The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants

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The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)

Manthan Publications, Rohtak. ISBN 81-85235-22-8

Chapter XI: Jat-Its variants

Jat: The ancient race

The term "Jat" is, as we have seen, the name of one of the most ancient races of the Indian sub-continent. Jats have through the ages, been playing an important role in the cultural and political1 as well as ethnic2 history of the northern and north-western parts of this sub-continent. "Since the Jats generally live only in villages which they dominate politically, they see themselves as "Kings" in their own villages .... They are Kshatriyas or "rulers" sharing the hereditary martial proclivities or "leadership" qualities, They often stress their democratic values. No one is their superior, Dr. Tiemann also confirms this when he says, ein rechter Jat will keinen anderen Jat uber sich wissen (Sociologus, 18, 1968, 352). To an extent, the Hindu Jats have become a role-model for various castes in western Uttar Pradesh" (Stig Toft Madsen, Anthropos, 86, 1991, 352). Dr. Tiemann is of the view that this remark of Dr. Madsen holds equally good in case of the Jats of Haryana, and our view is that this is true of the Sikh Jats of Indian Panjab as well as the Muslim Jats of Pakistan. Jats of all varieties, locales and religious denomination form an ancient race that has been wielding the sceptre, the sword and the sickle in north-western India and Pakistan with equal dexterity and felicity, but they have been completely obliterated in the Brahmanical literature. It is only the western ethnographers, their present-day adherents and the Arya Samaj movement that have contributed extensively to rescue them from oblivion and to the creation of a Jat identity on the levels of varna, caste and clan".

Jat population

Adequate statistics are available in the Census Report of India, 1931, which is the last and the most comprehensive source of information on the Jats, who were estimated to be approximately one crore in number at that time3 . They are believed to be distributed in about a thousand cans or gotras, while their clans virtually exceed three thousand4. Nearly six million Jats lived in the pre-partitioned Panjab (which included Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and the present Panjabs of the India and Pakistan), nearly one million in Rajasthan about 8,00,000 in the Uttar Pradesh while large groups of them resided in Jammu and Kashmir the Western Frontier Province, Baluchistan and Sindh5. Their number in Kirman and Iraq was ;bout 20,000,

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in Makran and Afghanistan about 50,0006. They are also found in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujrat-Kutch, but not in very large members. -

We may follow up these figures with figures relating to the present Jat population in the sub-continent. Dr. Sukhbir Singh (Cf. the Aug., Sept. and Oct. Issues of "Suraj Sujan", 1990; Maharaja Surajmal Memorial Trust, Janakpuri, New Delhi) has done a commendable job by bringing the religion-wise approximate percentage of growth of the Jat population in the sub-continent including India and Pakistan since 1931 up to date. As worked out by him, the strength of the Hindu Jats in 1931 was 29,07,555 and rose to 1,01,76,445 in 1988. The number of the Sikh Jats in 1931 was 22,10,945 which rose to 77,38,308 in 1988, whereas the Muslim Jats were 32,87,875 in 1931 and 1,31,51,500 in 1988. His figures show that the percentage of growth during this period, is 3.5 each of Hindu and Sikh Jats, and 4.00 for the Muslim Jats. Their total population was thus 84,06,375 in 1931, whereas it grew to be 3,10,66,253 in 1988. It may be observed that the Muslim Jats are confined mostly to the present Pakistan.

The state-wise break-up of the total Jat population (including the Hindu, Sikh and Muslim Jats) is also given below†:

Name of region Jat Population 1931 Jat Population 1988 Approx
Punjab region 6,068,302 22,709,755 73 %
Rajasthan 1,043,153 3,651,036 12 %
Uttar Pradesh 810,114 2,845,244 9.2 %
Jammu and Kashmir 148,993 581,477 2 %
Balochistan 93,726 369,365 1.2 %
NWFP 76,327 302,700 1 %
Bombay Presidency 54,362 216,139 0.7 %
Delhi 53,271 187,072 0.6 %
CP & Brar 28,135 98,473 0.3 %
Ajmer- Marwar 29,992 104,972 0.3 %
Total 8,406,375 31,066,253 100 %

†These figures are purely tentative.

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For the details of the population of the Jats (Zamindars, as they were called) in India at the time of Akbar, the gentle reader may refer to App. No.7 at the end of this book.

The 1931 Census Report of India 7 revealed that 1/3 of the total population of the Jats consisted of Muslims, 1/5 of the Sikhs and more than 1/2 of the Hindus in the entire sub-continent, whereas in the undivided Panjab,Sindh, etc. more than half of them were Muslim, over two million Sikh and about one million Hindu8.

So far as their language-wise distribution is concerned, nearly one half of all the Jats use Punjabi, at east one and a half million various Lahnda dialects, while majority of the rest in Panjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan etc. speak Urdu, Hindi, Hindustani9, Braj, Bagri, Jatu and Gujrati. Since 1870 to 1931, all the Census Reports of India invariably speak of the Jats as one important population group despite the fact that they lived in different parts of the Sub-continent, speak different languages and dialects, and profess different religions, but all of them retain an awareness of their ethnic communality10 in spite of these wide variations in other respects.

Besides the Indian Sub-continent, the countries, in which the Jats have been identified by various writers include Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Central Asia, Russia and Europe as well as the New world11. Memories centring round the name Jat or its recognizable variants were spun into threads of history and legends, anecdotes and fables by men of antiquity, not infrequently separated by time and space. This, however, indicates the magic of the appellation 'Jat' on the medieval and ancient mind. Sources pertaining to the Jats date from the pre-Christian eras to modern times and are found strewn over the vast areas they lived in. This fact indicates, prima facie, that Jat is a word to be reckoned with, with its probable variants, in the annals of the East and West.

Variants of Jat

There are definite indications that wherever and whenever the Jats lived in the countries or in parts thereof in the four continents, the phonemes of foreign languages and dialects naturally influenced and modified the pronunciation and orthography (as well as the connotation) of their name. Some efforts were made to find out the prevalent variants in different countries at different periods of time. The attempts so far made in this respect are important, but they are either insufficient

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or they lack authentication. The innumerable ways in which the name was spoken and spelt in different lands and in different ages is very significant. One European ethnologist12 endeavored to collect as many as twenty variants of the word Jats as they have existed in some ancient and a large number of medieval and modern forms, We propose to enumerate below more than two scores of the variants of this name, popularly used in the chronicles the Asian and the European countries using different periods of their history.

At present, the word Jat is pronounced in the Panjab, Pakistan and Afghanistan as Jatt or Jutt whereas in the rest of India it is spoken with long 'a' as Jaat, but in both cases it is spelt as Jat13, In Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, Jat, the cultivator, is spoken with hard 't' and Jat herdsman or the camel breeder, with soft 't' 14,Sometimes this word was pronounce as Yutia 15 in these countries and Jatia in Rajasthan, where it carries a derogatory sense. In the poetic language in the Panjab and Pakistan16 it is often articulated as Jatta, Jatra is its derogatory form in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh17. In the Persian and Arabic speaking countries this name is spoken with soft 't' irrespective of the occupation it suggests, but with a difference in its spellings18, In the Arabic language it is written as Zut or Zutti19 or as Az-Zut20 and also as Zot or Zott21, but in Persian and Turkish as Jat22. In Baluchistan the Jat is also known as Jatoi or Jatgal or Jagdal23, The Jagdal, the notorious camel drivers, however, were not Jats but some other tribes akin to Jats, A few English writers have spelt it as Jaat or Jit24 also.

The variants beginning with /Z/ were in use in ,ancient period and gained popularity in the Middle East at the hands of the early medieval Muslim geographers like Istakhri, Ibn Hawkal and Mukkaddasi25, Some writers26 believe that Az-Zut27 as an alternative, exhibits the Middle Eastern influence on this ancient Indian name28. Similarly Jatoi betrays the old Hellenic impact29 which presumably lasts even up to the present time in Sindh and Baluchistan.

The Muslim accounts of the Middle East relating to the early centuries of the Christian era and the contemporary Greek and Roman classical sources furnish us with more of its variations in the Middle East and European countries. In Arabia, Iraq and Syria Djat or Dyat was a popular nomenclature of the Jats who were ethnologically said

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to be tall, well-built and sturdy with a comparatively dark complexion. Djat, a name given to the Jartas30 ,(who may be the Jartikas of yore, also called Zaratoi31 or Geratae32. Djat was the name given by the Arabs to the Middle Indo-Aryans of the Panjab and Sindh), and is thougt to be of post-Sanskritic Indic origin33. It is significant that Djat and Zutt were written as one compound word, "Djat-Zut" to represent them as one and the same people. We are informed that a Djat-Zutt physician, who was well-versed in witch-craft, treated Hazarat Mohammad's wife, Aisha, when she fell seriously ill34.

Our well supported investigations, have shown already , that the Jats migrated or were forced to migrate to the Middle East, where from, through Greece and Egypt during fifth and sixth centuries A.D. and even much earlier, they spread as far away as Sweden and the Baltic countries35. While passing through France and the Netherlands they carried with them their Middle Eastern appellations to the countries of their destination and these names, then, underwent further changes. The Swedes called them Thjoth36, a slightly modified version of Djat, in old French and Norse. Those who en route, settled down in the Netherlands were known as the Jutes and gave one of the Islands, Jutland, their name. No less remarkable is the fact that these Jutes, the earliest settlers in Cantware (Kent) in England37 after conquering it in early fifth century A.D. were also described as Djat38 . The Oxford English Dictionary (1977 ed.) gives a very faithful account of the variants available in the old languages of the north-western European countries. In old English the were known as Juti, in early medieval Latin as Jutae, Juti (in plural) and Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar39.

The Djat tribes that entered Germany and the Baltic region through the Greece and Turkey retained more or less the then Latin version of their name. Hence, in old German they were Goth, who ransacked Britain in 395-423 AD. The were described as Gothi (in plural) in later Latin, Gotoi or Gothoi in Greek, and Gutos or "Gothoi" in Greek, and Gutos or Guttones in the Baltic countries40 ,Guta; Gotosor Guts in Germany40a Gotan in Old English40b ,and Gotar in Old Norse40c.

The vestiges of this old race are commonly found in the names of places in the European countries to which they migrated and' where they settled down at different periods41. Thakur Deshraj informs us, on the

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authority of the Edda the sacred book of the Scandanavians that they were Jatt or Jit Aryans originally from Asirgarh of Neemar district in Malwa. He also cites Count Jonsturn, a Scandanavian, to further confirm this fact. 41a These people are said41b to have introduced agriculture in those countries and settled down in villages before 3000 B.C.

Their ethnonyms are unmistakably borne out by unimpeachable geographical evidence42. The Goths are generally thought to be the descendants of the ancient Getae, the earliest Greek name of these people who were divided in two groups, Massagetae and Thysagetae, who became notorious in Europe as Ostogoth (Eastgoth) and as Visigoth (Westgoth) 43 The earliest migratiomns of this race, as recorded by some eminent historians, followed the movement of the sun from the east to west at three different times, i.e. in the fifth millennium B.C. 44, in 2300 B.C. 45 and in 1000 B.C. 46 under pressure of Turks (Sumerians). Their fame seems to have travelled ahead of them, for as in Asia, so in Europe, they were considered as "uncouth and barbarous". The excavations conducted by Gerhard Bersu in Germany (1930) and in Britain in 1940, by W. Buttler and W. Haberey in Germany in 1936, and by Gudmund Hatt in Jutland and Denmark in 1938, (highlighted by Prof. Grahame Clark46a, Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge, in his Sir Mortimer Wheeler Memorial Lectures on Jan. 4-5, 1978 at the National Museum Auditorium, New Delhi), throw a flood of light on the agricultural economy, settlement patterns and social structure of the peasant communities established on the loess of west Germany around six thousand years ago. This evidence conclusively confirms what Deshraj has brought to surface and buttresses out of hypothesis.

Albeit the resemblance of sound among the names Jat, Jut,Goth etc. is not considered by historians. 47 as a sound test for their kinship, yet it may be said that the migrations of the Jats to Europe through Middle East and the transformations in the orthography of their name under influence of the phonemes of the countries they passed through or settled in, firmly establish their kinship and ethnic affinity. The latest researches in anthropology, ethnology and serology corroborate their kinship as a certainty. We may add, to all that, the additional evidence of a large number of Jat got or gotra names which have striking

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resemblance with surnames in those countries. Some of these common family names are: Mann, Gill, More, Sioux or Suevis (Sivis), Schillar (Chhilar), Vilk (Virk, Rastar (Rashtrika or Rishtik-Rathi or Rathika), Roth, Dahl (Dahae or Dahiya), Antal, Cazol, (Kajal), Dillon, Dun or Doon, Dunkar (Dungar), or Dhankhar. Our surmise is that they are European descendants of the Jats, Goths and Getae, for it is otherwise difficult to explain how all these Jat gotras found such remarkable echoes in Europe. These similarities were pointed out to me by Dr. Guenter Tiemann to whom I render my sincere thanks.

It is hard to believe that these surnames surfaced in Europe by chance. We are justified in suggesting that they were carried to Europe by the migrant Jat tribe in prehistoric times, who bequeathed them to their successive generations. Ever more remarkable is the fact that not only these names but much more is common, such as their laws, customs and religious beliefs (notwithstanding minor modifications during the course of their stay and journey though various countries and climes), their personal appearance, general habits and brunet complexion, the coincidence of numerous terms of their Gothic language with those of Sanskrit and the identity of many roots of words in both languages. These, in our view indisputably establish the Indian origin of the Goths48 and not their Scandanavian origin as was previously supposed 49. We believe, further, that Suebis, a European version of Sivis or Sibis, a branch of the Massagetae, gave their name to Sweden (Sivi + den) and Scandinavia (Skand-nabhi or Navi)50. That is how it was Known in old English and Norse, Skandia in Latin51 and Scandaanavi or Skandnabhi in Sanskrit after the name of their Massagetae (Maha Jat) leader Skanda (son of Siva), the Ganapati in the remote past.

