Chitrakot

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Chitrakot falls in Bastar district

Chitrakot (चित्रकोट) is town in Lohandiguda tahsil in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. It is known for Chitrakoot Waterfalls. It was Kingdom Nagavanshi Jat rulers.

Variants

  • Bhramaravadra (भ्रमरवद्र) is mentioned in Verse-16 of Rajim Stone Inscription of Prithvideva II - Kalachuri Year 896 (=1145 AD). ......(V. 16) Jagapala (जगपाल) is to his enemies as the scent-elephant is (to ordinary elephants), — (he) who again took the fort of Machakâ-Sihavâ (मचका सिहवा) and the country of Bhramaravadra (भ्रमरवद्र) and achieved prowess by his arm,(p.457). Bhramatavadra (भ्रमरवद्र) may be identical with the Bhramarakôtya mandala in the former Bastar State. (p.453) Bhramatavadra (भ्रमरवद्र) is mentioned in Rajim Stone Inscription of Prithvideva II - Kalachuri Year 896 (=1145 AD).

Origin

Location

It is situated at 35 Km from Jagdalpur on Indravati River. It is known for Chitrakoot waterfalls.

According to Census 2011 information the location code or village code of Chitrakot village is 449193. Chitrakot village is located in Lohandiguda tehsil of Bastar district in Chhattisgarh, India. It is situated 2km away from sub-district headquarter Lohandiguda (tehsildar office) and 35km away from district headquarter Jagdalpur. As per 2009 stats, Chitrakot village is also a gram panchayat. The total geographical area of village is 2287.99 hectares. [6]

History

Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) had a king named Dharavarsha. In an unpublished inscription found at Kuruspal, a place close to Rajapura, there occurs Chakrakutādhīshvarāṇām kulam=alaṁkarishṇuḥ .... samabhavad Dharāvarshanāmo nareshvaraḥ (चक्रकूटाधीश्वराणाम् कुलम्=अलंकरिष्णु:...समभवद् धरावर्षनामो नरेश्वर:). The Nararayanpala inscription also mentions Dhāravarsha (धारावर्ष), whose widow Gunda-mahadevi (गुण्ड महादेवी ) gave away-the Narayanapura village in her grandson's reign in the year 1111 A.D. The name Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) probably survives in the present Chitrakuta or Chitrakota, 8 miles from Rajapura. Bhramarakotya (भ्रमरकोट्य) was possibly an alternative name of Chakrakotya, which seems to survive in Ghumara, a name given to the fall of the Indravati at Chitrakota . [7]


The Kalachuri kings were often at war with the Naga rulers of Chakrakôta. Prithvïdëva II's grandfather Jâjalladëva I had taken the Nâga king Sômêsvara prisoner and released him only at the intercession of his mother. The history of the Nâga kingdom of Chakrakôta is still enveloped in obscurity. Sômësvara was succeeded by Kanharadëva who was reigning 1111 AC. His successor, whose name is still unknown, must have been the adversary of Prithvïdëva II. Prithvïdëva II's devastation of Chakrakôta is said to have struck terror in the heart of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga, who ruled over the neighbouring kingdom of Kalinga. The Kalachuri king does not seem to have attacked the Ganga kingdom on this occasion. Jagapâla's inscription also does not mention any victory over the Ganga king though it mentions the conquest of Bhramaravadradësa which was probably identical with the Bhramarakôtyamandala in the Nâga kingdom. Prithvïdëva invaded the Ganga territory later on during the reign of Jateśvara alias Madhukāmārnava, the son and successor of Anantavarman. [8]



No. 4 Kuruspal Stone Inscription of Somesvaradeva[9] mentions certain contemporary kings, Most of these kings are mentioned here by the names of their countries or capitals, those quite clear being Uḍra, Lanji, Ratnapura, Lemṇa, Vengi, Bhadrapattana and Vajra.....

Vajra or Vayiragaram is mentioned in Tamil literature and inscriptions. [10] The earliest reference to Vajra is perhaps in the Tamil poem Shilappadigāram[11] which is believed to have between 110 and 140 A.D. It is stated in this poem that the Chola king Karikāla


[p.27]: was on terms of friendship with the kings of Vajra, Magadha, and Avanti. How Vajra fared in later times there are no materials at present to elicit, but during the 10th and llth centuries it was apparently not so important or strong as in the early ages. A noteworthy fact is that in Tamil inscriptions it is always mentioned in conjunction with Chakrakota or Ṡakkarakkoṭṭṭam (शक्करकोट्टम), and since I have localised the latter in Bastar, it will now be easy to see why Vayiragaram must be Wairagarh (वैरागढ़) which adjoins the Bastar State and is situated not very far away from the place where the old Chakrakuta lay. This inscription itself confirms the identification of Chakrakuta with Bastar, as it calls Someshvaradeva the lord of Chakrakuta, and the happy quibble which the composer of our inscription has introduced in regard to the name Vajra 1 referring to diamonds and its conqueror as a ' diamond piercer,' to my mind definitely settles the question of the identification which does not appear to have been suggested or attempted before. Wairagarh was a well known diamond mine in olden days and it continued to be famous even in the times of Akbar to which the following quotation from the Ain-i-Aknari2 testifies : 'Kallam 3 is an ancient city of considerable importance ; it is noted for its buffaloes. In the vicinity is a zamindar named Babjeo of the Gond tribe, more generally known as Chanda ; a force of 1,000 horse and 40,000 foot is under his command. Biragarh (बीरागढ़) which, has a diamond mine and where figured cloths and other stuffs are woven, is under his authority. It is but a short time since that, he wrested it from another chief. Wild elephants abound.' The final note of Abul Fazl about wild elephants incidentally enables us to see how it was that Rajendra-Chola (Kulottunga I.) carried off many herds of elephants from Vayiragaram mentioned in the Tiruvorriyur inscription. 4 This is a further confirmation of the identity of the place. Should additional evidence be required as to Wairagarh having been a capital of ruling kings, it is furnished by its ancient remains 5 and the strong local tradition 6 according to which a line of Mānā kings held sway for some time. Mana or Mani is a semi-aboriginal caste, whose origin is obscure. They say that they came from Manikgarh in the Nizam's Dominions and my belief is that they were a branch of the Nagavamsi kings who worshipped Durga under the name of Manikyadevi. 7


