj Singh Sodha, born 1st April 2017.

Check out complete family tree of Sodha Rajputs; Family Tree

Sodha ruling Titles

Culture & Tradition

In the year 1971, after the Indo Pak war Sodha tribe started migrating to Kutch Region. They originated from the region of Tharparkar, it is in . People of this tribe which are in Pakistan, have their relatives in Rajasthan, Kutch and Gujarat. Sodha tribe settled here in Kutch and survived. In Kutch, Sodha tribe has their thirty two Sodha villages and around twenty five thousand members on the community which contains four thousand artists. This tribe traveled from Pakistan's Sindh region to Kutch and then finally they settled in the Jhura Camp, which is very clean and neat. Women of Sodha tribe sheltered in this village and settled under the chain of mountains, in the north part of Bhuj. Stil there are many Sodha Villages in Tharparkar District, Sind some village names are Kertee, Veesasar, Pabuhar and some villages in Umerkot. In Rajasthan there is a Sodha Village named Khariya Sodha in Sojat Mandal/tehsil, Pali district, Rajasthan state. Khariya Sodha is 11.2 km far from its Main Town Sojat and 13.5 km far from Marwar Junction. Khariya Sodha is 31.5 km distance from its District Main City Pali, 247km distance from its State capital Main City Jaipur and 569 km distance from its country capital Delhi. Other villages in Sojat Mondal are Atbra, Bagari Nagar, Billawas, Boyal, Chadwas, Chandawal Nagar, Mamawas, Basni jodhraj, Basin bhadawata, Rendari etc. This tribe likes to live in a simple manner without having any luxurious facilities. They are not even habitual to drink tea and any other beverages, they only have home made lunch and dinner. They speak languages such as Sindhi, Hindi, Katchi, Gujarati and Marwari, because of the knowledge of languages they mix up with the regional local people. Some of the people of Sodha tribe write poetries and articles, though some are in the field of politics.

This tribe has protected or stored their culture by their Bhungas, which their community is still using. This tribe's people are vegetarian. Their meal contains Khichadi and Gheo or bajra chapattis. Women are also vegetarian, but now some men have started eating non vegetarian food but they eat outside the house. The place called Otara, are where men sit to have meetings and also to eat non vegetarian food. Sodha men usually wear Adita which is in white color, it is like Dhoti and shirt or Khameez , to cover the head they wrap the turban. Sodha women wear their traditional wear like Odhni and kurta Ghaghra.

The Sodha tribe feel very proud of their artistic embroidery art. They have a unique style of embroidery art. Women use small mirrors and chain stitch to make attractive embroidery. You can find Sodha embroidery on the places like Bibbar, Loriya, Sumrasar Shekh, Jhura, Godhjar and Faradi. The type of embroidery "Soof" is done in the villages; like Suraser, Jhura and border villages of Banaskantha by the women of Sodha tribe. This area is known as Sodha Bharat. Sodha women wear jewellery like Nath, lobe earrings and bangles. Young girls of this tribe wear disca earrings and older wear only rings with the pendant of stone. Married women of this tribe wear jewellery which suit their look like gold earrings in a shape of a leaf. Sodha tribe follows their traditional wedding customs like brides of Sodha tribe cover their faces and visit the sacred places on the next day of marriage. Brides are tied to the groom by a cloth so that she can proceed further with help of the groom. Bride carries her craft and embroidery items to the groom's home. Sodha tribal women and villagers celebrate festivals like Gokulashtmi or Diwali by keeping the Gariyu Alekh painting at the center point of the village. Sodha tribal people believe in the god Pithora Pir , you will find his temple in each village of Sodha tribe. They celebrate annual festival of this god and also the goddess Sachiya Mataji. This tribe also enjoys the Hindu festivals like Holi, Diwali, and Satam Atam. Artists and farming communities of Sodha tribe worship Lord Krishna, Rama and Goddess Sachiya Mata.

Notable Kings

Rana Ratan Singh

Rana Chandra Singh

Hindu Singh Sodha

Rana Hamir Singh

In Rigveda

Bhim Singh Dahiya has identified Paramara (परमर) mentioned in Rigveda (RV 10/27/20) with the the Parmar Jats today.