It may not be out of place to mention here that, as confirmed by N.S. Chaudhry52 on the authority of Siva-Stotra, one of the generals of Kartikeya (Skand) carried the name Jata. It is a well-known fact that in the Deva-Asura war Kartikeya (Skand) commanded the forces of the former, and it is quite plausible to believe that the warriors (later known to Panini as Ayuddhajivi ganas), led by the general called Jata, became famous as Jata in history. We have also every reason to believe that Panini, when he used the phrase jata jhata Samghate (जट झट संघाते) (denoting Union or federation or confederation or binding together, etc.), took

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his cue from the Jata general's role in fomenting unity in the warriors against the Asuras. One of their tribes known as Amal gave their name to America (Kephart, op.cit., pp.468, 473, 521). Another tribe probably Virkas went as far down as Chile an Peru where they popularized the festival of Ramlila which is celebrated there as Rama-Sitva festival (Pococke, Ind. In Greece, pp. 250f).

The Gypsies

The works of Indian and foreign ethnologists refer to some rather unusual alternative names attributed to the Jats in in Europe. The country wise names are:

These we believe are the names of the different tribes of the six million 'lost and forgotten children of India'58, scattered over the world. The average common name for them is Gypsies, a distortion of Aegyptian or Egyptian 59 Sometimes they are also known as Roma60 or "Roma Gypsy".

It is possible that all these wandering tribes who trotted all over the globe have ties of blood with the Sakas of India who, too, have tramped across the continent through the ages, for these Gypsies have strong affinities with us in India.

Quite a number of Gypsologists61, in fact, are of the view that Gypsies are Jats62, the descendents of the original Aryans of Sindh63 where from they were carried away as prisoners of war and as slaves by Mohammad-bin-Kasim, Mahmud Gazni, Mohammad Gori and Tamurlane (Timur ) from early eighth century AD to the last quarter of the thirteenth century AD.64.

Such Gypsologists also include, among the Gypsies, thoseJats who were invited by Behram Gour to the Province of Luristan and were settled in a district and in village known as Zutt and Az-Zuts65 in Iran in the first half of the fifth century AD 66 They also include, among Gypsies, those Jats who, in search of pastures fresh and meadows new, moved from Sindh along the Persian Gulf during second and third centuries AD,67, and also those Buddhist Jat refugees who fled the country, in order to escape persecution at the hands of Pushyamitra Sunga68, (the usurper and the supporter of the orthodox Brahmanism), who fixed an award of one

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hundred gold coins for the head of a Buddhist in second century B.C.69. The first and the earliest70 great exodus of these people from India happened at the time of Alexander's invasion of India in 326 B.C., while some small groups 71 of refugees preceded the great exodus. The array of all this testimony should be sufficient to substantiate the migrations of the Jats to the Middle Eastern countries and thence, via Egypt, Greece and Turkey 72, to Europe in historic time, where they were branded as Gypsies because a majority of them entered Europe through Egypt.

It is a well known fact that Gypsies acclaim India as the country of their origin. Further, the customs and traditions, the literary monuments and language, the physical features and complexion, the anthropometric data and serological studies of the Gypsies (App. No.2) point to their Indian origin and their close affinity with the Jats, Rajputs and Khatris of north-western India 73. Racial memories actuate Gypsies to assert with pride that India is their motherland. Indian visitors are greeted by them with the sentimental remark that 'you and we are of the same blood'74. All this in our view, should be enough to confirm their Indian origin. All this runs parallel to pre-and proto-historical migrations of the Thjoth or Goths, Jutes or Juts from India to Europe and the Zotts or Jutt or Jats who perforce left their country during historical times. We reiterate, in support of our view the dictum that the unknown can often be explained by the known. The ethos and ethnogenesis of the former can, without any hazard and hesitation, be interpreted and comprehended in the light of those of the later to ensure the identity of their communality and place of their origin.

Variants of Jat in Central Asia

Continuing our quest for more variants of the word Jat as an ethnic term, we now turn to Central Asiatic countries and their chronicles. In the countries of the Oxus valley we come across the word Jatah or Jeteh75 , Zutt or Az-Zutt76 , Jith or Git77 during medieval and early medieval times, now only as names ot various places including villages, towns, canals, rivers and mountains but also those of the Jat people who inhabited them after their deportation78from India. From classical historians and geographers of the first century BC as well as from those of first century A.D. have come down to us variants like Xanthii or Zanthii or Xandii79 Iatii or Iatii80, used for the people living on the banks of the Oxus between Bactria,

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Hyrkania and Khorasmia81. Xuthi or Zuthi 82 for those who occupied Karamanian desert and Drangiana 83, One scholar84 suggests that those people gave their name as Zatale or Zothale to the irrigation channel from the Margus rive. All these terms are said85 to be variants of the term Jat with their "parental house on the Oxus" and their original seat or colony in Sindh as well as "on the Margus (Zotale or Zothale) river". This reference definitely indicates that the Jats were spread over the region bounded by Indus in the east and the Oxus in the West in Central Asia. This learned scholar seems perplexed in deciding the original habitat of the Jats in spite of the fact that earlier scholars like Pliny, Diodorus Siculus and Megasthenese had claimed that contemporary Indians were indigenous.

Pliny86 found the Indians living in the Indus Valley from the past. Diodorus Siculus87 asserted that the contemporary Indians were evidently indigenous and Megasthenese88 , who was in fact more familiar Width northern India of the fourth and third centuries B.C. than any other of his contemporaries, wrote about the people, inhabiting north-western India, that "none was alien and all of them were India's indigenous citizens". These impartial statements of the classical writers amply expose the fallacy of the assertions of those who assign foreign origin to the Jats. It is a pity that in spite of the corroborative evidence, the Indian origin of the Jats was disputed and repudiated in favour of the Central Asian origin, simply because this theory was propounded by European scholars led by giants like Cunningham and Tod. These theories were readily accepted by their Indian adherents without making any reason or rhyme, simply because of the prestige£ that European scholars commanded.

We now turn to some other forms of the term Jat available us from the Chinese. During this very period in the region under review several variants were current: Yat89 or Yata90, Yeta91 or Yetha92 or Yet93 Yete or Yeti94, Yewti95 or Yuti96, Yuchi97 or Tue-Chie98 or Yue-Chi or Yueh-Chih99. We regard them all as variants of the term Jat. Another term Yuch-Chih, (with its two branches, Siao-Yueh-Chih or little Yueh-Chih and Ta-Yueh-Chih or great Yueh-Chih) is equally noteworthy. This term, variously spelt by scholars, comes from archaic Chinese. It was pronounced from the

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fourth century B.C. to about the first century A.D .. as "ngiwattsic = ngiwattia" which, according to B. Karlgren 100 points to a a foreign word Gut-tia in China. The Chinese adopted this name to designate newly encountered foreigners, probably the Dai or Tai101 (Dahae or Tahae) of the Iranian writers or the Dadicae of Herodotus. Scholars, earlier were doubtful if this was the real import of Yueh-Chih, but the uncertainty was removed by H. W. Bellew, a keen student of Chinese language, who 102 identified the Yueh-Chih with the Jatoi or Iaii, mentioned by Ptolemy and who were the Jats of Cunningham, Tod and Elphinstone etc.103 .

The archaic Chinese pronunciation of Yueh-Chih as nagiwatteh might have been responsible for its vernaculansation as Jatah or Jeteh (Yatah or Yattah) till medieval times and Ywati for other forms prefixed with 'Y'. There is every probability that 'ngiwattia' was transformed into Gut-tia, and was abbreviated as Guti or Gut in course of time. (Guti as a variant will be described in the sequel).

We may also note that what MacRitchie has observed : namely that the form Jaut of Jat, (which he came across in the memoirs of Lord Combermare), appears to offer the best compromise...with the popular English form as a similar word Ghat, viz. Ghaut104 which exactly sounds like Chinese, ngiwat. It is significant, further, that British officers called Jat as Gat but in writing that they spelt it as Gat or Gaut105

What is pertinent to our inquiry is the question of the identity of the foreigners for whom the Chinese use the term Yueh-Chih. Further, from where did these Yueh-Chich penetrate in to China? The term obviously would not indicate the nelghbouring people like the Mongols and the Turks. It is far more plausible to link this term With terms we have already explored at some length, i.e. the getae and with the Iatii of Ptolemy, the Jatii of Pliny and the Jats of Cunningham, who were natives at that period of the countries between the Sindh and Oxus valleys, and whom we have already identified With Sakas.

Some of these adventurous tribes of the Sakas from India at Buddha's time penetrated as far as Kucha, (Kusa in sanskrit106) or Lobnor, where, Chinese gave these aliens the name Yueh-Chih' which came nearest to their original name in sound . These tribes

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derived or we are given a new name in their new home Kucha or (Kusha) and became famous in history as the Kushanas107. Consequently, it was but natural for later historians to regard the Kushanas as a branch the Yueh-Chih108 There is still a tendency among historians to regard the Jats , as the descendants of the Yueh-Chih or to regard them as one of their branches, the Kushanas, but the truth is just the reverse. The names Yueh-Chih and Kushan are later names given to Jats or a branch of them who migrated to Central Asian regions from Sindh in ancient period. Our reading of historical facts pertaining to the tribal movements to and in the Central Asian countries, leads us to the firm conclusion that scholars like Cunningham and Tod, astute and honest though they were, have discovered the Jat horse as well as the Yueh-Chih cart, but have managed only to put the cart before the horse.

This exercise in setting the record straight in this particular instance has served to whet our curiosity to investigate other variants of the term Jat that were extant before the third and fourth centuries B.C. The Getae, highlighted by Herodotus109, may be, as attested by the mid-twentieth century scholars110 of repute, the earliest Greek alter idem of the term "Jat". The 'Father of History' used "Getae" as an appellation for the Sacae or Scythians111 who, we have now proved, were the autochthons or onginal Indian Sakas112 known to the Chinese as Se or Sse or Sai113 and to Iranians as Saka 114. The Masagetae115 and Thysagetae116 were generally regarded as the two famous sections of the SakaGetae. The Frozen Getae117 and Euergetae118 were also their less familiar branches. We have already shown that the Getae came to be known as Gotor, Goth, Gutone or Gutton119, Jaton or Jute or Jut after their migration to Europe. The Massagetae became Ostrogoth or Easterngoth, and the Thysagetae were called Visigoth or Westerngoth. These stand remarkable comparison with the Indian terms like Deshwali (the aboriginal) and the Bagri (Dah or Dhai); "western Jats" and the "Parwa" or "eastern Jat" and the" Pacchade or "western Jats"120.

Jata: Root of Jat

From Father of History, Herodotus, to Father of Sanskrit grammar, Panini. The famous Sanskrit scholar, Panini, who gives Jata121 as one of the roots in the Dhatu-Path of his Ashtadhyayi, flourished in Gandhara122 a few centuries123 before Herodotus. Some Indian scholars124 ascribe the origin of the Jats to this root, but they

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do so with a lot of hesitation because they think that sensu stricto Jata, as a root, does not convey any ethnic meaning. They ignore the fact that this term does suggest or imply cohesion, blending or mixing together (paraspar laganaisayat) 125 . The phonic and semantic significance of Paninian root Jata is qualified as such by succeeding phrase Jata Jhata Sanghate (जट झट संघाते) 126, highlighted by the later scholiasts127. It should thus be obvious that the term Jata-Jhata Samghate (जट झट संघाते) was used to denote the Samgha (संघ) of people, whoever they might be, and not of inanimate objects only. jata (जट) or jhata (झट) being the same in meaning and sound, Sanghate (संघाते) signifies union or corporation or confederacy. Panini128 himself mentions Ayudhajivi Samghas of the Indus valley, Gandhar and Panjab (Vahikadesh). The members of these confederacies of the warriors were-known by the collective noun Jata (जट)129, popular even today in that region as Jutt which according to Prajnadibhyasca Sutra of Panini, can without difficulty, become Jat (जाट) following the application of ana suffix 130.

It is common knowledge that in the history of any literature, poetry comes first, then prose, and the rudiments of grammar and etymology131 come last. Now it is generally conceded that Panini compiled his grammar when Vedic Sanskrit, having traveled the first two stages of its development, was on the decline132 as the language of the masses. Since Jat, as we ave noticed above, was the name of a General of Kartikeya in the Deva-Asura war 133 , there is every reason to believe that the term was in common use in the local dialects of Sindh an and Gandhar at the time of Panini. This fact is confirmed by Herodotus who wrote his history nearly two centuries later than Panini. Among of other things, he134 mentions Getae ( Jats, later Goths) as an appellation of the people of Scythia, popularly known as Scythians or Sakas, "a· group of the Aryan race" 134a. Such concurrence of evidence needs no elaboration. You "do not need a mirror to see the bracelet on your wrist", yet we would dwell on the topic still further in an effort to convince the sceptics. It is universally admitted that Ashtadhyayi retains words already in use and deals with their etymology. The word Jat, therefore, must have been in use, prior to Panini, The word, however, goes still further in to the past.

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Yaska's graphic phrase:

Approximately a couple of centuries before 135 Panini, Yaska 136 gives a phrase Jatya Atanaro (जाट्य आटनारो) in his Nirukta, a comprehensive treatise on the Science of words not commonly understood. Apparently Jatya Atanaro means in or like the Jat nomads with matted hair. Sense perceptions do not need further inference or proof: we identify a gem by direct cognition, by its gem-like brilliance, The description of the ancient people of Sindh and Panjab given by contemporary Greek historians is as vivid as the sparkle of a gem. They 137 very clearly depict the long beards and ample locks or hair of the Getae and Indian warriors. Yaska's graphic phrase Jatya Atanaro is so striking so striking in its Vividness that we can almost see the Jat tribes roaming the land with their matted hair, as brave warriors in the time of Yaska. By the time of Panini they must have settled down as Ayudhjivi ganas. The trail goes further hack in time. Yaska138 quotes Sakatayana, an earlier authority, to support the view that all nouns are derived from verbs. Consequently, it is logical to conclude that the root139 of the known Jat in the phrase Jatya Atanaro did exist at the time of Sakatayana or ven earlier as well. In fact all the thro further conclusion that the term Jat existed in its present form in Yaska's time, and even earlier in that of Sakatayana.