1. Above Vol.I,p.33. Note that the spelling of the name is Vairāgara and not Wairagarh. 2. Ind. Ant. 1908,p.208, footnote-19


At Chitrakot, where the Indravati River leaves Jagdalpur plateau, is a fine waterfall 94 feet high, while the course of the river through the western hills exhibits some extremely picturesque scenery. [12]

Kalidasa in Meghaduta-Purvamegha 19 mentions about a hill named Chitrakuta in the south of Narmada: सानुमांश्चित्रकूटस्तुंगेनत्वांजलद शिरसा वक्ष्यति श्लाघमान:[13]

Chitrakot is also the name of Chittorgarh in Rajasthan.[14]

Jat History

Chitrakota has been identified with Chakrakota Kingdom of Nagavanshi Jat rulers.[15]

'Bilaigarh Plates of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)' is inscription of Prithvideva II from Kalachuris of Ratanpur which mentions about a Naga Ruler named Jateshwara in Chakrakota.[16] Here Jateshwara is used for a Jat King.

Jateśvara = Jat God. Jateśvara is mentioned in 'Ratanpur stone inscription of of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 915 (1163 AD)'. [17]....The only point of historical interest mentioned in the extant portion is that he obtained a victory over Jatesvara who is evidently identical with the homonyms son of Anantavarman Chôdaganga. [18].

The king Madhurāntakadeva of Bhramarakotya (भ्रमरकोट्य) (possibly an alternative name of Chakrakotya) Kingdom, who belonged to the Chhindaka family of the Naga (Cobra) race, was a Nagavanshi Jat of Chhindaka Jat Gotra.[19]

Dilip Singh Ahlawat [20] writes about Chakrakotya being ruled by Nagavanshi Jats.... The Naga Jats ruled over Kantipur, Mathura, Padmavati, Kausambi, Nagpur, Champavati, (Bahgalpur) and in the central India, in western Malwa, Nagaur (Jodhpur- Rajasthan). In addition they ruled the ancient land of Shergarh, (Kotah Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Chutiya Nagpur, Khairagarh, Chakrakotya and Kawardha. The great scholar, Jat Emperor, Bhoja Parmar, mother Shashiprabha was a maiden of a Naga Clan.


E. Hultzsoh & Sten Konow[21] mention following facts in the Inscription No. 23. Rajapura copper plates of Madhurantakadeva Shaka Samvat 983 (=A.D. 1065). (For details see Inscriptions From The Bastar State)

[p.176]: The object of the inscription is to record the grant of Rajapura village, situated in the Bhramarakoṭya mandala, to one Meḍipota or a Chhurikara Medipota and his descendants, together with 70 gadyāṇaka2 gold. The grant was made by the king Madhurāntakadeva, who belonged to the Chhindaka family of the Naga (Cobra) race.

[p.178]: The dynasty is clearly related to the Sinda family of Yelburga. Though styled "Lord of Bhogavati, the best of cities," Madhurantakadeva appears to have been a Mandalika (feudatory chief), as the verse in LL. 24-25 shows that his rāj was limited to Bhramarakotya, which is described as a mandala in L. 15. He belonged to the Chhindaka family, one of the 36 Agnikulas 1 mentioned by Chand Bardai, the court poet of Prithviraja.

With regard to the localities mentioned in the record, Rajapura is identical with the present village of the same name, 22 miles north-west of Jagdalpur (the capital of Bastar), on the bank of the Indravati river. There are ruins of a fort there, and it is believed that it was once a royal capital. The present Raja family also dwelt there for some time in Chakrakotya.

[p.179]: Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) had a king named Dharavarsha (which has been apparently wrongly interpreted to mean 'king of Dhara' 2 ). In an unpublished inscription found at Kuruspal, a place close to Rajapura, there occurs Chakrakutādhīshvarāṇām kulam=alaṁkarishṇuḥ .... samabhavad Dharāvarshanāmo nareshvaraḥ (चक्रकूटाधीश्वराणाम् कुलम्=अलंकरिष्णु:...समभवद् धरावर्शनामो नरेश्वर:). The Nararayanpala inscription also mentions Dhāravarsha (धारावर्ष), whose widow Gunda-mahadevi (गुण्ड महादेवी ) gave away-the Narayanapura village in her grandson's reign in the year 1111 A.D. 3 The name Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) probably survives in the present Chitrakuta or Chitrakota, 8 miles from Rajapura. Bhramarakotya (भ्रमरकोट्य) was possibly an alternative name of Chakrakotya, which seems to survive in Ghumara, a name given to the fall of the Indravati at Chitrakota .


Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) was a kingdom of Nagavanshi Jats. Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State with capital at Jagdalpur. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakot, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, in Jagdalpur tahsil of present Bastar district in Chhattisgarh. [22]

No. 23. Rajapura copper plates of Madhurantakadeva Shaka Samvat 983 (=A.D. 1065).

E. Hultzsoh & Sten Konow[23] mention following facts in the Inscription No. 23. Rajapura copper plates of Madhurantakadeva Shaka Samvat 983 (=A.D. 1065). (For details see Inscriptions From The Bastar State)

[p.175]: ....this is perhaps the most ancient Sanskrit inscription yet found in Bastar. Mr. Baijnath found the plates in the possession of a Brahman named Gangadhar Pārhi of Kawadgaon close to Rajapura. Gangādhar received them from his sister-in-law, who found them buried in a field at Naharni, sixteen miles from Rajapura.