एतौ मे गावौ परमरस्य युक्तौ मो षु पर सेधीर्मुहुरिन्ममन्धि |
आपश्चिदस्य वि नशन्त्यर्थं सूरश्च मर्कौपरो बभूवान || (RV 10/27/20)
etau me ghāvau pramarasya yuktau mo ṣu pra sedhīrmuhurinmamandhi |
āpaścidasya vi naśantyarthaṃ sūraśca markauparo babhūvān (RV 10/27/20)

Descendants of Taxak

The ancient inscriptions in the Pali Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan of the race of Taxak or Tak, relating to the tribe Mori and Parmara are their descendants. Taxak Mori was the lord of Chittor from very early period. [5][6]

The Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD), destroyed by Yashodharman, was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. The Taxak Mori as being lords of Chittor from very early period and few generations after the Guhilots supplanted the Moris, this palladium of Hindu liberty was assailed by the arms of Islam. (725-35) we find amongst the numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event as its chieftain was one of the most conspicuous leaders in the array of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir." [7]

James Tod on Pramaras

James Todd[8] writes that The Pramara, though not, as his name implies, the ' chief warrior,' was the most potent of the Agnikulas. He sent forth thirty-five sakha, or branches, several of whom enjoyed extensive sovereignties. ' The world is the Pramar's,' is an ancient saying, denoting their extensive sway ; and the Naukot1 Marusthali signified the nine divisions into which the country, from the Sutlej to the ocean, was partitioned amongst them.

Maheswar, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Chandrabhaga, Chitor, Abu, Chandravati, Mhau Maidana, Parmavati, Umarkot, Bakhar, Lodorva, and Patan are the most conspicuous of the capitals they conquered or founded.

Though the Pramara family never equalled in wealth the famed Solanki princes of Anhilwara, or shone with such lustre as the Chauhan, it attained a wider range and an earlier consolidation of dominion than either, and far excelled in all, the Parihara, the last and least of the Agnikulas, which it long held tributary.

Maheswar, the ancient seat of the Haihaya kings, appears to have been the first seat of government of the Pramaras. They subsequently founded Dharanagar, and Mandu on the crest of the Vindhya hills ; and to them is even attributed the city of Ujjain, the first meridian of the Hindus, and the seat of Vikrama.

There are numerous records of the family, fixing eras in their history of more modern times ; and it is to be hoped that the interpretation of yet undeciphered inscriptions may carry us back beyond the seventh century.

The era2 of Bhoj, the son of Munja, has been satisfactorily settled ; and an [92] inscription3 in the nail-headed character, carries it back a step further,4 and elicits an historical fact of infinite value, giving the date of the last prince of the Pramaras of Chitor, and the consequent accession of the Guhilots.


1 It extended from the Indus almost to the Jumna, occupying all the sandy regions, Naukot, Arbuda or Abu, Dhat, Mandodri,Kheralu, Parkar, Lodorva, and Pugal.
2 See Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. p. 227. [Raja Munja of Malwa reigned A.D. 974-995. The famous Bhoja, his nephew, not his son, 1018-60 (Smith, EHI, 395).]
3 Which will be given in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society.
4 S. 770, or A.D. 714.

[p.110]: The Nerbudda was no limit to the power of the Pramaras. About the very period of the foregoing inscription, Ram Pramar held his court in Telingana, and is invested by the Chauhan Bard, Chand, with the dignity of paramount sovereign of India, and head of a splendid feudal1 association, whose members became independent on his death. The Bard makes this a voluntary act of the Pramaras ; but coupled with the Guhilots' violent acquisition of Chitor, we may suppose the successor of Ram was unable to maintain such supremacy.

While Hindu literature survives the name of Bhoj Pramara and ' the nine gems ' of his court cannot perish ; though it is difficult to say which of the three2 princes of this name is particularly alluded to, as they all appear to have been patrons of science.

Chandragupta, the supposed opponent of Alexander, was a Maurya, and in the sacred genealogies is declared of the race of Takshak. The ancient inscriptions of the Pramars, of which the Maurya is a principal branch, declare it of the race of Tasta and Takshak, as does that now given from the seat of their power, Chitor.3

Salivahana, the conqueror of Vikramaditya, was a Takshak, and his era set aside that of the Tuar in the Deccan.

Not one remnant of independence exists to mark the greatness of the Pramaras : ruins are the sole records of their power. The