The antiquarians, who connect Jat (जाट) with Jata (जट), a root given by Panini, ignoring the fact that it trickled down to Panini from earlier times, generally opine that search for Jats and variants of this name in further remoter times may be an attempt as ephemeral as a furrow in water. The ocean of history and the womb of time, however, have vast stores of information which they would yield to those who have faith and persistence. The morel in one's hand reaches the seeking mouth unerringly even in pitch darkness.

A further groping into the dark abyss of the past yields yet another clue which, will take us on another long voyage of exploration. According to Saggs, a dynasty termed Guti or Gutian, had twenty one kings who ruled over Mesopotamia-( the land of Twin Rivers or the Fertile Crescent) from 2250 BC to 2120 BC140 They were considered foreigners coming down probably from the hills

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of Turkistan or Meru (Pamir) and the period of their § dominance was abhorred as an age of barbarism, for they did not respect the gods of the land as well as of the last (third) Ur dynasty, besides plundering their temples141.

This bit of information aroused us to ask ourselves from where these Gutian invaders had descended upon Mesopotamia and what was their identity? The answers to these questions are not difficult to seek, if we have a fair knowledge of the contemporary people of the Indus valley. The Indus valley (Sapta Sindhu) has been the cradle of the Jats since time immemorial and from there they have ever been pushing up migrations in different directions. The awareness of this historical fact goes far back into the hoary past. Sheikh Said Abi ulkhair141a, the author of the Majmul-ut-Twarikh142 a Persian translation of a earlier Arabic work, which is still an earlier translation of an ancient Sanskrit text of Mahabharat (3102 B.c.)143 informs us that the Jats and Meds, living on the hanks of Sindh, very often fought against each other for supremacy over the valley at that time. The Vahikas, the authors of the Indus Valey civilization144, were none else than Jats. The condemned people of Rigveda, the Panis, (who were "Punis" of the Romans145, the Peoni in Latin146, the Phoenix or Phoinikes or "Phoenicians" of early Greeks147, (the pre-Vedic Indo-Aryan authors of Harappan Scrip1t147a), Aparnis of the classical writers148, a branch of the Dahae Massagetae149 (Dahiya Maha Jats149a), were present in Sindh as authors 150 of the Indus Valley civilization. The Panis were ab initio on the bank of the short-coursed Jamuna, on the coast of Aryavata sea and in Parniprastha, (the ancient name of Panipat) where from they were uprooted by Indra of Indraprastha to move to Rajasthan and Sindh 151.

The Indo-Sumerian seals, dating from 4000 B.C. to 2300 B.C.152, were discovered at Mohanjodaro and Harappa, the primary sites of the Harappan (Indus) civilization. These were deciphered by

§ - These reflections about the Gutian, need to be taken with a pinch of salt for "the ancient authors always tended to depict the foreign conquerors as well as exotic peoples and things with numerous exaggerated reproofs and most obnoxious epithets". It has been the general practice in religion and caste-ridden societies, especially of the East to denounce the heroes and warriors of their communities as barbarous plunderers

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Waddell, but his opinions, unfortunately, could make little headway in his time. They are now given partial recognition by recent archaeologists 153. Waddell154 interprets some of these seals to assert that Guti or Gut engraved on them was either the name of a Saka chief or was an ethnic title of a tribe. Further, he155 identifies Guti or Gut with Goth, or Getae, Sacae (Saka) descendants of Narishyanta156 of the Solar race that ruled over Vaisali in pre-historic time, at least twenty one157 generations prior to Rama Dasrathi. It may not be inopportune to recollect here that we have already identified the Saka people, the original inhabitants of India 158 with Jats159 who were called Guti or Gutia in archaic Chinese and who were considered foreigners160 in China. As we have shown already, these people moved to fertile lands below the lake Balkash and gave their name to the region of their settlement as Gete, which to Greek historians161 accounts for the use of the root-word Getae as the name of the Nordics. In fact, Gete, as a name connotes newly found or gained or acquired homeland by the Getae, in Gothic language162. The anthropoogists163 assert that population in Sindh, Panjab and Saurashtra remained more or Jess stable from Harappan and Burzahom163a times to the present day. The array of evidence cited above compels us to conclude that the people of Sindh in the contemporary period of the Guti or Gutian rule over Mesopotamia were undoubtedly Jats who may in all probability be the authors of the Harrapan civilization, if not of the civilization of Mesopotamia or Sumeria. Waddell's claim that Gut or Guti of Sindh were Goth or Sacae Getae (Jats) is too well established to be easily rejected.

Guti of Sumeria

From the identification of the people of Indus valley we come to their migration in different directions from the valley. Waddell and some other writers, including archaeologists, hold that during the period under review the migrations, particularly of the Guti Sumerians, were from the Fertile Crescent to Fertile Sapta Sindhu. Here, once again we come to the familiar "cart-horse" situation we have been at such pains through out to correct, trying to give the horse its due place. Waddell's assertion is negated by his own findings. His own dating of the Gut or Guti seals to a period between 4000 B.C. and 2300 B.C., points, indubitably, to the presence of the Guti people on the Indus. He identifies these people with the Goth or Saka Getae (ancient Jats) of a period in the Indus valley earlier than the period of their invasion

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of Mesopotamia and their reign and rule over there from 2250 B.C. to 2120 B.C. This contradicts his thesis of their migration from Fertile Crescent. We have already dealt in extenso, with the untenable nature of such theses in earlier chapters.

The migrations of the Indus valley people to Mesopotamia, also known as Sumeria in history, can be traced in some detail. From an Indus region, known in the contemporary period as Odin164, (a distortion165 of Udayana), Panis migrated to Iraq in about 3500 B.C.166 Hall167 and Saggs167a also affirm the migration of highly civilized people from the Indus valley to Sumeria in the fourth millennium B.C. These people were called Sumerian because they derived their new name from Su-Meru, the Seat of gods168. They were the mercantile people of the Indus Valley as mentioned169 in the Rigvedic literature. In addition to them, the Asuras i.e. Parasikas170 and Vrichivans171, (identified with Rsika or Rathi and Brishbhan Jats in a previous chapter), of Hariyupiya172 (Harappa) abandoned in a body the town for foreign lands in the west after their unsuccessful battle against the so-called Daivic Aryans (the Bharatas) in about 7000 B.C. Similarly, we have every reason to believe that the frequent internecine battles between Jats and Meds, referred to above, must have compelled the vanquished to leave the valley for lands in the West.

Again, Khattis (Khatri or Kshatriya), already identified173 with Getae, Skyth and Xatti or Khetas174 (Hittites of the Hebrews) and the Gutian, who are considered pre-Sumerian, also migrated to Mesopotamia 175. The French Savant, Francois Lenorment176 firmly attests that the Sumerians were definitely an Indian race who developed their culture in their home in the Indus Valley. Dr. Marshall177, the Danish archaeologist178, even Piggot179 and Woolley180 firmly corroborate the migrations of the Indian people from the Indus valley to Mesopotamian cities i.e. Babylon, Nippur, Uruk, Kish, etc. and their settling down there. The Cuneiform records181 of Mesopotamia, Syria and Anatolia also inform us that majority of people entering the Near East in the first half of the 2nd millennium B.C. are recognized as Indo-Aryans or simply Indians. Above all, the craniological evidence182, dental studies183 and ethnographical184 investigations, all suggest a common ancestry of the population from Rajasthan to Mesopotamia at the time of the Indus Valley civilization. This should be enough to warrant the

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conclusion that illustrates our assertion. We can confidently conclude that our discovery of the Indus Guti (who were Goths or Jats) and the Mesopotamia Guti rulers are the same, and that the Indus Guti migrated to Sumeria, and not vice-versa.

It is possible, We feel, that a branch of the Pani or Puni migrated from Sapta Sindhu to South India where they were known as Pani185or Paunika 186, identified187 with the Punaka- Visaya of Telegaon inscription i.e. modern Poona orPune,which may be their earlier st. The Punaiyyas or Panayyas of the South also betray their ancestry from the Panis. While Sivis, Mallavas etc. migrated from the Indus Valley after Alexander's invasion to Rajasthan where they still survive in Sivi or Shivarana, Mall or Malli Jats, the Punia or Pauniya Jats of Rajasthan, are likely to be the descendants188 of the Panis, who were deprived of their wealth189 by their brethren Aryan opponents, & were compelled190 to settle down in their new home from the valley much earlier. All these conjectures stand together and make sense.

In all probability the Punia or Pauniyas belong to the followers of Pani leader Bribu. The were allowed by Aryans to remain in their Indian home in return for liberal donations by Bribu 191 to the Aryans (the Bharatas) for which he was held in high esteem by them where as the rest of Panis, who refused to donate likewise, were chased 192 to the western lands. Babylonia, known as Brbyru to the Vedic Indians, is said to be the city of Bribu, (a wealthy leader of the Panis), by Weber, (Kalyanaramana, 1969, 112). It is interesting to note that the leaders of Panis who migrated 193 to America in the pre-Aztec times from India, are depicted as robust, standing erect with folded hands, having Rajasthani features, with their head adorned with Marwari pagree. 194

We are aware that attempts to connect present-day communities with Some ancient dynasty or tribe, and particularly with the earliest Aryans are frowned upon by quite a number of scholars as irrational or forced. This attitude is understandable when such attempts are unsupported by more solid evidence. When, however, relevant data to support them accrues naturally from the remotest time, such attempt are fully justified, Panini is said195to have existed in Gandhara in the 24th century B.C. and Yaska in Paraskara, a country in lower Sind, in the 28th century B.C. If this is correct, then they are unquestionably

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contemporary of the Indus valley civilization. Both of them, as noticed above, mention Jata (जट) in one form or the other. Both of them agree that all nouns are derived from dhatus ( verbs) and Yaska quotes an earlier authority, Sakatayana, to have already dilated upon this subject. We may be permitted to remind the reader of what we have already said in this chapter, namely, that the natural corollary is that Jata (जट) as a root did exist prior to Saktayana or, in other words, before the time of Indus valley civilization. It is not at all improbable that Gut or (Getae), the ethnic name either of a Saka tribe or of a chief on the Harappan seal was derived from the root Jata (जट). We would like to add that the Greek historians196 also consider Getae as a root-word and a name applied to one of the Nordic nations. This evidence may seem to be meagre, but a small amount of solid evidence should be regarded more valuable than tons of speculations.

Mythological account of Jata

No less important and gratifying, in our search for variants of Jat is our discovery of its earliest mention among the Sanakadicas. They were seven in number-Sananda, Sanatana, Sanantakumar, Jata197, Vodu or Vodhu, etc. All of them are said to be the real as well as mind-born sons of Brahma (from Sapta Sindhu) and they along with many others, went to see Bhagwan Vishnu in Narayanpura, also called Vairavati or Vairamati in the northern parts of Toyambudhi on the sea of fresh water (Mansarovar?) in the Svetdwipa198 (Sivalaks) also known as Saka-dwipa after its conquest and settlement in it by the Sakas199. As a hunter, tempted to chase a musk-deer on and on, ultimately gets at the hill-forests of Central Asia, so our quest for Jat and its alternatives has landed us in the domain of mythology, the curtain of which is grotesquely painted with the legends of Brahma, Vishnu etc., with the back-drop of the Kailash' or mount Meru. It has been said that what is mythological legend today may be history tomorrow, and what is history today may be legend tomorrow. We raise the curtain of mythology and discover that of the seven supposed sons of Brahma, one was Jata (जट), who is represented by the Vishnuites to have led so many to the svet-dwipa for the 'darshan' of Lord Vishnu. This has led us to speculate: was this Jat the same Jat, who, in the presence of Brahma, was made a General on the occasion to defeat and drive away the Asuras from the Sapta Sindhu?

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Incidentally, we learn that the region of the new settlement of Brahma's sons along with their followers was known as Gete2OO which includes a homonymous mountain, known by its ethnonym, Jityam Tau201. This fertile territory enclosed by Sogdiana, Kashgar, lake Balkhash and the Aral Sea, was sensu stricto known as Gete in very remote period202. It was the Saptanada (Sapta Sindhu) of Rahul Sankritayana203, the Jiti-su204 of ancient Turks and Mongols, the Semiryecheye205 of the Russians and the Jatah of Changez Khan206, Tamer Lane (Tamur Ling). All the names, except Jatah and Gete, signify 'land of seven rivers', (now Krighizia). The plethora of these names is not merely homophonic acrobatics but a reality. Sankritayana even suggests that Sapta Sindhu was the original name of the country of Gete and he 207 finds the Scythian (Saka) tribes occupying the region from the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. upto practically the middle of the 1st millennium B.C. This is the very country of the Massagetae whom Toynbee208 identifies with the Jats. On seeing one thing we are, however, reminded of others connected with it. It is worth mentioning here that the period of the saka (Scythian) occupation of Gete synchronizes with the occupation of the Indus Valley by the Gut or Guti (Goth, Jat), the Panis, the As or Ass (Assii or Asikas), the Dax or Tax209 etc. who are identified With the Saka (Scythian) tribes by a number of scholars21O and with Taxak or Takshak (Tak + Saka) Jats by us.

"It is a great pity that Vedic scholars and Indologists have not paid that careful attention and done the diligent research to bear on the study of ancient Indian history which had been bestowed on the study of Egyptian and Mesopotamian history by Egyptologists and Assyriologists". Our view concurs with that of A.C. Das who asserts that about 25000 years ago211 not only the original (cradle) but also the Citadel of the Aryans (Nordics) was the Sapta Sindhu, bounded212 by the Rajputana sea on the South, another sea covering the Gangetic trough on the East, (western Tibet, eastern Turkistan, lake Balkhas and Aral sea on the North, and the (Kachi plains upto) Gandhara on the west. This was, correctly speaking, greater Saptasindhu. In fact, this was the stage upon which the Aryans have been playing the drama of their life since time immemorial. This vast region, the land of seven rivers, comprising Sindhu, Panjab, Kashmir and western Tibet, i.e. from Saraswati river to the Indus, enjoyed from about 18000 B.C.213to nearly 4000 B.C.214 delightfully cold temperate climate conducive to and

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congenial for growth of population and high civilization215, and with her parks, "gardens and grass lands216, was famous as the paradise of the world".