[p.176]: The object of the inscription is to record the grant of Rajapura village, situated in the Bhramarakoṭya mandala, to one Meḍipota or a Chhurikara Medipota and his descendants, together with 70 gadyāṇaka2 gold. The grant was made by the king Madhurāntakadeva, who belonged to the Chhindaka family of the Naga (Cobra) race. The inscription is dated in the [Saka] year 887, in the Parābhava samvatsara, on Wednesday o the bright fortnight of Karttika month. Although the tithi has not been given, there is a most minute description of the moment of the grant, the nakshatra being stated to be Anuradhā, the yoga to be Saubhāgya and the karana, to be Gara. From these data the exact date has been kindly calculated for me by Professor Kielhorn who says : " The date for Saka 987 expired corresponds to Wednesday, the 5th October A.D. 1065...." [24]

[p.178]: Some remarks about the dynasty of the king mentioned in this grant will be found above on pp, 161 and ff, where I have dealt with the inscriptions of the Nagavanshi kings found in Bastar, most of, which are not yet published and which I propose to edit in due course as intimated before. The dynasty is clearly related to the Sinda family of Yelburga. Though styled "Lord of Bhogavati, the best of cities," Madhurantakadeva appears to have been a Mandalika (feudatory chief), as the verse in LL. 24-25 shows that his rāj was limited to Bhramarakotya, which is described as a mandala in L. 15. He belonged to the Chhindaka family, one of the 36 Agnikulas 1 mentioned by Chand Bardai, the court poet of Prithviraja.

With regard to the localities mentioned in the record, Rajapura is identical with the present village of the same name, 22 miles north-west of Jagdalpur (the capital of Bastar), on the bank of the Indravati river. There are ruins of a fort there, and it is believed that it was once a royal capital. The present Raja family also dwelt there for some time. Chakrakotya is, I feel little doubt, the town mentioned by the Kashmirian poet Bilhana in his Vikramānkadevacharita (विक्रमांकदेवचरित), in which he records that Vikrama as yuvaraja set out on a series of warlike expeditions, with the permission of his father. He repeatedly defeated the Cholas and plundered Kanchi. He assisted the king of Malava in regaining his kingdom and carried his arms as far north as Gauda and Kamarupa. He attacked also the king of Simhala or Ceylon, destroyed the sandal wood forests of Malaya Hills and slew the lord of Kerala. He finally conquered Gangakunda (गंगकुंड) (IV 21) Vengi (IV. 29) and Chakrakota (IV. 30). After haying accomplished these brilliant exploits Vikrama turned homewards, and, on coming as far as the Krishna", he was suddenly disquieted by the news of his father's death. Dr. Buhler2 remarks that " Bilhana's rhapsodic treatment of this portion of Vikrama's career makes it impossible to determine the chronological order of these wars. Only so much may be considered certain that his last exploits were performed in the south as he came on his homeward march to the Krishna." There can be no doubt about these exploits of Vikrama. They were, as related above, the conquest of Gangakunda, Vengi and Chakrakota, and at least these seem to have been conquered in the order in which they have been mentioned. Gangakunda was the Chola capital, situated in the north-east corner of the Trichinopoly district,3 whence Vikrama proceeded north to Vengi, the country between the Krishna,


[p. 179]: and the Gadavari. He apparently crossed the latter and raided the country of Chakrakota and then wended his way homewards. This occurred just a few years after the present grant was made (1065 A.D.), in. as much as Vikrama became king in 1076 A.D. Many a southern king 1 like-wise raided this somewhat weak power, which must accordingly have been situated near to their kingdoms. Therefore Chakrakota was not near Dhara, as some scholars have supposed, but was contiguous to Vengi, being situated in the present Bastar state. I think the confusion with Dhara is due to the fact that Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) had a king named Dharavarsha (which has been apparently wrongly interpreted to mean 'king of Dhara' 2 ). In an unpublished inscription found at Kuruspal, a place close to Rajapura, there occurs Chakrakutādhīshvarāṇām kulam=alaṁkarishṇuḥ .... samabhavad Dharāvarshanāmo nareshvaraḥ (चक्रकूटाधीश्वराणाम् कुलम्=अलंकरिष्णु:...समभवद् धरावर्शनामो नरेश्वर:). The Nararayanpala inscription also mentions Dhāravarsha (धारावर्ष), whose widow Gunda-mahadevi (गुण्ड महादेवी ) gave away-the Narayanapura village in her grandson's reign in the year 1111 A.D. 3 The name Chakrakotya (चक्रकोट्य) probably survives in the present Chitrakuta or Chitrakota, 8 miles from Rajapura. Bhramarakotya (भ्रमरकोट्य) was possibly an alternative name of Chakrakotya, which seems to survive in Ghumara, a name given to the fall of the Indravati at Chitrakota .


1. The first raid so far as is known appears to have been made by Vijayaditya III of the Eastern Chalukya line, who ruled between 844 and 888 A.D. He burnt Chakrakota (चक्रकोट) (above, Vol. IV. p. 226). Then the Chola Rajendra-Chola I. (A.D. 1011-33) took Sakkara-kottam (South. Ind. Inscr. Vol. II. p. 108), while one of his successors, king Virarajendra I., claims to have crossed the Godavari, passed through Kalinga, and advanced against Chakrakota (ibid. Vol. III. p. 70). Next the Chola king Kulottunga, while yet a youth, won his first laurels in battle by storming Chakrakota. This happened prior to 1070 A.D. and is mentioned in the Tamil poem Kalingattu Parani (X 24), and also in inscriptions (see e.g. Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. p. 286), Vikrama was probably the fifth raider, the sixth being Vishnuvardhana Hoysala in the 12th century (Kielhom's Southern list,No. 396).

2. I would therefore, instead of ' Rajakesarivarman (i.e. Kulottunga Chola I.) conquered the king of Dhara (varsha) at Chakrakotta ' (see Kielhorn's Southern list No.756)

3 See above, page 161.

Other historical places around Chitrakut

Other historical places around Chitrakut where Nagavanshi Inscriptions have been found are: Dantewara, Gadia, Bhairamgarh, Narayanpal, Sunarpal, Kuruspal, Tirathgarh, Potinar, and Chapka and Dongar (For details see Inscriptions From The Bastar State )

Barsur is a place of very great interest. It is 55 miles west of Jagdalpur, the capital of Bastar. It contains ruins of many temples, the most important of which is a Siva temple with two sanctuaries having a common mandapa supported on 32 pillars in four rows.