1 " When the Pramar of Tilang took sanctuary with Har, to the thirty-six tribes he made gifts of land. To Kehar he gave Katehr, to Rae Pahar the coast of Sind, to the heroes of the shell the forest lands. Ram Pramar of Tilang, the Chakravartin lord of Ujjain, made the gift. He bestowed Delhi on the Tuars, and Patan on the Chawaras ; Sambhar on the Chauhans, and Kanauj on the Kamdhuj ; Mardes on the Parihar, Sorath on the Jadon, the Deccan on Jawala, and Cutch on the Charan (Poems of Chand). [This is an invention of the courtly bard.]
2 The inscription gives S. 1100 (A.D. 1044) for the third Bhoj : and this date agrees with the period assigned to this prince in an ancient Chronogrammatic Catalogue of reigns embracing all the Princes of the name of Bhoj, which may therefore be considered authentic. This authority assigns S. 631 and 721 (or A.D. 575 and 665) to the first and second Bhoj.
3 Herbert has a curious story of Chitor being called Taxila ; thence the story of the Ranas being sons of Porus. I have an inscription from a temple on the Chambal, within the ancient limits of Mewar, which mentions Taksha-silanagara, ' the stone fort of the Tak,' but I cannot apply it. The city of Toda (Tonk, or properly Tanka) is called in the Chauhan chronicles, Takatpur.[Takshasila, the Taxila of the Greeks, the name meaning ' the hewn rock,' or more probably, ' the rock of Taksha,' the Naga king, is the modern Shahderi in the Rawalpindi District, Panjab (IGI, xxii. 200 f.).]

[p. 111]:

prince of Dhat,1 in the Indian [93] desert, is the last phantom of royalty of the race ; and the descendant of the prince who protected Humayun, when driven from the throne of Timur, in whose capital, Umarkot, the great Akbar was born, is at the foot of fortune's ladder ; his throne in the desert, the footstool of the Baloch, on whose bounty he is dependent for support.

Among the thirty-five sakha of the Pramaras the Vihal was eminent, the princes of which line appear to have been lords of Chandravati, at the foot of the Aravalli. The Rao of Bijolia, one of the sixteen superior nobles of the Rana's court, is a Pramara of the ancient stock of Dhar, and perhaps its most respectable representative.

Thirty-Five Sakha of the Pramaras

  1. Mori [or Mauryn]. — Of which was Chandragupta, and the princes of Chitor prior to the Guhilot.
  2. Sodha. — Sogdoi of Alexander, the princes of Dhat in the Indian desert.
  3. Sankhla. — Chiefs of Pugal, and in Marwar.
  4. Khair. — Capital Khairalu.
  5. Umra and Sumra. — Anciently in the desert, now Muhammadans.
  6. Vihal, or Bihal. — Princes of Chandravati.
  7. Mepawat. — Present chief of Bijolia in Mewar.
  8. Balhar. — Northern desert.
  9. Kaba. — Celebrated in Saurashtra in ancient times, a few yet in Sirohi.
  10. Umata. — The princes of Umatwara in Malwa, there established for twelve generations. Umatwara is the largest tract left to the Pramaras. Since the war in 1817, being under the British interference, they cannot be called independent.
  11. Rehar - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.
  12. Dhunda - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.
  13. Sorathia - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.
  14. Harer2 - Girasia petty chiefs in Malwa.

1 Of the Sodha tribe, a grand division of the Pramaras, and who held all the desert regions in remote times. Their subdivisions, Umra and Sumra, gave the names to Umarkot and Umrasumra, in which was the insular Bakhar, on the Indus : so that we do not misapply etymology, when we say in Sodha we have the Sogdoi of Alexander. "
2 [For a different list see Census Report Rajputana, 1911, i. 255.]


[p.112]: Besides others unknown ; as Chaonda, Khejar, Sagra, Barkota, Puni, Sampal, Bhiba, Kalpusar, Kalmoh, Kohila, Papa, Kahoria, Dhand, Deba, Barhar, Jipra, Posra, Dhunta, Rikamva, and Taika. Many of these are proselytes to Islamism, and several beyond the Indus [94].

Origin of Panwar

Dr Atal Singh Khokhar [9] says that the Banswara inscription of Parmara king Bhoja indicates that his ancestor Siyaka, Siyaka’s son Vakpatiraja, Vakpatiraja’s son Sindhuraja, his son Bhojdeo came from Kasala in east Sudan to Gagar river in Nigeria and from there to Dor in Israel where he became ruler. Bhoja settled his followers at Bataneaea Assyria province’s Damiscus, Dara’s area and made Dara his capital. From there he came to Maharashtra and conquered Konkan area. He had defeated raja Keshideo of Shilahar vansha with the help of Rajendra Chol. [10]

Dr Atal Singh Khokhar considers Panwar vansha of the Agnikula origin came from Azean sea. His ancestors were Mahamah Dhumji Domitius, in which Nero was the last Emperor, of Ahanobarbaraka Suryavansha. Dumji migrated from Dhan to south and founded rule, whose fifth son was Putraja, after the death of whom Aditya Panwar was nominated to the throne who was founder of Panwar vansha. The Panwar is developed from Puhar meaning fire. Puhari was a Kushan vansha of which Kujula Kadphises founded Kushan rule in India in 48 AD. This rule continued upto 248 AD. [11]. According to ‘Panwar Darpan’ prior to Vikramaditya was king Dharagiri who founded Dara (Dharagiri) near Damiscus who were Malav descends. [12] James Todd has written that Parmaras (Panwar) rulers of Arbud (Abu) were Jat (vansha). [13]