But, as ill-luck would have it, upheavals217, partly due to volcanic eruptions and partly on account of eustatic disturbances changed the character of the topography of the valley about 8000 B.C. Misfortunes never come alone. Saptasindhu, the oldest life-producing region in the whole of the Indian sub-continent, began experiencing gradual decrease of rains and frequent dry spells which led to the process of increasing intensification of desiccation from about 8000 B.C. to about 7000 B.C.218. The result was that Makran, Baluchistan (ancient Sauvira), Sindh, Rajputana and South-western Panjab were turned into desert219. The Indus valley civilization decayed and migrations220 set off in all directions by land as well as by sea routes, which are disguised as exile in the Brahmanical records.

The Gangetic valley, now the most fertile tract in India, was too non congenial because of its thick forests and marshes for habitation & remained cul de sac for a long time, say until about 2500 B.C. The , migrations, therefore, continued mainly from the Sapta-Sindhu towards north west higher lands, the cold temperate climate of which afforded great temptations, and whetted the appetite of the migrants for moving on in quest of fields fresh and pastures new. Anthropology and archaeology, as already noted, convincingly support the to and fro migrations within the region as well as outside because of overpopulation of the Indus valley, Dasarajna wars, religious intolerance and increasing desiccation of the Valley.

Getae the progenitors of the Nordic branch of the Aryan race, are said221 to ave emigrated about 14000 years ago from the Indus valley and its upper reaches in Western Tibet through the Hindu Kush or Kara Koram passes to the Tarim Basin, Eastern Turkistan, which they inhabited for about 4000 years. It is most likely that some tribes deviated to the upper reaches of the Kachi plains and to the N.E. Afghanistan.

About 8000 B.C. they were dislodged by the Sumerian; and ultimately they moved to the foot hills of the Tien Mountains222. By 7700 B.C. they had crossed those mountains and settled in the northern country subsequently known as Gete223, when they stayed for thousands of years. This area comprises the foot hills and mountainous regions of western

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Turkistan beyond Kashgar, from the Tien Mountains to lake Balkash. It is the Western slope of the Imaus range of Ptolemy, in the present Kirghiz province of Semiryechensk (from Semiryechie i.e. seven rivers), "the new Saptasindhu", which "includes the upper reaches of the Jaxartes River, lake Issyk and the Chu and IIi River basins. It was well watered, sheltered, healthful and productive country, containing excellent pasture lands like the original Saptasindhu, "on which numerous animals abounded"224.

It will not be irrelevant to recollect here that the Getae gave name Gete to their "newly found or gained or acquired homeland." Gete, according to the Greek historians, as we have already noted, accounts for the root word Getae (compare with Jata of Panini) applied to an Aryan nation. The phrase "newly found or gained or acquired homeland" does suggest that the original home of the Getae Aryans was somewhere else. To all intents and purposes, it was Indus valley and these very Getae of Saptasindhu may well be the people led by Brahma's son, Jata, to the Meru and Mansrover with the pious promise of Visnudarshan. This, in fact, is the sleight-of hand method of the tricky legend-mongers to camouflage by mythological curtains the real migrations from Indian soil to north and north-western lands.

Heavy density of the Gete population, their division into five tribes generating new rivalry amongst them in this new home and fresh pressure of the Turks on the Sumerians about 8000 B.C. finally affected the Getes who were consequently compelled to migrate towards southwest225, their only recourse, for the impassable barrier of marshes on the north and the inimical tribes on the east had blocked their movements in those directions. Non-dating of our Vedas and the later works in Sanskrit is the greatest misfortune under the sun for the researchers to chronologically support the migrations, referred to above with literary evidence. For this, We have to depend on Kephart (1961: Chart between p.14 and p.15 and on p.68), who worked out the chronology of the ascends and descends of various Nordic (Aryan) tribes between upper India (Sapta Sindhu) and Gete, and who collected information about the average cephalic index of the pendulous migrants (Aryans) of those times, i.e, from 25000 B.C. to 2300 B.C.

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In such a situation, the anthropological investigations must be supplemented by archaeology despite the fact that this science with latest tool i.e. C-14 dating is admittedly not always infallible226 , nor is it without limitations in determining accurately the time (age) of excavated materials. Be that as it may, such considerations should not deter and detain us any more.

As far as the stone Age culture and the movement of ideas and people are concerned the Greater Sapta Sindhu is considered as one closely connected227 unit. Certain microlithic compounds in the epipalaeolithic assemblage have been discovered at Aq Kupruk228 (and Mehargarh?) and the C-14 technique has dated them to 14,665 B.C. These have links with southern Tajikistan, northern Afghanistan and southern zone of Amu-Darya. These findings confirm migrations229 from greater Indus to Oxus valley about 14,000 B.C. (for antiquity of these sites see Purushotam Singh, 1991: 121 ff).

That they were Getae is demonstrated beyond doubt by Scythic element230 in the population whose ornaments were excavated from the Aq Kupruk (20,000 B.C - 15,000 B.C.) and Mehargarh (8,566 B.C.) graves. Reverse migrations of the Getae from Gete towards south west under pressure of the Turks and Suerians in about 8,000 B.C. Iis confirmed by the faunal remains of domesticated sheep and goat or cattle (Bos indicus), by buffalo (zebu cattle of Indian origin); by wheat, barley, grapes and cotton seeds, (the cultivation of which anticipated irrigation facilities); by grooved tusks; and by compartmented buildings as granary (which presupposes complex social organisatlon of the local people about 8566 B.C. at Mehargarh231 having a strong Bactrian character232). Bactria and Aq Kupruk, by the way, were not blank areas on the distribution map of settlements during that and earlier periods233 . Similar migrations also took place in 4300 B.C. and in 2300 B.C. from Gete in various directions and from Tibet and Meru through Kashmir and other river valleys to north western Indian plains.234 This is confirmed by archaeology and anthropology235 . These findings are sound even though they strike one, at first flush, as merely sensational.

This seemingly digressive account brings, to a conclusion, the long voyage of investigation we envisaged (supra). It was a necessary one meant to solve the riddle relating the origin of the Jats which is

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mysteriously wrapped in an enigma by the myth-mongers. We ma sum up our argument so far by remarking that the initial migrations were pushed up towards north and west from Sapta-Sindhu, the nucleus of the Jat race. The earliest migration was mythologised with a curtain coloured in legends pertaining to Sanakadicas, the Brahma's sons, Jata beig one of them, who are said to have crossed the Kailash Meru) for the 'darshan' of Bhagwan Vishnu, a pia fraus, devised by the Pauranics to camouflage real history . Homophonous homonyms of the fertile region with its mountain range known as Gete and Jityam Tau respectively compel us to concede that the names are derived from Jata who along with his companion darshanarthis settled down there. This name was, however, current in the Indus valle since the dawn of history, where from it travelled with the migrants to central Asia where, it being a foreign name for the local people, was spoken as Gete or Jit according to their pronunciation. Nevertheless, it must be said in the language of R. Shafer that "my experience has been that foreigners do not coin names indiscriminately, but generally stick as closely to the pronunciation heard as the phoneme of their native language (and dialect) will permit, and I (will) protest against the rough identification of place names which ignore this principle", (within brackets mine).

Penultimately, we can justifiably conclude that the five divisions of the migrants in the Gete region might be the Panchajna or Panchajatah of the Rigvedic Aryans whose236 one section came from the Scythians (Sakas). The Jats are generally identified by modern scholars with Scythians (Sakas-Kushanas) who are said to have come to India from Central Asia about a couple of centuries before Christ237 but unfortunately not with those of the Indus valley mentioned by Waddell, Calvin Kephart, G.S. Ghurye etc. and were thus denied the honorable antiquity which they richly deserve.

The first Muslim invader, Mohammad bin Qasim, had to encounter the Jats in the Indus valley. Much earlier Alexander the great, had to deal with the Dahae (Dahiyas), Porus (Purus-Paurias), the Mallavas (Mallis), the Sivis (Shivrans) etc., all Jat tribes in Sapta Sindhu. Going farther back, Yaska of Paraskara mentions the Jatya Atnaro in Sindh; Panini mentions the root word Jata in the and of Sindh; Waddell found them imprinted on the Indus Seal; Calvin Kephart (who regarded them as progenitors of the Nordics whose descendants238

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are the Jats in N.W. India), testified their movement to Central Asian countries named after them as Gete, about 14000 years ago, from the Indus; G.S. Ghurye considers the Scythians as one section of the Rigvedic Aryans, whose urheimat (cradle) was, according to A.C. Das, Saptasindhu.

Archaeologists, armed with their picks and shovels who descended into the depths-of Greater Indus, the Swat Valley, Central Asia and Eurasia; the anthropologists, who traced the footsteps of their past in the bone remains; the ethnologists who conducted a comparative study of the apparent physical features of different races of the Saptasindhu; and the students of various Indo-Aryan languages, who employed "the flotsam and jetsam of these languages, washed on the shore of history from ages immeasurably remote"; all these taken together help us reconstruct the picture of the primeval population of the Saptasindhu, which bears testimony that it remained more or less the same up to present day in the Panjab (including Haryana) Saurashtra and Sindh since the dawn of civilization in the region. Having shaken off all suspicion, consequently, I venture to suggest, with full confidence that, to all intents and purposes, the Jats are the autochthone of the Saptasindh and were known by close variants of the word Jat in other countries to which they emigrated in the past.

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Phonetic or phonemic account

We may conclude this discussion by commenting on reasons for the proliferation of the variants of the word Jat by consolidating what already lies scattered in the preceding pages on the subject. We add, to our earlier observations, a phonetic/phonemic account of the various transformations in the sound. The aim is show that the words that we claim to be variants of the word Jat are derived according to well recognized linguistic principles and that these derivations are not arbitrary. Jatt and Jhat are roots in Sanskrit and have the same meaning239. These are synonyms. 'H' being almost a vowel in jhat, the pronunciation of jatt is not different from that of jhatt. Jatt invariably becomes Jat, as noted above, following the application of ana suffix. Getae, too is a root word in Greek. The orthography of Jatt or Jata was corrupted by the absence of 'j' sound in certain languages as well as by the uses of ablaut and umlaut offering different sound values of vowel 'a' in different languages of foreign countries. Let us first deal with 'j' sound in Jat. Jī, g, j and z have close acoustic

similarities. 'J' is conspicuous by its absence240 in Greek alphabet, and the Greeks used 'Z' with the soft and sibilant sound in place of 'j'. Consequently, Jat became Zat, Zete, Zit, Zot, or Zoth, Zothi or Zuti. In German there is no 'th' sound241, hence 'Zoth is spoken as Zot.

It is interesting to note that Zoth or Zot was written as Joth or Jot in old Norse. Semitic influence242 is also visible in latii for 'i' is-Semitic 'y', equivalent to in Sanskrit, and both 'y' and 'jj' are changeable into J and . This is why perhaps Jat was also written as Yat in the past in Central Asia. In Latin language the Greek alphabet 'Z' is substituted243 by 'G' for (J), as its original sound, proximates to that of 'Z'. Hence Jat was spelt with 'G' in the Latin world, mainly Europe, in all its alternatives from Italy to Sweden.

In the Arabic and Persian Languages, since 'j' and 'z' sounds are available, Jat was written as Jat (जात) or Zat (जात) with soft 't' (त) because sound of hard 't' (ट)244 is not there in these languages. It is worthy of mention here that in Persian, because of its closest affinity with Sanskrit, Jata (जट) was written as (?), but with soft 't' (त) and in Indianised Persian it was (?), still with soft 't'. In the Arabic speaking countries it was also, as noted before, written as Djat and as Thjoth or Thjot in old Norse. As I do not possess any knowledge of these languages, I fail to explain the why and wherefore of these variants. However, one thing is sure that 'D' and 'Th' are silent in Djat and Thjoth (like 'k' in know, 'p' in 'Ptolemy' and in psychology' and 'd' in 'djereed' and djinn and djetun'245).

We have also come across another form, Az-Zutt in the Arab countries. This is explained by the fact that 'a' used to be prefixed in Middle East with Sanskrit words beginning with a consonant246, viz. Akkad, Amorite, Assyrian etc. Az-Zutt was derived accordingly. The Jats are frequently identified with Yueh-Chih which was pronounced in Chinese as ngawat. 'W' has sometimes the value of vowel as in 'awkward', 'awl', 'awn', and 'awry'247. so ngwat becomes 'ngaat' and when the nasal 'n' is dropped, it becomes Gat or Jat. "Xanthi" and Zanthi are also Zianthi' are also variants. When 'X' occurs at the beginning of a word, it gives the sound of 'Z'248, hence, Xanthi' and Zanthi are one and the same which are nasalized forms of "Iatii" or "Jatii".

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The above analysis will remain incomplete if we do not deal with the canges of the vowel sounds vis-a-vis Jata, 'A' in Sanskrit changes into 'i' in Greek, '0' becomes 'u', '00' becomes 'a' or 'i' and 'u' becomes a, e, o'249, Again 'a' is changed into e, o; a also into o; o into au, i and u; e into a, e, u and i; i into e, e or ee or ei, ai, 0, u and vice versa in all the above cases in both of the languages250, 'E' gives various sounds, e.g. long e in me, short e in get, as i in England, u in her e in prey, mute and commonly added to lengthen the previous vowel, as in note, bite, etc,251, The vowel 'o' has three sound values, short in rot, long in note and neutral or as u in 'son'252 "compare" 'sun'. 'I' vowel changes to 'e' and 'u' to 'o' under the influence of the pitch-accent253, Similarly 'A' vowel changes into 'i' and 'u' also into 'i' in the Central Asiatic languages, e.g. Jat and Jut become Jit, bulbul becomes bilbil there 254, This is the key, then, to the plethoric variants of the word Jat, caused by the changes of the sound values of the vowels and some consonants in different languages, including the baffling variants in which G or Z or Dj or X or Y occur initially, The word "Jat" is not a lonely example of such phonemic transformations, The plethoric changes, generally considered as miasmic, in the sounds of vowels and consonants in different countries and climes have wrought havoc with languages at all times256.