Dantewara is about 20 miles of Barsur, and in the intervening villages there are sculptured stones lying about, some of being five-hooded- cobras or intercoiled snakes. Dantewara contains the shrine of Danteshvari the tutelary goddess of the present ruling family.

Bhairamgarh is about 70 miles west of Jagdalpur and has three or four temples, together with remains of a fort and a ditch and several tanks. There is an inscription on a pillar, and at Potinar, a village near Bhairamgarh, there is a slab inscribed on four sides.

Gadia is 20 miles west of Jagdalpur and has a stone temple with no idol, but built in the same style as those of Barsur. About 400 yards away there is a big inscription, arid a linga was found buried in a brick mound.

Narayanpal and Kuruspal are quite close to each other, the former being situated on the river Indravati. Near these villages are the forts of Rajapur and Bodra, and not far away the beautiful falls of the Indrvati at Chitrakut present a magnificent appearance.

Narayanpal is only 6 miles from Gadia and has an old temple, an image of Vishnu, and an inscription.

Sunarpal and Chapka are -within 12 miles from Narayanpal.

Chapka has a number of sati pillars, several of which are inscribed.

Tirathgarh also contains some temples and relics. Dongar is a place where according to custom the present Rajas go to be crowned. Here one of the queens, whose finger was chopped of by royal order and who ventured to inform her father, writing the letter with the blood BO wantonly spilt, was buried alive. The pit, which is still pointed out, was once disturbed by a greedy Raja of the same family , who also brought down the temple of Narayanpal and some others in search of supposed buried treasure.

Dongar is a place where according to custom the present Rajas go to be crowned. Here one of the queens, whose finger was chopped of by royal order and who ventured to inform her father, writing the letter with the blood so wantonly spilt, was buried alive. The pit, which is still pointed out, was once disturbed by a greedy Raja of the same family , who also brought down the temple of Narayanpal and some others in search of supposed buried treasure.

Bilaigarh Plates of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)

See Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 459

English Translation
Success ! Ôm ! Adoration to Brahman !
  • (Veise.1) - Adoration to that reality Brahman, which is attributeless, all-pervasive, eternal and auspicious, the ultimate cause (of the universe) and supreme light conceivable by the mind.
  • (V. 2) The foremost luminary of the firmament is the sun, the Primeval Being. Then was born from him his son Manu, the first of kings. In his family there was Kârtavïrya born on the earth.
  • (V.3) - There was the king, the divine and illustrious Kârtavîtya, an ornament of the earth, who threw into bondage Râvana who had propitiated Siva with the embrace of (Parvati) the daughter of the Himalaya, who was terrified as he (the Râvana) lifted up the (Kailâsa) mountain with ease, and who (i.e. , Râvana) was greatly enraged when his offerings to the three-eyed (Siva), were washed away by the stream of the greatly flooded Rëvâ which was turned by the suddenly placed dam of his mighty arms.
  • (V. 4) - The king born in his family became known on the earth as Haihayas. An ornament of their family was that illustrious Kôkkala (I) endowed with all excellences who laid the fire of distress in the minds of (his) enemies, who accumulated fame after (amassing) the fortune of religious contemplation, (and) who was always dear to good people (as) one who made them happy.
  • (V. 5) - He had eighteen very valiant sons, who destroyed their enemies even as lions break open the frontal globes of elephants. The eldest of them, an excellent prince, became the lord of Tripuri and he made his brothers the lords of mandalas by his side.
  • (V. 6) - In the family of a younger brother of these there was born Kalingaraja who exterminated hostile kings with the fire of his valour and who was to the faces of the wives of the great warriors even as the full moon is to day-lotuses.
  • (V. 7)- From him also there was born a son who became famous by the name of Kamalarâja (and appeared) lovely with his far-spreading spotless glory. When the sun of his valour rose, the assemblages of lotuses bloomed even at night.
  • (V. 8) - Thereafter he begot Ratnarâja (I), whose face was like the moon, and who acquired a mass of religious merit by obliging the (whole) world; (and) who, destroying (his) enemies by the valour of the pair of his arms, spread (his) fame in the three worlds.
  • (V. 9) - (His wife) named Nônallâ was dear to him as valour is to a brave person. Their son was Prithvîdëva (I), the best of kings.
  • (V. 10) - The son of the queen Râjallâ, begotten by Prithvïdëva (I), was the brave king Jâjalladëva (I), the wish-fulfilling tree, bearing the fruit of fortune, which yielded their desired objects to good people, — (he) who was wont to worsbip ail gods; who was (annoying like) a thorn to his fierce foes, and the god of love incarnate to the extremely lovely ladies who saw him.
  • (Verse.11)- His son Prithvîdëva (II) of well-known fame, who has planted his lotus-like foot on the rows of hostile princes' heads, has become the lord of kings — (he) who, by devastating Chakrakota, overwhelmed the illustrious Ganga king with anxiety in regard to the crossing of the ocean which was the sole means (of saving his life).
  • (V. 12) - In the family of the sage Vatsa there was born formerly a Bràhmana named Hâpûka of great renown who, being foremost among those learned in the Vëdas, became dear to the world and possessed blameless prosperity, being smeared by whose glory, which in colour was as it were akin to powdered camphor and liquid sandal paste, the surface of the firmament shone all round.
  • (V. 13) - He had a well-known son named Jîmûtavâhana, who by his life sanctified the earth, and attracted prosperity by his merits, and in whose case the goddess of fortune herself gave up her natural fickleness.
  • (V. 14) - To him was born a wise son named Dëlhûka who has an intellect proficient in Vedântic principles and matchlessly radiant in regard to Smritis. Clever and noble as he is, his greatness is for obliging the (whole) world.
  • (V. 15) - Having learnt (from him) the Sakambhari vidyà, which is incomparable in all the worlds and having defeated his enemies with ease in the forefront of the battle Brahmadëva, the well-known feudatory (of Prithvïdêva II) regards him highly as the sole match for (Brihaspati) the preceptor of gods
  • (V. 16) - Prithvîdëva (II) granted him the village Paṇḍaratalāī in the Ēvaḍi mandala on the occasion of a solar eclipse.
  • (V. 17) - Those, who will be born in this family should confirm this copper (charter) so long as the serpent (Shesha) supports the earth with a thousand pillar-like hoods.
  • (V.18) - Whoever may hereafter be a king or a minister should also protect with care this religious gift of mine.
  • (Here follow four benedictive and imprecatory verses)
  • (V.23) - This prasasti incised on copper (plates) was composed by the illustrious Malhaṇa, the son of Śubhankara, who being well read is a bee on the lotuses in the form of poets and has used words with splendid significance in a large number of prabandhas (works).
  • (V.24) - These excellent copper-plates were prepared by Vâmana, written by a son of Kîrti, and incised by a son of Lakshmidhara.
The year 896 . .