Vasantgadh Inscription of Purnapala V.S 1099 (1042 AD) provides genealogy of Dhandhuka in Verse 3: that through the anger of (the sage) Vasishtha there was produced a youth, or prince (kumara) from whom the Pramara (or Paramara) family took its origin. In his lineage there was Utpalaraja (उत्पलराज); from him sprang Aranyaraja (अरण्यराज ), and from him Adbhutakrishnaraja. His son (or, if a name should have been lost at the commencement of line 4, his son's son.) was Mahipala (महिपाल), and from him sprang Dhandhuka (धन्धुक ). To Dhandhuka there was born from his wife Amritadevi Purnapala (अमृतादेवी पूर्णपल ), who ruled the Arbuda territory. In his reign, his younger sister Lahini was married by king Vigraha (Vigraharaja).

List of Kings of Paramara dynasty of Malwa (c. 800–c. 1305)

प्रमार:ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[14] ने लिखा है.... परमार - प्रमार हुमायूं के समय में उमरकोट में परमार राजा राज करते थे। हुमायूं की जीवनी के लेखक ने उसे जाट लिखा है। कर्नल टॉड आबू के परमार राजा को भी जाट (जित) लिखते हैं।

पंवार जाट गोत्र का इतिहास

भलेराम बेनीवाल [15] के अनुसार पंवार चन्द्रवंशी गोत्र है। इसकी उतपति पुरू राजा से मानी गई है। इसक प्रथम राज्य मालवा में माना गया है तथा राजा भोज इस कुल के सर्वाधिक प्रसिद्ध राजा हुये हैं।कुछ इतिहासकार जगदेव पंवार को महत्वपूर्ण मानते हैं। इसने ५० वर्ष तक राज्य किया था।पुरू वंश के जाट पुरूवाल, पोरसवालपौड़िया कहलाये. इस वंश के कुछ लोग राजपूत संघ में मिलगये और राजपूत कहलाने लगे. ये बाद में कुछ मुसलमान भी बन गये. पंवार वंश का आरम्भ ईशा पूर्व माना गया है. राजा भोज का मालवा में शासन रहा. वह बहुत दानी और प्राक्रमी थे। इस वंश का मालवा में ५०० वर्ष तक राज्य रहा। पंवार गोत्र का पहला महान राजा मुंज देव को माना गया है।कुछ इतिहासकार इस गोत्र का इलाका खैबर घाटी को मानते हैं। कर्नल टाड उमरकोट को राजपूतों का राज्य मानते हैं जबकि जनरल कनिंघम हुमायूंनामा के लेखक के हवाले से उमरकोट को पंवार जाटों का राज्य लिखते हैं.

डॉ मोहन लाल गुप्ता [16] प्रबंध चिंतामणी के हवाले से लिखते हैं कि परमार राजा सीयक द्वितीय के कोइ पुत्र न था।एक दिन उसे एक बालक मु्ंज घास पर पड़ा मिला।राजा बालक को महल ले आया तथा उसका लालन-पालन पुत्र की भांति किया।मुंज घास पर मिलने के कारण उसका नाम मुंज रखा गया।मुंज को गोद लिये जाने के बाद राजा सीयक की रानी ने सिंधुराज नामक पुत्र को जन्म दिया।किन्तु सीयक मुंज को इतना प्रेम करता था कि उसने मुंज को ही अपना उत्तराधिकारी बनाया।

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam district with population of this gotra are:


Ratlam 1,

Reference

  1. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.48,s.n. 1455
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. प-29
  3. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 263
  4. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp. 107-112
  5. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p.126
  6. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.171
  7. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.148
  8. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.109-112
  9. Dr Atal Singh Khokhar :“Jaton ki utpati evam vistar", Jaypal Agencies, Agra, 2002, pp.219-220
  10. Vyas, Rajshekhar: Samvat pravartak samrat Vikrmaditya, page 733
  11. Early History of India page 220
  12. Jayaswal, Prashant Kumar: Shaka kalin Bharata page 5
  13. Encyclopedia of Archives (Ghos Memorial) Volume 11 page 733
  14. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Shashtham Parichhed, p.127
  15. भलेराम बेनीवाल:जाट यौद्धाओं का इतिहास, पृ. ७११
  16. डॉ मोहन लाल गुप्ता: राजस्थान ज्ञानकोष, 2008, ISBN 81-86103-05-8 , p. 235

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