In the course of investigating the variations of the name Jat down the ages we come across certain adjectives applied to the Jats viz, Deshwali257 and Bagri258 Jats, Parvai and Pachhadai Jats, big or superior and little or inferior Jats, Ta-Yueh chih and Siao Yueh Chih, Massagetae and Thysagetae, Ostrogoth and Visigoth (high and low Germans); Euergetae (good Getae or Sujata in Sanskrit) and Frozen Getae (Hyperborreans of extreme north), They either evidently denote the direction from which they hailed or in which they settled down or the social status of the erstwhile Jat tribes. Their parallels in different countries from Indian sub-Continent to European countries reveal their remarkable similarity and support the hypothesis that they, irrespective of distances in time and space, were at some time one and the same people before their migrations to these countries. To begin from known to unknown or from the present to past, the Jats in India, as given above, are known as Deshwali and Bagri as well as Parvai and Pachhadai 259

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 362

and Rajasthan as well as those of Sindh are called Pacchadai or Bagri. The Jamuna river is considered the natural barrier between the Deshwali or Parvai and the Bagri or Pachhadi Jats.

However, the distinction based on directions is conspicuous by its absence in Sindh, Panjab and Rajasthan. Nevertheless, the distinction of Deshwali and Bagri Jats is seldom visible in Panjab and Rajasthan but not in Sindh where we find big (superior or in Sanskrit and Hindi as Maha) and small (inferior or as Hin in Hindi). After embracing Buddhism they were known as Mahayana and Hinyana. It reminds us of the Rathi or Maharathi as well as Bhoja and Maha Bhoja mentioned in the Rock Edicts of Asoka. This distinction of high and low among the Jats of Sindh may either be due to their numerical strength or different occupations or the social and political status of the different Jat tribes of Sindh and Baluchistan. Whatever may be the basis of this distinction now, the earliest that we know of in Sindh was that of the nomads and sedentary tribes. The former, who carved out for themselves huge kingdoms in the past irrespective of their nomadic ways of life, regarded themselves superior and far braver. They looked down upon the sedentary tribes who took to cultivation as cowards and inferior. Just mark the abiding influence of the tradition; "it was to avoid this epithet that Timur, even after becoming a world conqueror, (the Shaker of the Earth)260 and acquiring towns like Samarkand with its huge palaces, continued to play the nomad"261.

It is extremely interesting to note that the Jats of Sindh introduced this idea of big and small, high and low, superior and inferior in Western Tibet and China in pre-Christian era when they, as described above, migrated to that country from the Indus Valley. They were foreigners to the Chinese and their name was unfamiliar to them. However, the Chinese called them Yueh Chih (Jat) in the first instance and then Ta-Yueh Chih (Maha or big or great Jats) and Siao-Yueh-Chih (little or small or inferior Jats) in their archaic language. The well-defined Chinese names are clearly reminiscent of the appellations with which the Jats were distinguished and recognized in the Indus Valley, but the basis of distinction between Ta-Yueh Chih and Siao-Yueh-Chih in China was their numerical strength and not their occupational status.

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Similarly, we find that when the Jats,either direct from the upper reaches of the Indus or from Western Tibet and China settled down in the fertile Oxus Valley, known in the past as Jete or Gete and later as Jata after them, they carried the connotations (the Indus and Chinese names) of their two sections to their new-found home and consequently were known to the Greek historians as Massagetae and Thysagetae at a later stage (600 B.C.). Masa = Maha with the interchange of 'h' and 's' in archaic Persian language262, and thus Massagetae meant Maha or great or superior Jats and Thysagetae signified little or inferior Jats. The basis of their two designations in their newly acquired home was again their numerical strength and not their political or social status, a legacy of caste-and-religion ridden society, as India's has ever been since ages. When these people occupied lands east and west of the Caspian Sea, they, as in India, were known as Eastern Getae and Western Getae or as eastern and Western Scythians (Sakas;) in southern Russia.

In the European countries these people were marked as Goths in general Ostrogoth (eastern Goths) and Visigoths (western Goths), high and low Germans in particular upto 8th century A.D. The Goths (Jats) of Europe with these two appellations can be the descendants of either the Getae from the eastern (Parvai) and the western (Pachhadai) Jats of the Indian sub-continent or of both. It is significant that Herodotus locates the Getae in Thrace and on the Danube in the 6th Century B.C. Where as we have pointed to their earlier entry from the Sapta-Sindhu into Europe via Egypt (Misr-which betrays definitely an Indian name) and via Turkey or Anatolia and Greece when Europe was not even awake from its "wintry sleep'. Interestingly, they were called Thjot and Jut (Jata, an ancient Indian name of people under review) in Western Europe and England. The European descendants of these earlier peoples (settlers) might well have absorbed in them their later (post Christian era) kith and kin mentioned by Herodotus as intruders into that continent. Just imagine, how faithfully the situation that obtained in the pre and post Christian eras in Europe vis-a-vis the earlier Goths absorbing Indian Jatas amalgamating in them in the same eras of the Saka-Getae i.e. (the Scythians and their kith and kin Kushanas, Yueh-Chih, Parthians or Prthus and the Epthalites (White Hunas) with whom the Jats are generally identified.

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The names "Goth", Ostrogoth and Visigoth sank into oblivion after medieval period in Europe, their newly gained home, even though the names of their tribes, used by various Europeans as their surnames, survive even to the present day. Similarly, the names Getae, Yueh-Chih, etc. have been forgotten in India, China and Central Asian countries. Sooner, to wit, the names of the alien invaders and rulers are effaced off the memory, the better it is in the national interests. It may not be impertinent to note that men generally do not forget their birth place and their name and fame continues there for ages. The name Jat as well as the ancient names of their tribes, commonly used as their gotras or Surnames could not, despite the vicissitudes in their life and the onslaughts of the orthodox and their adherents from time to time, be obliterated from their original cradle i.e. the Fertile Sapta Sindhu. However, efforts were made to connect them with the later invaders, viz. theYueh-Chih, Kushanas and the Hunas etc., where as their gotras undoubtedly confirm for them an ancestry and antiquity as respectable as that of the Rigvedic tribes.

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Notes and References

  • 1. Upadhyaya. B.S.; Feeders of Ind. Cul. pp. 78, 81' PPH. New Delhi: 1973.
  • 2. Kudaryavtsev .M.K.; Role of the Jats in Ethnic His. of Nor. Ind. Nauka PubliShing House, Moscow: 1964, p. 13
  • 3. Cen. of Ind., 1931, Vol. I, Pt. 2; Delhi: 1933. Ency. Brit. Vol. 12,1968 Jats, p. 969. From 1931 to 1988 the increase in the Jat population of the Indian sub-continent including Pakistan respectively is 3.5% Hindu, 3.5% Sikh and 4% Muslims (Dr. Sukhbir Singh q. in "Suraj Sujan", Aug. Sep and Oct. Issues, 1990, Maharaja Surajmal Sansthan, C4, Janakpuri, New Delhi.
  • 4. Pandit, Harikishan Kaul; Census of India, 1911,Vol. XIV, Pt. 111, Appendices. Shirinivasacharya, Jat Ilihas, Calcutta, n.d., pp. 8-16. Chaudhary, Niranjan Singh; Jat Gotravali, Mathura, n.d., and collections of Jat Surnames by my students from U.P., H.P. Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi, Panjab, M.P., etc. My thanks are due to them.
  • 5. Cen. of Ind. 1931, Vol. I, Pt. 2; Delhi: 1933.
  • 6. See Asia by AH. Keane, ed. by Sir Richard Temple, pp. 210, 218.
  • 7. Ency. of Indo-Aryan Research, Vol. II, Pt. V, p. 43. Risley, People of Ind., (Distribution of Jat Population), p. 337. Census of lnd., 1901, Vol. I, pp. 76-79; Cf. Cen. of Ind., 1931, Vol. I, Pt. 2 also.
  • 8. Kudaryavtsev, op.cit., p. i, Cen. of Ind., 1931, Vol. I, pt.2.
  • 9. Ibid. Cf. Ch. Naipal Singh's article entitled "Jat Bharat Se Baahar" in "Jat Samaj", Maharaja Surajmal Visheshank, Jan., 1976, Nos. 3-4, Agra, p. 38. He complains that Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India did not allow the entry of D-r. Kudaryavtsev's works on the Jats into India.
  • 10. Kudaryavtsev, op.cit.; Great Soviet Ency. Vol. 8, p. 547. Like all other communrties, the Jats also believe in the genetical ties: - -
"Ham ne ye maanaa, mazbab jaan hai insaan ki,
Kuchh isi ke dam se qaayam hai shaan insaan ki;
Rang-e-qaumiat magar is se badal saktaa nahi,
Khoon-e-aabaaee rag-e-tan se nikal saktaa nahi". Iqbaal.
(Granted that religion sutains man's life,
Rather, it maintains his glory too;
But alter it can't the communal ethos,
Ancestral blood vanishes not from veins too).
Believe it or not, the tribes mentioned in the above Ency. are the offshoots of the Jats who migrated there in the past.
  • 11. Mac Ritchie, David; Accounts of the Gypsies of lnd., New Society Publications, Delhi, 1976, p. 75. Westphal and Westphal, op. cit., pp. 41-48.
  • 12. Mac Ritchie, p. 77. (Zott, Zatt, Zooth, Xanthii (Zanthii), Xuthi, Zuthi, Zuth, Zutt, Dyat, Djall, Jat, Jath, Juth, Jath, Juth, Jath, .lit, Iatii, laut, Jatii. Tod has also given many variants.

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 366

  • 13. Tiemann, G.A; The Jats - An Ethnographic Survey. Introduction, p. 1. (An unpublished thesis for the Degree of Bachelor of Lettel1i, Uni. of Oxford, 1962).
  • 14. Ibbetson, Sir Denzil; Panjab Castes, Lahore, 1916, pp. 97-131.
  • 15. Herzfeld, Ernst; Zoroaster, Vol II, Princeton Uni. Press, 1947, p. 733; Westphal and Westphal op. cit., pp. 85,86.
  • 16. 'Pagri Sambhaal, a Jatta' - opening line of a Panjabi song means "take care of your turban or hold your prestige, a Jatta."
  • 17. It is a matter of common experience.
  • 18. The author was informed in this regard by the Iranian, Iraqi and Arab students who studied in the local AI. Jat Hcroes Memorial College, Rohtak (Haryana) from 1980 to 1982. Haji Mohammad Sayyad, Lughat-i-Sayyadi, Kanpur, 1248 AH./ 1905 AD., p. 181. I am grateful to them.
  • 19.Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 488.
  • 20. Strange, G.Le; Eastern Caliphate, London, 1966. pp. 244,331; AC Woolner, The Ind. Origin of Gypsies in Europe, JPHS, Vol. II, 1914. p. 119. Westphal-Hellbusch Sigrid and Heinz Westphal; Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Jat, Berlin, 1968, p. 12.
  • 21. Mukerji, AB.; "Jats of the Upper Ganga-Jamuna Doab" in the Deccan Geographer, Vol. VI, No. I, p. 45; Jan., 1968. Yogender Pal Shastry, Jaton Ka Utkarsh (Hind), p. 264; Kankhal, 1962.
  • 22. Haji Mohammad Sayyad, op.cit. As informed by the Iranian Prof. Dr. Javed Payman of the University of Tehran in 1971. Strange op.cit. Westphal & Westphal,!., p. 96.
  • 23. Sigrid Westphal- Hellbusch and Heinz Westphal, op.eit., pp. 138,140. 145.
  • 24. Campbell, Sir G.; 'The Ethnology of Ind,' in JASI3, VI. 35, Supp. No. Pt. 2, pp. 1-152. Baden-Powell, B.H.; Land Sys. of Bri. Ind., Vol.1!, 18n, pp. 613-61-1.
  • 25. Strange, op.cit., pp. 244. 331.
  • 26. Mukerji, op.cit.. p. 35. Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I, pp. 51,76,89.
  • 27. This name, as such, is still found in modern Arabia and Damascas. (Woolner. op.cit.).
  • 28. Pococke, E.; Ind. in Greece, p. 297, ('A' is prefixed with Sanskrit words beginning with a consonant in ancient Middle East). Jata is definitely a Sanskrit word written with Z in that region.
  • 29. Malia or Mallava as Malloi, Kathi as Kathoi, Jata or Jatt as Jatoi show the Greek influence.
  • 30. Vaidya, CV.; His. of Med. Hindu Ind.-, Vol. I,. pp. 87-88; Buddha Prakash, Soc. and Pol. Movements in Anc. Pb., pp. 113-114.
  • 31. Anc. Ind. as described by Ptolemy, ed. by McCrindle and reprinted by Surender Nath Majumdar Sastri, 1927, p. 288; Calcutta. Satya Shrava, Sakas in Ind., Delhi, 1981, p. 5.