Seal


The King, the illustrious Prithvîdëva.
Bilaigarh Plates of Prrithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)[25]

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 551-554


This inscription is of Prithvideva II from Kalachuris of Ratanpur mentions about a Naga Ruler named Jateshwara in Chakrakota.

Sanskrit Text

No 89 ; Plate LXXII

[p.458]: These plates were discovered in 1945 at Bilaigarh, the chief town of the former Bilaigarh Zamindarî, in the Raipur District of the Chhattisgarh Division in Madhya Pradesh. They were sent by the Commissioner of the Chhattisgarh Division to the Government Epigraphist for India. They are edited here for the first time from an excellent impression kindly suppled by the Government Epigraphist.

They are two copper-plates measuring 11 8" broad and 6 5" high. They weigh 137 tolas. They have their rims raised for the protection of the writing and contain marginal decorative designs on three sides. They were strung together by means of a ring, about 1.8 in diameter. The central portion of the ring was flattened into a round disk to serve as a seal of the plates. The upper half of this seal contains the figure of Gaja-Lakshmi in relief while the lower half has the legend Kāja-srīmat-Prithvīdevah engraved in two lines. The record consists of 36 lines, 18 being inscribed on the inner side of each plate. The average size of the letters is .25".

The characters are Nagari Worthy of note are the forms of the following letters : — Initial i consists of two curves with a looped end, turned in opposite directions and placed one below the other ; see iti, L-9 , dh is in a transitional form , its top does not yet show a horn, but the vertical stroke is slightly bent to the left, see -narādhipa-, L-16, the left limb of ś has become separated from the vertical on the right; see śūra- L-12. The avagraha is used to indicate the elision of a in lines 3, 10, 17, 20 and 29.

The language is Sanskrit Except for om namô Vrahmanë in, the first Line and the date in the last, the whole record is metrically composed. The verses, of which there are twenty-four, are all numbered The orthography shows the usual peculiarities, viz. , the use of v for b except in the form babhûvuh ; see vrahamanê, L.1 ; of s for ś as in sasvata-, L.4, and Vice versa in -sahaśrëna, L. 28, and the reduplication of the consonant following r; see nirggunam, L.1,

The inscription refers itself to the reign of Prithvïdëvâ II of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the royal grant of the village Paṇḍaratalāī situated in the Ēvaḍi-mandala to a Brâhmana named Dêlhûka on the occasion of a solar eclipse. The plates were granted in the year 896 of an unspecified era. The record was composed by Malhaṇa, the son of Śubhankara. The copper-plates were prepared by Vâmana and the charter was written on them by a son of Kîrti. The writer's personal name is not mentioned in the present inscription due to the exigencies of the metre, but he may be identical with Sûpata the son of Kïrtidhara, who wrote a grant of this very king Prithvîdëva II in the following year K 897. The record was incised by an unnamed son of Lakshmidhara. Lakshmïdhara incised the Sarkhô plates of Ratnadêva II, dated K 880 and the Amôdâ plates of Prithvîdëva II, dated K. 900. His son, who incised the present plates, may have been Dharanïdhara, mentioned in the grant of K. 897.


[p.459]: The date of the present inscription must evidently be referred to the Kalachun era. No details of the solar eclipse mentioned in it are given, but supposing that it occurred in the same year in which the plates were issued, as seems probable, we get some data for verification. According to the epoch of 247-48 A.C , there were two solar eclipses in the expired Kalachuti yeat 896, one of which occurred in the purnimànta Mâgha (on the 6th December 1144 A.C) and the other in the pûrmmànta Ashâdha (on the 22nd June -1145 AC), while there was none in the current Kalachuri year 896. The plates were therefore granted some time in the year 1144-45 A.C

The genealogy of Prithvïdëva II down to his father Ratnadëva II is given here in verses 3-10 which are repeated Verbatim from the earlier grants of the dynasty as the prasasti had then become stereotyped Verse 11 which describes the reigning king is, however, new and occurs only in the present grant.

It gives the interesting information that Prithvïdëva II filled the contemporary Ganga king with anxiety when he devastated Chakrakota, as the Ganga king realised that the only way to save his life was to cross the ocean. Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakuta, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.[26] The Ganga adversary of Prithvïdëva II is not named, but as the devastation of Chakrakôta had taken place some time before 1144-45 AC, when the present grant was made, it must have occurred during the reign of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga. This mighty Ganga Emperor had invaded the Kalachuri kingdom towards the close of the reign of Ratnadëva II, but he suffered an ignominious defeat. Soon after his accession Prithvidëva II seems to have attacked and devastated Chakrakôta. The Rajim stone inscription, dated in the same year as the present grant, viz , K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modern Kānker, which borders the former Bastar State on the north, during the reign of Prithvïdëva II.

The Kalachuri kings were often at war with the Naga rulers of Chakrakôta. Prithvïdëva II's grandfather Jâjalladëva I had taken the Nâga king Sômêsvara prisoner and released him only at the intercession of his mother. The history of the Nâga kingdom of Chakrakôta is still enveloped in obscurity. Sômësvara was succeeded by Kanharadëva who was reigning 1111 AC. His successor, whose name is still unknown, must have been the adversary of Prithvïdëva II.

Prithvïdëva II's devastation of Chakrakôta is said to have struck terror in the heart of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga, who ruled over the neighbouring kingdom of Kalinga.

The Kalachuri king does not seem to have attacked the Ganga kingdom on this occasion. Jagapâla's inscription also does not mention any victory over the Ganga king though it mentions the conquest of Bhramaravadradësa which was probably identical with the Bhramarakôtyamandala in the Nâga kingdom. Prithvïdëva invaded the Ganga territory later on during the reign of Jateśvara alias Madhukāmārnava, the son and successor of Anantavarman.

The pedigree of the donee begins in verse 12. His grandfather was Hāpūka Who belonged to the Vatsa gôtra. He was famous for his knowledge of the Vëdas. His son was Jīmûtavâhana and the latter's son was Dêlhûka to whom the present grant was made. He is eulogised as proficient in the Vëdânta philosophy and the Sakambhari vidyâ.


Of the geographical names which occur in the present grant, Kôsala has already been shown to be the ancient name of Chhattisgarh and the adjoining territory to the east. Paṇḍaratalâï, the village granted may be identical with that mentioned min the Shëorinârâyan inscription of K 919, where Amanadëva, a scion of a collateral branch of the Kalachuri family, made some benefactions. There are several vjllages of the name Pendri or Pendriâ in Chhattisgarh, but the one nearest to Bilaigarh and Shëorinaràyan is Pendriâ, about 7 miles north-west of the latter place Èvaḍi, the head-quarters of the mandala of the same name, cannot be identified.


Wiki editor notes -

  • Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakot, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.
  • Kākayara - The Rajim stone inscription, dated in K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modem Kānker. Kak is a Jat Gotra.
  • Somesvara - Somesvara has been mentioned in Narayanpal Stone inscription of Queen Gunda-mahadevi, the mother of Somesvaradeva (Nagavanshi) 1111 AD.

Chitrakoot Waterfalls

Chitrakoot falls are located in the middle of Vindhya ranges. 50 Km from Jagdalpur is the crescent moon shaped Chitrakoot waterfalls. It is often compared with the Niagra falls of the US for its shape, although it is smaller. River Indravati plummets down from the Vindhya mountain ranges and forms these waterfalls. The waterfall is formed by the Indravati River in Chattisgarh region which is a tributary of Narmada. Chitrakoot waterfall is the largest waterfall in India. The height of the falls is 100 feet. The breadth of the waterfall varies as the water level in the river changes drastically. During monsoon the waterfall turns wild and violent.

The waterfalls and surrounding areas are spectacular in their beauty and extreme challenge for adventurer’s.

चक्रकूट

चक्रकूट (AS, p.324): प्राचीनकाल में वर्तमान छत्तीसगढ़ के पूर्वी और उड़ीसा के पश्चिमी भाग के अंतर्गत था. गोदावरी इसकी पश्चिमी सीमा पर बहती थी. इंद्रावती नदी इसी प्रदेश की मुख्य नदी है. वर्तमान जगदलपुर जिला बस्तर के पास बहती है. आज भी जगदलपुर के निकट इंद्रावती के प्रपात को चित्रकोट कहते हैं जो चक्रकूट या चक्रकोट का रूपांतर है.[27]

चक्रकोट नामकरण

चक्रकोट का नामकरण नागवंशी राजा चक्र के नाम पर पड़ा है. चक्र का उल्लेख सर्पसत्र आदिपर्व महाभारत (I.52.5) [28] में हुआ है, जिसके अनुसार चक्र नाग को वासुकी नाग का वंशज बताया गया है. वासुकी नाग के वंशजों का हिमाचल प्रदेश में चंबा और राजस्थान में नागौर क्षेत्र में भी राज्य था. चंबा में वासुकी नाग के साथ ही इन्द्रु नाग का भी उल्लेख मिलता है जिनके मंदिर कुआरसी, समरा, चनोटा, तरेता, खनियारा आदि स्थानों पर हैं. [29]

चक्र का उल्लेख शल्यपर्व महाभारत (IX.44.33)[30] में कार्तिकेय या स्कन्द को सेनाधिपति नियुक्त करने के लिए आयोजित अवसर पर उपस्थित होना बताया गया है. भीष्म-पर्व महाभारत (VI.10.43)/ (6-9-45a). [31] में भारतवर्ष के भूगोल के वर्णन के अंतर्गत चक्र जनपद का उल्लेख किया गया है.

चित्रकूट जलप्रपात

चित्रकोट जलप्रपात
चित्रकोट जलप्रपात

चित्रकूट अथवा चित्रकोट जलप्रपात सभी मौसम में छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य के बस्तर ज़िले में इन्द्रावती नदी पर स्थित एक सुंदर जलप्रपात है. हालांकि छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य में और भी बहुत-से जलप्रपात हैं, किन्तु चित्रकूट जलप्रपात सभी से बड़ा है. आप्लावित रहने वाला यह जलप्रपात पौन किलोमीटर चौड़ा और 90 फीट ऊँचा है. इस जलप्रपात की विशेषता यह है कि वर्षा के दिनों में यह रक्त लालिमा लिए हुए होता है, तो गर्मियों की चाँदनी रात में यह बिल्कुल सफ़ेद दिखाई देता है. जगदलपुर से 40 कि.मी. और रायपुर से 273 कि.मी. की दूरी पर स्थित यह जलप्रपात छत्तीसगढ़ का सबसे बड़ा, सबसे चौड़ा और सबसे ज्यादा जल की मात्रा प्रवाहित करने वाला जलप्रपात है. इस प्रपात से इन्द्रावती नदी का जल प्रवाह लगभग 90 फुट ऊंचाई से नीचे गिरता है. चित्रकूट जलप्रपात बहुत ख़ूबसूरत हैं और पर्यटकों को बहुत पसंद आता है. सधन वृक्षों एवं विंध्य पर्वतमालाओं के मध्य स्थित इस जल प्रपात से गिरने वाली विशाल जलराशि पर्यटकों का मन मोह लेती है.[32]