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 367

  • 32. Majumdar, RC., Class. Accts. of Ind., p. 345.
  • 33. Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 488. Westphal and Westphal, op. cit., pp. 12-13. MJ. De. GoeJe, Memoirs Sur les migrations das Tsiganes a travers Asia, p. 13-17; Lelden, 1903, q. by Westphal and Westphal, op.cit.., pp. 12; f.n., 6 and 7; David Mac Ritchie, op.cit., p. 77. Oxford Eng. Dic. Vol. V, p. 645.
  • 34. Ency. of Islam, Vol. II, p. 489. The author was informed by Col. Dr. L. C. Kajla that when the personal physician of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and other doctors failed to cure the then Education Minister of India who suffered from some throat ailment, he was called on to examine the Maulana and was successful in treating him. On inquiry by Maulana he came to know that Kajla is a Jat of V. Soldha in distt.: Rohtak (Jhajjar now) (Haryana), the Maulana spontaneously remarked that "a Jat physician successfully treated Aisha, the wife of Hazrat Mohammad also".
  • 35. Mac Ritchie, op.cit. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 41-48.
  • 36. Oxford Dic., (1977, p. 1167.
  • 37. Carter, E.H. and Mears, RAF.; His. of Brit., Oxf. Clarendon Pres, 1937 pp. 28-29. H.G. Wells, Outline of His., p. 57. .
  • 38. Oxford Eng. Dic., Vol. V, p. 645.
  • 39. Oxf. Dic. (1977), p. 588, Green and Gardner, q. by Ujagar Singh Mahil, Ant., of Jat Race., pp. 12-13.
  • 40. Oxf. Eng. Dic., Vol. V, p. 462. Pliny, Nat. Hist., XXXVII,I, 11-12. Pytheas q. by C. Kephart, p. 338; Mahil, op.cit., p. 5; Hewitt, J.F., Ruling Races PreeHistoric Times, pp. 681-82.
  • 40a. Twentieth Century Chambers English Dictionary, 1949, p. 394.
  • 40b. Concise Oxford Eng. Dic., 1972, Delhi ed., p. 531.
  • 40c. Ibid.
  • 41. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit.
  • 41a. Jat Itihas, p. 61; Jindal, M.S.; Jat and Jutland, 1982, Agra, pp. 2, 18,91.
  • 41b. Denmark Official Handbook, 1974, Royal Danish, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 21,53,61; q. by Jindal, op.cit., p. 86.
  • 42. Bartholomew, John; Times Atlas of the World, Vol. 11, Index. William Hughes, An Atlas of Classical Geography ed. by George Long, Whitaker and co.,.London, Index and Addenda. 1864. Anderson, RE., The Story of Extinct Civilizations in the East, 1901, London. W. Gordon East, Historical Geogaphy of Europe, London.
  • 43. C. Chockalingam Pillai, The Origin of the Indo-European Races and Peoples, Palamcotteh Pnntlng Press, 1935, p. 753. Gibbon, Decline of Roman Empire Vol. III, pp. 24-40. Calvin Kephart, Races of Mankind, Peter Owen Ltd. London 1961, pp. 263-66. In India they are Deshwali (eastern) and Pacchadai (western) Jats.
  • 44. Keane, AH.; Man, Past and Present, Cambridge Press, I920,pp.506-09. Calvin Kephart, op.cit., p. 232. He gives 4300 B.c. as the date of migration Ripley W.Z., Races of Europe, 1965, Chs. vi, ix, xii. .,

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 368

  • 45. Calvin Kephart, op.cit., p. 232. V. Chockalingam Pillai, op.cit., p. 755.
  • 46. Calvin Kephart, op.cit., p. 232, Tacitus Germania, Ch. 45. William Z. Ripley, Races of Europe, p. 65. (Suebis or Sivis inhabited Skane and Jutland).
  • 46a. Clark, Grahame; Sir Mortimer and Indian Archaeology, ASI, GOVl of India, N. Delhi, 1979, pp. 50f.
  • 47. Qanungo, Kalika-Ranjan;, His. of the Jats, Reprint, 1982, p. 3, 174.
  • 48. Kephart, op.cit., p. 502. William Z. Ripley, op.cit., p. 68, gives the date as 1500 B.C. (Qanungo, op.cit. p. 2. Taylor P. Issac, Origin of Aryans, Reprint, N. Delhi, 1983, pp. 141-2. He draws a picture of the Goths, later Teutons, which unfailingly matches with the Indian Jats).
  • 49. Scot, S.P.; The Visigothic Code, Preface, pp. vif., q. by C. Kephart, p. 502. fn. 126.
  • 50. Pococke, E.; op.cit., p. 50. (Skand is the name of Kartikeya).
  • 51. Twentieth Century Chambers Dic., 1949, p. 848.
  • 52. Chaudhry, Niranjan Singh. Jat Prasnottari (Hindi), Jat Hitkari Parkashan, Varindavan, n.d., p. 14.
  • 53. Chaman Lal, Gypsies, Delhi, 1962, p.16. Mac Ritchic, Gypsies of Ind., London, 1886. W.R Rishhi, Roma, Patiala, 1976, p. 4.
  • 54. Ibid., Mac Ritchie, op.cit., Sir Richard Burton, The Jew. Gypsy and El-Aslam, London, 1898. W.R Rishi, op.cit.
  • 55. Ibid., pp. 27, 36. De Goeje, op.cit., W.R.Rishi, op.cit.
  • 56. Ibid., 27. Mac Ritchie, op.cit., Burton, op.cit., De Goeje, op.cit., Rishi, op.cit., Tzigano is a Babylonian word for slave.
  • 57. Ibid., 36, Mac Ritchie, op.cit., Burton op.cit., De Goeje, op.cit., Rishi, op.cit.
  • 58. Chaman lal, op.cit., p. 2.
  • 59. Mac Ritchie, Rishi and Chaman Lal agree in this respect.
  • 60. Rishi, op.cit., Chaman Lal, op.cit., pp. 15-17.
  • 61. Pott, Betaillard, Newold, H. Rawbinson,de Goeje, Richard F. Burton, H.H.G. Grellman, A.G. Paspati, Franz McKlosich, etc. q. by Chaman Lal and W.R Rishi.
  • 62. Mac Ritchie, op.cit., p. 8. Istakhri, Ibn Hawkal, Mukaddasi; Beladsori (also called Deladsori or Bilazuri or Biladuri), pp. 162,167-8, 375-6,lbn-i-Athir, VI, p. 256,; Abul-I-Mahasin, I, p. 590, Tabari, III, 1069. FA Grooms, Pott, Betaillard, Newbold, Sir H. Rawlinson, Prof. de Goeje; q. by Mac Ritchie, op.cit., p. 81.
  • 63. Dr. Trumpp. Zeitachrift der deutschen morgcniandischen Gesellschaft, Vol. XV, pp. 690-91. 1861, q. by Mac Ritchie op.cit., p. 37. Elliot and Dowson, His. of Ind., Vol. I, pp. 507-8, 519. Jats and Meds shown as descendents of Ham, son of Noah.
  • 64. Elliot and Dowson, op.cit., Vol. I, pp. 100-102; Vol. ii, 161-162.
  • 65. Strange, op.cit., p. 244.

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 369

  • 66. For the 7th century AD., Beladsori, pp. 162,375-6. For 8th century A.D . Elliot and Dawson, His. of Ind., Vol.I, pp. 161, 187,435; Vol. II, p. 100. For 9th century AD., Wahidi, p. 171; Tabari, III, p. 1426; Ibn-i-Athir, VII, p. 52; Beladsori, p. 373-8 "I say the Zoths are an Indian people," ,q. by Mac Ritchie. op.cit., p. 29. Elliot and Dawson, His. of In I., Vol.II, pp. 247-8; Vol.I, pp. 448-9. Elphinstone Hon. Mountstuart; His. of Ind., Vol. II, pp. 277-78 (After Jaipal's defeat in 1001 AD. Mahmud Gazni is said to have taken 500.000 Indians as slaves or prisoners (Rishi, Roma, p. 50). He says that they included Jats, Rajputs and Khatris, but according to Grierson (q. by Chaman Lal, op.cit., p. 6) they were mainly Jats. For 12 Cen. AD. (Timur) Elliot and Dowson, op.cit., Vol. III, pp. 428-30, 492-494.
  • 67. Westphal and Westphal, Jat of Pakistan, Berlin, 1964, p. 102.
  • 69. Rapson, E.J., Camb. His. of Ind., Vol. I, p. 467.
  • 70. Kanard Bercovici, The Story of the Gypsies, q. by Chaman Lal. op.cit., p. 6
  • 71. The Jats are said to be in the armies of Darius and Cyrus in Iran.
  • 72. Mac Ritchie, op.cit., pp. 30. 85-90, 204-43; Rishi.op.cit., p. 55; Chaman Lal, op.cit., p.6.
  • 73. Rishi. op.cit., pp. 81-117; Chaman Lal, op.cit.. pp. 166-206.
  • 74. Chaman Lal, op.cit., pp. 1,2,5,.
  • 75. Mahil, Ujagar Singh; Antiquity of Jat Race, Deihi, 1955, p.14; Kephart, op.( It., pp. 262,468. Sykes. Sir Percy; His of Persia, Vol. II. pp. 120, 123. 0' Neal, Cothburn; "Conquests of Tamer Lane, AVON Pubns. inc. 545, Mdison A' e., New York-23, pp. 29, 91 ff, 95, 97, 103f, 106ff, 110, 125, 130, 232.
  • 76. Strange, op.cit. pp. 244, 331.
  • 77. Ibid., p. 454.
  • 78. Cf. Ln. No. 50 above.
  • 79. Strabo. Geog., XL, 8-2 & 3. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 87-88.
  • 80. Pliny, His. Nat., VI, 18. Ptolemy, Geog., VI, 12,14.
  • 81. ASR, Vol., II, (1863-64), p. 55.
  • 82. Ibid. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 87-88.
  • 83. Ibid.
  • 84. Ibid.
  • 85. Ibid.
  • 86. Majumdar, R.C; op.cit., p. 340.
  • 87. Ibid., p. 235.
  • 88. Diodoros Sieulus, Bibliotheca Historiea, II, 220.
  • 89. Deshraj, Thakur, Jat Itihas, Agra, 1934, p. 95.

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 370

  • 90. Dr. Kunudsen, a Norwegian visiting Professor in the Math. Deptt. of the Pb. 1970, holds that Yatas are Juts who migrated from the east, probably Ind., to the Scandanavian and the Netherlandic countries in the remote past. Please note that the name Kunudsen is just Indian. Lt. Ram Sarup Joon, His. Jats, p.4, 1967
  • 91. Law, B.C; Some Kshatriya Tribes of Anc. Ind., 1975, p. 270.
  • 92. Gankovsky, Yu. V.; The Peoples of Pakistan (an Ethnic His.), Lahore, 1971, p.91.
  • 93. Law, B.C, op.cit., p. 270.
  • 94. Joon, op.cit., p. 4.
  • 95. Chanda, R.P.; op.cit., 1969, p. 35.
  • 96. Mukerji, AB.; op.cit., p. 39.
  • 97. Desraj, op.cit., p. 65. Joon, op.cit., p. 4. Mahil, op.cit., pp. 13-14. H.G. Wells op.cit., chapter 28, Sec. 4.
  • 98. Mahil, op.cit., p. 48.
  • 99. Taran, W.W.Grks in Bac. and Ind., p.286. It was a very popular name and is found in all standard works. E.J. Rapson, Camb. His. of Ind., Ch. XXII, P 510. Ency. Brit. 13th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 180-81.
  • 100. Mukherjee, B.N.; Kushan Genealogy, Skt. Coll., Calcutta, 1967, p. 37. Karlgren. JAOS, 1945, Vol. LXV, p. 77. B. Karlgren, Analytic Dic. of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, nos. 879 and 1347; Paris, 1923.
  • 101. Mukherjee, B.N.; op.cit., p. 38, Camb. His. Vol.II, pt.I, LVIIIf. JIH, Vol. XII p.6.
  • 102. Mukherjee, B.N., op.cit., p. 39. J. Marquardt, Eranshahr, p. 206, Cf. also E. G.Polleyblank, Asia Major, ns. 1963, Vol. IX, p. 109; Asia Maj., 1964, Vol. XI 6; JRAS, 1966, p. 17. Pulleyblank equates ngiwat-cie + ngiwat-tehy with Iato (= Ywati).
  • 103. Ibettson, Denzil; op.cit., 1916, p. 97.
  • 104. Mac. Ritchie, op.cit., p. 78.
  • 105. Princep, Sett, R. of Sialkot, S. 136; 1865. H.A Rose, Gloss. of Trib. and Castes Vol. III, p. 416.
  • 106. Bagchi, P.C; Ind. and Cen. Asia, Calcutta, 1955, p. 68. Mukherjee B.N., op., cit., pp. 6-7, 11-12, Sakas also were driven to that region from Ind.; Mukherjee B.N.; op.cit., pp. 26-27. For Indian rule and influence in Cen. Asia, Cf. Kalyanraman, Aryatarangini, vol. II, Bombay, 1970. p. 9, A Stein also sopports it.
  • 107. Ibid. Bagchi holds that Kuci or Kuchi or Kusi is the archaic pronunciatio Kucinam of Kucina from which a genetive plural form would be Kusana. Most ancient name of Khotan was Godana (Ibid. p. 49) which proves the existence of Indians there in the remote past.