'भारतीय नियाग्रा' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध चित्रकूट प्रपात वैसे तो प्रत्येक मौसम में दर्शनीय है, परंतु वर्षा ऋतु में इसे देखना अधिक रोमांचकारी अनुभव होता है. वर्षा में ऊंचाई से विशाल जलराशि की गर्जना रोमांच और सिहरन पैदा कर देती है. आकार में यह झरना घोड़े की नाल के समान है और इसकी तुलना विश्व प्रसिद्ध नियाग्रा झरनों से की जाती है. वर्षा ऋतु में इन झरनों की ख़ूबसूरती अत्यधिक बढ़ जाती है. जुलाई-अक्टूबर का समय पर्यटकों के यहाँ आने के लिए उचित है. चित्रकोट जलप्रपात के आसपास घने वन विराजमान हैं, जो कि उसकी प्राकृतिक सौंदर्यता को और बढ़ा देती है. रात में इस जगह को पूरा रोशनी के साथ प्रबुद्ध किया गया है. यहाँ के झरने से गिरते पानी के सौंदर्य को पर्यटक रोशनी के साथ देख सकते हैं. अलग-अलग अवसरों पर इस जलप्रपात से कम से कम तीन और अधिकतम सात धाराएँ गिरती हैं.[33]


चित्रकोट जलप्रपात की खूबसूरती को निहारने के लिए राज्य के पर्यटन विभाग ने जबरदस्त इंतजाम किए हैं. जलप्रपात का नजारा चूँकि रात में ज्यादा आकर्षक होता है इसलिए रुकने के लिए विभाग ने ‘हट’ भी बनाए हैं, जिनका न्यूनतम किराया 24 घंटे का एक हजार रुपए है. इन हाटों में पर्यटकों के लिए तरह-तरह की आधुनिक सुविधाएँ उपलब्ध हैं. त्रेतायुग में राम के वनगमन का रास्ता भी इसी भू-भाग से गुजरता है. जिस दंडक वन से राम गुजरे थे उसे अब दंडकारण्य कहा जाता है. वैसे भी खूबसूरती प्रायः दुर्गम स्थानों पर ही अपने सर्वाधिक नैसर्गिक रूप में पाई जाती है. प्रकृति के रचयिता रंगों को मनमाफिक रंग से भर खूबसूरती की मिसाल गढ़ते हैं. यह खूबसूरती बस्तर की घाटियों में देखी जा सकती है जो हिमाचल की भांति हैं.

चित्रकोट का इतिहास

चित्रकोट का इतिहास बहुत प्राचीन और शानदार है. इतिहास में चित्रकोट का उल्लेख चक्रकोट, चक्रकोट्य[34] [35], चक्रकूट [36][37], भ्रमरकोट्य[38] , चक्रकोट्ट [39], शक्करकोट्टम [40], चक्रकोट मंडल/भ्रमरकोट मंडल [41] के रूप में किया गया है.

बस्तर में नागवंशी जाटों का राज्य था जिनकी राजधानी चक्रकोट (वर्तमान चित्रकोट) थी. "नागवंशी " वास्तव में सिंधुघाटी के निवासी थे. 1500 ईसा पूर्व में सिंधुघाटी से इनकी एक शाखा राजस्थान में नागौर क्षेत्र में बसी और दूसरी शाखा ने बस्तर के जंगल की ओर प्रस्थान किया और इंद्रावती नदी के किनारे बस गए. बस्तर में नागवंशी जाटों ने अनेक स्थानों और नदियों को नाम दिए.

चक्रकोट का नामकरण नागवंशी राजा चक्र के नाम पर पड़ा है. चक्र वासुकी नाग का वंशज था जिसका उल्लेख महाभारत (I.52.5) में हुआ है. वासुकी नाग के वंशजों का हिमाचल प्रदेश में चंबा और राजस्थान में नागौर क्षेत्र में भी राज्य था. चंबा में वासुकी नाग के साथ ही इन्द्रु नाग का भी उल्लेख मिलता है जिनके मंदिर कुआरसी, समरा, चनोटा, तरेता, खनियारा आदि स्थानों पर हैं. [42]

बस्तर की जीवन रेखा इन्द्रावती नदी को नाम देने वाले राजा इन्द्रु नाग थे. दंडकारण्य का नाम दांदक जाट गोत्र पर आधारित है. उड़ीसा से शुरू होकर दंतेवाड़ा की भद्रकाली नदी में समाहित होने वाली करीब 240 किलोमीटर लंबी इंद्रावती नदी बस्तर के लोगों के लिए आस्था और भक्ति की प्रतीक है. भद्रकाली नदी का नाम भद्रकाली देवी के नाम पर पड़ा है. भद्रकाली का शाब्दिक अर्थ है 'अच्छी काली' जिनकी पूजा मुख्यतः दक्षिण भारत में होती है. वह भगवान शिव के वीरभद्र अवतार की पत्नी हैं. राजा वीरभद्र शिवजी के अनुयायी थे. भद्रकाली मां काली का शांत स्वरूप है और वर देती है. महाभारत शांति पर्व के अनुसार यह पार्वती के कोप से उत्पन्न दक्ष के यज्ञ की विध्वंसक देवी हैं. राजा वीरभद्र को जाटों का प्रथम राजा कहा जाता है. इससे देव संहिता में लिखी यह बात प्रमाणित होती है कि पृथ्वी पर सबसे पहले क्षत्रिय जाट ही थे. “महाबला महावीर्या महासत्यपराक्रमा:। सर्वाग्रे क्षत्रिया जट्टा देवकल्पा दृढ़व्रताः।।” - देव संहिता.

बस्तर और लगे हुए उड़ीसा के वनप्रदेश में नागवंश का स्वर्णिम अध्याय 700 से 1300 ईस्वी तक का रहा है. उनके युग के दौरान प्रमुख पुरातात्विक निर्माण हुए. जिस समय दक्षिण कोसल क्षेत्र में कलचुरि वंश का शासन था, लगभग उसी समय बस्तर क्षेत्र में छिन्दक नागवंश के राजाओं का अधिकार था. ये नागवंशी चक्रकोट के राजा के नाम से विख्यात थे. प्राचीन महाकान्तर अथवा दण्डकारण्य का वह भाग इस काल में चक्रकोट के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ. कालान्तर में इसी का रूप बदलकर चित्रकोटहो गया. बस्तर के नागवंशी राजा भोगवतीपुरवरेश्वर की उपाधि धारण करते थे. ये अपने आपको कश्यप गोत्रीय एवं छिन्दक कुल का मानते थे. सम्भवतः इसीलिये इन्हें छिन्दक नाग कहा जाता है. यहाँ सन 1109 ई. का एक शिलालेख तेलगुु भाषा का प्राप्त हुआ. जिसमें सोमेश्वर देव और उसकी रानी का उल्लेख है.