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  • 108. Ogel, B.; in Central Asia in Kushan period-Dushanbe Report, vol. II, Moscow, 1975, p. 172. Ali Sami, in Ibid., p. 146, Y. Zuev, in Ibid., Vol. II, p. 277; Y. Zadneprovs],:y, in Ibid., p. 296. Bongard Levin and G. Kotovsky, A His. of Ind., Bk., I, Moscow, 1979, p. 117. K.V. Trever, q. by Gankovsky, op.cit., p. 86.
  • 109. Herodotus, Iv, 93 and 94; I,216 etc.
  • 110. Toynbee, Arnold J.; A Study of His., Vol. XI (His. Atlas and Gaz.), pp. 122-3, Map No.4. Hewitt, J.F.; op.cit., pp. 481-87 and Kephart, op.cit. p. 219.
  • 111. Herodotus, Istoria; O.M., Dalton, Treasures of the Oxus, pp. XL-XLVII, D.C. Sircar, Select Insps. Bearing on Ind. His. and Civil., vol. I, Calcutta, 1942, pp. 4-11.
  • 112. Pargiter, F.E.; Anc. Ind. His. Trad., p. 256. A. Dev; q. in Cen. Asia in Kushana period Vol. II, p. 95, Dushanbe Connference. F.W. Thomas, CHI, Vol. II. (Ch. on Kushanas) B. Puri, "Nationality of Kushanas" in Cen. Asia in Kushans Period, Vol. I, pp. 182-89, Chandra Chakraberty, Anc. Races and Myths, p. 109.
  • 113. Camb. His. of Ind., Vol.I, p. 56S.
  • 114. Sircar, D.C., op.cit., pp. 4-11.
  • 115. Kephart, op.cit., Ch.XI.
  • 116. Ibid., pp. 463-65, 492-93 and 508.
  • 117. Ibid., p. 477.
  • 118. Majumdar. RC.; Class-Accts. of Ind., pp. 98, 101 fn. 7 and 8.
  • 119. Ency. Brit. 9th ed., Vol. X, Article, "Goths", p. 847; Hewitt, op.cit., p. 481.
  • 120. Elliot, Supp. Gloss, N.W. Provinces, pp. 486-90. Cunningham, A.S.R '01. II, 1883-84, p. 57, Hewitt, op.cit., p. 484.
  • 121. Dikshit, Bhatto ji, Siddhanta Kumudi, No. 306.
  • 122. Kalyanaraman, A.; Aryatarangini, Vol. I, Bombay, 1969, p. 6.
  • 123. Panini's time is reckoned between 9th and 7th century B.C., but the general consensus is on 7th cen. B.C. (Gold Stucker, Bhandarkar, Pathak and Radha Kumur Mukerji) B.C. Bhaskara gives the date of Patanjali bet. 13th and 12the cen:B.C. in 'Chro. of Anc. Hindu His., Part I, pp. 99-100, Vijayawada-2. 1957. If we accept this, then Panini's date will naturally be pushed back by two centuries at least. Parameshwarananda gives the date of Panini as 2400 B.C. and that of Yaska as 2800 B.C. (Dev Sharma Niruktam, Introd. p. bb, (Hindi), Delhi, 1963. p. bb, Delhi, 1963. Weber (1914: 217) informs us on the authority of Renaud (Mem. Sur L' Inde, p. 88) that according to Hiuan Thsang there were two Paninis, one belonging to mythical times, while the other was the one who is commonly agreed upon as the "Father of Sanskrit Grammar", whom Hiuan Thsang knows as a Salanka from Salatura in Gandhara, and wrongly places him 500 years after Buddh's death, whereas 900 B.C.- 600 B.C. is the time bracket generally suggested for him by other scholars. Who was the genuine Panini has become a matter of controversy, which, may be in the absence of a definite proof, solved only by the gaze of a clairvoyant, who can reveal the mysteries of the past. The Panini of mythical times may be the real Panini. The older the evidence, the more reliable it is. The mythical Panini, who knows, maybe the Panini of 2400B.C., as claimed by Parameshwarananda. The issue calls for further investigation, especially in the light of our historical tradition, which is alleged to have been disparaged and distorted by vested interests.

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  • 124. Dwivedi, G.C.; R. Pande, etc.
  • 125. Shabadakalapadrum, Vol. II pp. 503, 529.
  • 126. Ibid., Bhattoji Dixit, op.cit., Nos. 306 and 307. Eng. Trans. Vol II by Chandar Vasu, Nos. 327 and 328. Jata and jhata give the same meaning.
  • 127. Patanjali, Katyayana, etc.
  • 128. Aggarwal, V.S., Ind. as known to Panini, pp. 436-57. R.C. Majumdar, Corporate life in Anc. Ind., Calcutta, 1918, pp. 88-112.
  • 129. Yueh-Chih, Jat or Jatt or Zutt, Sacae or Scyth or Saka and Getae are all collective and common nouns denoting various kindred tribes, (Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. II, 12, 16,21,58,80,81,86).
  • 130. Dwivedi, Girish Chandra, JIH, Vol. XLVIII, Pt.II, 1970, p. 393. Ashtadhyayi,
  • 131. Kalyanaraman, op.cit., p. 6.
  • 132. Aggarwal, op.cit., pp. 351-52.
  • 133. Ashtadhyayi, 1,205.
  • 134. Ashtadhyayi, 1, 205.
  • 134a. Sami, Ali; Loc. cit., p. 3, f.n.1.
  • 135. Date of Yaska is two centuries earlier than Panini, i.e. before 9th Cen. B.c. (Kaiyanaramana, op.cit., p.6).
  • 136. Nirukta, Ch. 1, 4, Jatya is adjective like Udichya, Prachya, etc. and Jat is noun. If 'Y' is used as suffix to a noun in Skt. it becomes an adjective. Dev. Sharma gives the meaning of Jatya Atnaro which seems inconsistent. (Dev. Sharma, Niruktam, p. 39).
  • 137. Majumdar, Class. Accts., pp. 105-259. R.P. Lister, Travcls of Herodotus, London, 1979, pp. 39-71.
  • 138. Aggarwal, op.cit., p. 434. Dev Sharma, Delhi, 1963, p. 33; Niruktam. 1:1.
  • 139. Dev Sharma, op.cit., p. 39. The roots given by Bhagirath Shastri in the Hindi Tans. is 'Jri' or 'Jani' It means he is uncertain and his suggestion appears quite incongruous and arbitrary. Can the root change from time to time? The supposed roots are definitely wrong and far fetched.
  • 140. Saggs, F.W.J.; Greatness that was Babylon, London, 1962, pp. 52ff. CAH. Vol. I, Pt. 2, p. 444. Their home is said to be the territories now occupicd by Kurds and Luris (a Jat tribe of the Indus Valley) Great Soviet Ency., Vol. 7, p. 498. Guti or Gutei or Gutians or Kuti, the ancient semi-nomadic tribes. He said to be related to Kurds anthropologically. Mesopotamians (Ibid., Vol. 10. p.) called the people in N. and E. Guti including (Mannai and Meds were Jat tribes), (within the brackets mine). To Saggs the 21 Guti Kings were elected and not hereditary. Their tradition of electing their kings unmistakably betray that of the ancient Jat republican tribes.

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  • 141. Saggs, op.cit., p. 53.
  • 141a. Sami, Ali; Shiraz Eng. Tans. by Rev. R.N. Sharp, 1958, Musavi Printing Office, Sh i raz, p. 8.
  • 142. Shrava, Satya; op.cit., p. 2. He firmly believes that Jats, Getae and Sakas are one and the same people and belong to the original Caspian type. Elliot, Sir 1-1.1-1 and .John Dawson; His. of Ind., Vol. I, Kitab Mahal, Allahabad, 1969, pp. 100, 103-05.
  • 143. Vaidya. C.V.; The Mbt. (A Criticism). Bombay, 1904, pp. 55-78. Mirashi, V.V.; Date of Mbt. War. JOIB, Vol. XXV, nos. 3-4, 1976, p. 286-98. Sharva, op.cit., p. 2. The Last author holds that 3102 n.c. as the date of the Mbt. War was decided on very sound grounds.
  • 144. Shembavenekar, K.H.; The Identity of the Indus Valley Race with the Vahikas,' IHQ. Vol. XII, No.4, Dec. 1936, pp. 477-84.
  • 145. Kalyanaramana. op.cit., p. 129. Chakraberty, Chandra; op.cit., pp. 2, 56-7.
  • 146. Chakraberty, 0p.cti., pp. 2,56-7.
  • 147. Ibid.
  • 147a. Rahurkar,V.G.,"Who were the Panis? CASS. studies, No. 2,1974, Uni. of Poona,p.45f. Rao,SR;"The Indus People Begin to Speak" JAHRS, No. 33, 1972-73, p. 6.
  • 148. ASRJ, 1863-64, Vol. II, pp. 29-32. Kephart, op.cit., pp. 279-523, 529, 532, Pusalker, Vedic Age, p. 253.
  • 149. Ibid.
  • 150. Pusalker, A.D.; The Vedic Age, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1965, p.l97.
  • 151. Bhargava, M.L,; Geog. of the Rigvedic Ind, Lucknow, 1964, pp. 26,41, 45f, 51.
  • 152. Waddell, L.A.; Indo-Sumerian Seals Deciphered, Delhi, 1976, pp. 112f.
  • 153. Kalyanaramamna, op.cit., Vol. 1, p. 15. In view of the long-drawn out rivalry between the Brahman and the Kashatriya for supremacy, we are, however, not persuaded of Ramachandra's opinion. That the truth of Waddell's decipherement, a suppressio veri for a long time, may not have been as much a victim of the then established school of thought of Marshall and Wheeler as that of the Brahmanical opposition, for the latter could ill afford the honourable status which Waddell's revelations are deemed to bestow on their old rivals, i.e. the Sakas or Sacae or Goths or Jats, whom he reckons among the authors of the Harappan Culture.
  • 154. Waddell, op.cit., pp. 70f, 100.
  • 155. Ibid., pp. 53, 63, 101, 103, 108.
  • 156. Ibid., pp. 67, 72. Pargiter, AIHT, p. 256. Cf. also Br. Pur. 7.24: RV, 10, 64,1; Ag.272. 10. Siv. VII, 19; Mat, 12.20; Pad. V. 8.125; and Lg. 1.66.49.
  • 157. Pargiter, op.cit., p. 147.
  • 158. Ibid., p. 256. Dev, A; q. in op.cit., p. 45. Thomas. F.w.; CHI, Vo1.lI, Ch. on Kushans, Puri, B. 'Nationality of Kushanas' in op.cit .. pp. '182-89, Cf. f.n. 92, Supra, Chakraberty, Chandra, op.cit., p. 109.

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  • 159. Supra.
  • 160. Supra.
  • 161. Ibid., fn. 40.
  • 162. Ibid., fn. 40.
  • 163. Sethna, K.D.; The problem of Aryan Origins, Calcutta. 1980, pp. 18f. Cf. Sir Mortimer Wheeler, Memorandum No. 9-'Human Skeletal Remains from Harappa' in Bull. of Anthro. Sur. of Ind .. July, 1960, Vol. 9, No.2. Wheeler. The Indus Civilization, Camb. Univ. Press, 1968. pp. 68. 72. Roy, Asim Kumar and Gidwani, N.N.; Indus Valley Civilization (Bibliographical Essay) Delhi, n.d. p. 19; Dutta, Pralap C.; The Bronze Age Harappans, Calcutta, 1983 p. 16, Cf. also Gupta, P., P.C. Dutta and A. Basu, Human Remains from Harappa, 1962, Calcutta. Grahame Clark op.cit., (1979). p. 71, and f. ns 1-4 on it. Sarkar, S.S.; Ancient Races of Panjab. Blochistan and Sindh; q. by Romila Thapar, op.cit., p. 229f, f.n. 14. Cf. also Dr. K.Sen. 'The Races of India and Pakistan, a study of Methods". in Ancienl India. No.20-21 , 1964-65 178ff.
  • 163a. Rasu, Arabinda; and Pal, Anadi; Human Remains from I u zahom, Calcutta 1980, pp. VI. 79.
  • 164. Odin or Edin or Otien was a territory known as such on the left bank of Indus (Sindh) river Cf. map p. 7 in waddell, op.cit. It was also known as Meluha or Mlechh, country (K.D. Sethna, Karpasa in Pre-historic Ind., Biblia In Pvt. Ltd., N. Delhi, 1<)81. pp. 69ff. Farzand Ali Durrani, "West Pakistan and Persian Gulf in Antiquity", .JASP., Dacca. Vol IX. No. I, June. 1964, pp.1-2
  • 165. Waddell. op.cit., pp. 104f.
  • 166. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., pp. 96, 126. Hrozny, Anc. His. of W. Asia, Ind. Crete, pp. 107, 116 et seq. I I.K. Chatopadhyaya, Mohanjodaro and the Aryan Colonisation of Mesopotamia, OVIJ, Vol. III, Pt. I, March, 1965. Hoshiarpur pp. 3-16; and in AlOC., 1964. Dutt, Naipendra Kumar, Aryanisation of Ind. Cal. 1970, pp. 96f.
  • 167. Hall, H.R.; Anc. His. of Near East, London 1960, pp. 173f, fn. 3,594.
  • 167a. Saggs, op.cit., pp. 33f.
  • 168. Kaiyanramana, op.cit., p. 96.
  • 169. Mitra, Panchanan; Pre-historic Ind., Delhi, 1979, p. 272. R.P. Chanda's Monograph No. 31, in Memoir.; of ASI.; Ram Chandra Jain, Ethnology of Ane. Ind., Varanasi, 1970, pp. 47-50.
  • 170. Kaiyanramana, op.cit., p. 141fn.
  • 171. Pusalker, op.cit., p. 247, Jain, op.cit., pp. 114ff.
  • 172. RV.
  • 173. Waddell, op.cit., p. 16 and his Bk. Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots and Anglo-Saxons ,William and Northgate, London, 1924, pp. 34f.
  • 174. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., Ch. V on the "Lost and Forgotten Empire of Khattis or Khetas".
  • 175. Kephart, op.cit., pp. 1109. He is the best authority on the Aryan migrations.