यह उल्लेखनीय है कि छिन्दक नागवंश के नाम पर वर्त्तमान में जाटों में छिन्दक नाम का गोत्र है. चक्रकोट की पहचान बस्तर में स्थित वर्त्तमान चित्रकोट से की गयी है. छत्तीसगढ़ के रायपुर जिले में स्थित बिलाईगढ़ के पृथ्वीदेव द्वितीय के कलचुरी वर्ष 896 (1144 ई.) के ताम्राभिलेख में चक्रकोट के नागवंशी राजा को जटेश्वर लिखा गया है. इससे प्रमाणित होता है कि बस्तर के नागवंशी राजा जाट थे. इन सभी प्राचीन राजवंशो के अवशेष वर्त्तमान में विभिन जाट गोत्रों के रूप में विद्यमान हैं. बस्तर जिले के अनेक गाँवों के नाम नागवंशी जाटों और सीथियन जाटों के नामों से मेल खाते हैं.[43]

दलीप सिंह अहलावत [44] ने पुष्टि की है कि नागवंशी जाटों का राज्य कान्तिपुर, मथुरा, पद्मावती, कौशाम्बी, अहिक्षतपुर, नागपुर, चम्पावती (भागलपुर), बुन्देलखण्ड तथा मध्यप्रान्त पश्चिमी मालवा, नागौर (जोधपुर) पर रहा. इनके अतिरिक्त शेरगढ़ कोटा राज्य की प्राचीन भूमि पर, मध्यप्रदेश में चुटिया, नागपुर, खैरागढ़, चक्रकोट एवं कवर्धा में भी इस वंश का राज्य था.

Gallery

External links

Population

Chitrakot has a total population of 3,587 peoples, out of which male population is 1,791 while female population is 1,796. Literacy rate of chitrakot village is 39.53% out of which 50.47% males and 28.62% females are literate. There are about 834 houses in chitrakot village. Pincode of chitrakot village locality is 494010.[45]

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  2. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 459
  3. Epigraphia Indica & Record of the Archaeological Survey of India, Vol.X, 1909-10, p.27
  4. Orissa District Gazetteers, Kalahandi,p.47
  5. वासुकिस तक्षकश चैव नागश चैरावतस तदा ।:कृष्णशलॊहितश चैव पद्मश चित्रश च वीर्यवान Mahabharata (II.9.8)
  6. https://villageinfo.in/chhattisgarh/bastar/lohandiguda/chitrakot.html
  7. Epigraphia Indica Vol. IX (1907-08): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. & Sten Konow, Ph.D., p.179
  8. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 459
  9. Epigraphia Indica & Record of the Archaeological Survey of India, Vol.X, 1909-10, pp.26-27
  10. See South Ind Inscr Vol.III, pp.132 and 140 , Vol II. p. 235.
  11. The Tamils 1800 year ago p. 208
  12. Bastar The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908. v. 7, p. 121
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.336
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.337
  15. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 459
  16. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 459
  17. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 509
  18. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 501
  19. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.300
  20. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  21. Epigraphia Indica Vol. IX (1907-08): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. & Sten Konow, Ph.D., p.174-181
  22. Epigraphia Indica Vol. IX (1907-08): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. & Sten Konow, Ph.D., p.179
  23. Epigraphia Indica Vol. IX (1907-08): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. & Sten Konow, Ph.D., p.174-181
  24. Epigraphia Indica Vol. IX (1907-08): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. & Sten Konow, Ph.D., p.176
  25. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 551-554
  26. Ep Ind , Vol IX, pp 178 f
  27. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.324
  28. कॊटिकॊ मानसः पूर्णः सहः पौलॊ हलीसकः, पिच्छिलः कॊणपश चक्रः कॊण वेगः प्रकालनः (I.52.5)
  29. (a) Oldham "Sun and Serpent Worship" P-73; (b) Rose H. A., "Glossary of the tribes and caste of Punjab" Vol I, P-154
  30. चक्रं विक्रमकं चैव संक्रमं च महाबलम, सकन्दाय त्रीन अनुचरान ददौ विष्णुर महायशाः (IX.44.33)
  31. वारवास्यायवाहाश्च चक्रा श्चक्रातयः शकाः, विदेहा मगधाः स्वक्षा मलजा विजयास्तथा (6-9-45a)
  32. भरतकोश-चित्रकूट जलप्रपात
  33. भरतकोश-चित्रकूट जलप्रपात
  34. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  35. {Mentioned in Inscription No. 23. Rajapura copper plates of Madhurantakadeva Shaka Samvat 983 (=A.D. 1065).}
  36. ऐतिहासिक स्थानावली: प्रथम संस्करण: 1969, द्वितीय संस्करण: 1990, p.324
  37. Epigraphia Indica & Record of the Archaeological Survey of India, Vol.X, 1909-10, p.28
  38. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 459
  39. {Mentioned in Inscription No. 23. Rajapura copper plates of Madhurantakadeva Shaka Samvat 983 (=A.D. 1065).}
  40. Epigraphia Indica & Record of the Archaeological Survey of India, Vol.X, 1909-10, p.27
  41. Orissa District Gazetteers, Kalahandi,p.47
  42. (a) Oldham "Sun and Serpent Worship" P-73; (b) Rose H. A., "Glossary of the tribes and caste of Punjab" Vol I, P-154
  43. https://www.jatland.com/home/Bastar_Jat_Gotras_Namesake
  44. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242
  45. https://villageinfo.in/chhattisgarh/bastar/lohandiguda/chitrakot.html

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