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  • 176. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., pp. 95f.
  • 177. Ibid., p.l25. The Indians carried their seals to Ur and Kish, the Urukhisti of R.V.
  • 178. Ibid., pp.lllff. 'The Indus people spread their culture in Mesopotamia. Sethna, op.cit., p. 64; Cf. His Book "'The Problem of Aryan Origins";S andS. Pub. Cal., 1980, pp. 30-31.
  • 179. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., pp. 125f.
  • 180. Ibid.
  • 181. Kamal Balkan, 'The Appearance of Indo-Europians and Indo-Aryans in Anatolia' in Cen. Asia, ed. by Amalundu Guha, 1971, New York, p. 84.
  • 182. Sarkar, S.S.; 'Race and Race Movements in Ind.' The Cul. Heritage of Ind. Vol. I, 1958, p. 20. Stuart Piggot, Pre-historic Ind. (A Pelican Bk; Harmondsworth, 1960), pp. 145ff. D.K. Chatterji and G.D. Kumar, Comparative Study and Racial Analysis of the Human Remains of Indus Valley Civilization with particular ref. to Harappa, Calcutta. pp 21ff Shashi Asthana, His. and Archae. of India's Contacts with other Countries, Delhi, 1976, pp. 44. 79f, 91-94, 135f. E.J.H. Mackay, Further Excns. at Mohanjodaro, Vol.I, 1938; Ch. XVIII. B.S. Guha, P.C. Basu, "Rep. on the Hum. Rems, Excted. in Mohanjodaro in 1928-29", pp. 613·38. K.P. Challopadhyaya, Anc. Ind. CuI. Contacts and Migrations, Cal. 1970. It may be observed that recent investigations show that the Harappan Civilization began at Saraswati bank and spread to other areas (Dr. V.S. Wakankar, Director of the Instiute of Rock Art, in the Seminar of Bhartiya Itihas Samiti, Kurukshetra, Tribune, 15.2. 1984).
  • 183. Hojgaard, Karen; q. in Sou. Asian Archae., ed. by Bridget Allchin, Camb. Uni. Press, London, 1981, p. 202. cf. also M.S. Vats, Excns. at Harappa, 2 Vols., 1940, Delhi; and J.R. Lukacs, Morphological Aspects of Dental Variation in N. Ind., A Morphological Analysis, Ph. D. thesis, 1977, Cornell Uni. Pratap C. Dutta, op.cit., pp. 80, 82f, 100. Possehl, G. 1982: 301-307.
  • 184. Marshall, Sir John; Taxilla, An Illus. Acct. of Archae, Excns. pp. 288-316; and his guide to Taxila, pp. 122f. cf. also fns. 148 and 149 Supra.
  • 185. Vayu Pur., 1.45.127.
  • 186. Ibid., 45. 127. The R.V. does throw enough light on the habitat of the Panis. However, if the Panis are associated with Parniprastha or Paniprastha (modem Panipat not very far off from Saraswati the sacred river of the Rigvedic Aryans) there is scope for conjecturing that the Panis were compelled to move to Rajasthan and Sindh. The Rajasthani Punias, the Sahiwals of Sindh are still famous as cow and cattle breeders but not as cattle lifters. The notorious tradition, if at all adhered to, the Panis seem to have bequeated to the successive Aryans whose descendants faithfully followed till the achievement of independence in the Nardak and Dhaka belt of Karnal distt.
  • 187. Singh, M.R.; A Critical Study of the Geog. Data in the Ear. Purs., Punthi Pustak, Cal., 1972, p. 286, Cf. Yazdani, G.; Early His. of Deccan, p. 36 and Cunningham, Historical Geog. of Anc. Ind., p. 184.

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  • 188. Kosambi, D.O.; The Cul. and Civil. of Anc. Ind., Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., N. Delhi, 1976, p. 80. He regards the Panis as non-Alyan and to him traders, modern Bania comes from the Sanskrit Vanik, which in turn has no known origin except in Pani. But this is not very convincing to us when we have Pauni or Paunia or Pauniya or Punia which are grammatically more logical derivations of Pani or Puni than Bania or Vania.
  • 189. Ibid. He informs that commentaries generally declare the Panis to have stolen and hidden Indra's cattle (cows). He also states, "Sarama was supposed to he the herald demanding their return to Indra's followers, the 'gods' (devas). "actually the hymn says nothing about the stolen cattle, but is a direct, blunt demand for tribute in cattle, which the Panis scornfully reject. They are then warned of dire consequences This sounds very much like the standard Aryan procedure for invasion". If this is the case, it reminds us of the 'Wolf and the Lamb' Story, and all the obnoxious epithets applied to the wealthy Panis are preposterous exaggerations.
  • 190. Jain, op.cit, pp. 99-100.
  • 191. R.V. 6. 4. 2. 31. Jain, op.cit.. p. 48; RV. VI 45 31
  • 192. Dutt. Nripendra Kumar. op.cit, p. 96 RV. Vll 63.
  • 193. Jain, Ram Chandra; The Most Anc. Aryan Society. Varanasi, 1964. p. 72 his. of Mexico, Mexican Govt. Pbn., q. by Chaman Lal. Hindu America, 1956, p. 256
  • 194. Mackenzie, D.A. : Myths of Pre-Columbian America, pp. 2. 256, 265f
  • 195. Bhagiratha Shastri, q. by Parameshwarananda in the Bhumlkil. p. 64, of Niruktam, by Dev Sharma: Meharchand Laxamandas, Delhi, 1963.
  • 196. Kephilrt, op.cit.. p. 262.
  • 197. Wilford, Maj. F.; Asiatic Researches Vol. II. p. 99 and index. Vayu Pur. Uttara Khanda. The folk parlance and proverbs of the Jat belt in India know the Brahman and. Jat as 'devtas' (gods), For Brahnan 'devta' and Jat 'devta' of Jindal, M.S: Jat and Jutland, 1982. Agra. p. 2. In German aso Got means god (devta), Cf. Collins Gem German-English Dictionary. 1991. p. 119
  • 198. Willford, op.cit.. See in Vol II his details: "In Essay on the Sacred Isles in the West, with other Essays , connected with it"
  • 199. Ibid, pp. 58 et seq Herodotus. T.T. Rice, "Scythians". ete.
  • 200. Kephart, op.,it., p. 116.
  • 201. Ali. S.M.; Geog. of the Puranas, pp. 91-92, Fig. 10, i.e. map on Ketumal. facing p. 96. ,cf. also Vladimir Minorsky, Hudud-i-Alam. pp. 6. 10. 15. 445). Jityam Tau lies in the Kumedh ranges in the Oxus basin and derived its name from Jit. the Turkish form of Jat; Tau means mountain in Turkish
  • 202. Kephart, op.cit., pp .. 116, 261-62 The name Gete was given to the region by the Getae, the progenitors of the Nordics who migrated there from Indus about years ago. (Ibid. pp. 228-29).
  • 203. Sankrityayana. Rahul: His. of Cen. Asia: pp. 2, 11. New Age Publishers Private Ltd. New Delhi. 1964. He believes that Saptanada was derived trom Sapta-Sindhu.

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  • 204. Turkish and Mongolian name of Gete or Saptanada, Buddha Prakash, Pol. and Soc. Movement, in anc. Pb. p. 74. V.V. Barthold, 'Four Studies in the his. of C. Asia', trans. by V. &. T. Minorsky, Vol. I, p. XIII, seiden (Jiti-Su is Turkish name of Saptanada or Saptasindhu or Semirechye ) which denoted the basis of the Lakes Issikul and Balkhas with some areas in the west (Gete). Note the resemblance of Gete. Jit, jiti and Jityam and Jatah. The toponym, the ethnonym and the hydronym are the same unequivocally for Sapta-Slndhu of the Vedic age.
  • 205. Kephart, op.eit .. pp. J45, 167, 172,229,520. According to Sankrityayana, the Russians derived the name Semyrechye (Semi Rechye) fron the Turkish and Monglian languages.
  • 206. Raverty, Maj, II.C.; Tabkat-i-Nasiri, Vol. II, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 1970, Pp. 889n, 959n, Index. p. 203: For antiqulty and alteration of Gete Into Jatah, another name of Mughalistan during Chengiz Khan's time, cf. Shrifuddin's (Sherefeddin 's) his. of Timur (Petis de La Croix's French translation to English by J. Darby in 1722, Vllis. 1 & 2). According to it. Gete name dates in history from very early times, (q. by Kephart, Op.Cit.).
  • 207. Sankrityayana,, p. 11.
  • 208. Toynbee, Arnold; A Study of His. Vol. XI-His, Atlas and Gaz., Mp No. 24, pp. 122-23.
  • 209. Waddell, op.cit., pp. 16,3,63,67,70,72,89,90,100,
  • 210. Ibid., p. 36. Cf. R. Gunther, Some Remarks on the Chronology of the Kushana Empire, p. 289. Yu. V. Gankovsky, The Peoples of Pakistan, Lahore, 1971,p. 114. V.V. Ginsburg, 'Anthro; Data on the Ethno. Orig. of C. ASian Interfluvial Area Population in Kushan Period', Interna. Conf. of His., Archae. and Cul. of Cen. Asia in the Kushan Period, Dushanbe, 1968, p. 225. Gutsehmidt q, in Dushanbe Conf. Proceedings, Vol. I, p.113. Mohammad Muin, Iran (Persian), pp. 242-43; Tehran. Justin q. by Gankovsky, op.cit., p.81 and S.P. Tolstoy on p. 86 fn. 182. J.E. Van L De Leeuw. The Scythians, pp. 31-46. W.W. Tarn, Greeks in Bactria and Ind., p. 287. Gaven Hambly. q. by Nazar Mohammad Azizi, Tarikh-i-Impratori Koshaniia, p. 2, Kabul. Budha Prakash, Op.Cit., p. 97. Vladimir Minorsky, Hadud-i-Alam, p. 445. Dalton, Treasures of the Oxus, pp. XL-VII Cunningham, ASRI. Vol. II (1963-64) pp. 6-11, 45-82.
  • 211. Das. A.C; Rigvedic India, p. XiII. Calcutta, 1920. There is no dearth of divergent opinions concerning the original home of the Aryans. Muir, the eminent Sanskrit Scholar says, "I must, however, begin with the candid admission that so far as I know, none of the Sanskrit books, not even the most ancaint, contain any distinct reference or allusion to the foreign origin of the Indians (Original Sanskrit Texts, Vol..II, p. 322,1871). Aryans came to this land (Indra) direct from Tribishtapa (Thibet or Ttbet) a little after the beginning of world war between the Devas and the Asuras took place in the Himalayan mountains. The devils were Assyrians. No Sansknt book records that the Aryans came from Iran" (Swami Dayanand Saraswali, Satyarth Prakash, Eng. Trans. by Durga Prasad, pp 220-21 Jan Gyan Prakashan Delhi-38) "The term sacred as applied to certain lakes in Tibet and to the Ganges river in India should not be lightly regarded. It arose In primitive times because the region to which it applied represented the habitation where important divisions of human race evolved from lowly beginnings, (c.

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Keph. rt. op.cit., p. 28, fn. 25). In this connection reference to RV. (X.75) shauld not be ignored. P.L. Bhargava, 'Original Home of Insvakus,' JRAS, No. I, 1976, pp 64-66.
  • 212. Das op.cit., p. XIII (within brackets. mine). Cf also Adris Bannerji, Archae. His. of S.E. Rajasthan. Prithvi Prakashan, Varanasi, 1970. pp. 3-4; Panchanan Mitra op.cit., pp., 55-91: M.L. Bhargava, Geog. of the Rigveda; Wadia, Geol, gical His. of Ind .. Vol. XLII. HG. Wells Outline of His., 1961, Maps on pp. 77 ,95.
  • 213. Banerji, .Adris; op.cil., p. 4.
  • 214. Braooks, C.R.P.: Climate through the Ages, N.Y. Dover Publications Incor., 1970, pp. 305, 320,323. Cf. also Indus Civilization ed. by Gregory I. Possehi, N. Delhi, 1982, p. 224. Aggarwal D.P. and R.K. Sood, Ecological Factors and Harapan Civilization" in Ibid. pp. 223-29. Singh G., R.D. Joshi, Chopra and A.B. Singh, 1974 "Late quaternary History of Vegetation and Climate of the Rajashan Desert". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 267 (889): 467-501. Raikes R.L. and R.H. Dyson, 1961- "The Prehistoric Climate of Baluchistan and the Indus Valley, in American Anthropnlogist. 63 (b); pp. 263-81. Misra, V.N.; "Evolution of Environment and Clture in Thar Desert", in the Statesman, April 14, 1992, New Delhi. Cols. 1-2.
  • 215. Brooks op.cit.. p. 292 cr. Huntingtun. E.; Civil. and Climate, 3rd ed., New Havon. 192·., Harappan, Pre-Harappan, (Greater Indu:, (Kachiplains), Aq. Kupark and Mehargarh Civilization (14666 B.C. to 1500 B.C.) very honestly testify the congenial climate of the region upto the Oxus valley. Cf. Jarrrige J.F. and Meadow. R.H.; 1980, "The Antccendents of Civilization in the Indus Vally Scientific American 243. 121-33 and L Dupree. 1972, "Prehistoric Research in Afghanistan" (1956-66), Transac. of Amer Philoso. Soc., 64, 4; Panoaanan Mitra. op.cit., p. 82, R. Siddantashastree, His. cf Pre-Kaliyuga Ind .. Inte,. Ind. Pubn., Delhi, 1978, pp. 4-5.
  • 216. Banerji, Adris, op.cit., See also H. Frankfort, Birth of Civil. In the Near East, London, 1959, p. 33.
  • 217. Das .A.C; op.cit., p. 13, Cf. also V.B. Kelkar's paper read in the Ist Oriental Conf. Poona. 1919. Panchanan Mitra, op.cit .pp 54-57. Wadia, Geol. of Ind., 98, 109-10.
  • 218. Bannerji, Adris, op.cit pp. 5-6. Brooks op.cit., pp. 30.5. 320, 364. P. Mitra, op.cit., p. 85.
  • 219. Bannerji, Adris. op.cit., p. 5. Brooks op.cit., p. 320. P. Mitra, op.cit., p. 85.
  • 220. P. Mtra, op.cit., p. 85. Brooks, op.cit., p. 320. Sidhantashastre, op.cit., p. 4. Adris Bannerji, op.cit.. p. 5.
  • 221. Kephart, op.cit., pp. 228-29. He considers highlands of Deccan as the original home of Aryans, where from they migrated to Pb. and Sindh about 70,000yrs. ago. then to Tibet; Kashmir, Iran etc. about 50,000 yrs. ago. About 22,000 yrs ago they descended in Pb. and Sindh and again ascended to as far as Pamir, Tarim basin and lake Balkhas about 14,000 yrs ago, (Ibid. Chart facing pp. 12 and 14; CL also p02-68) SiddhantaShastree finds high stage of Civilization in Indus valley about 50.000 yrs ago (op.cit. pp. 4-5,8.). See also Panchanan Mita, op.cit., pp. 50.51,64,81.93,130 (Narbada Valley as Origin of modem Man), 197 and 208. Earliest habitat of Aryans in Cen. Incl. (Siddantashastree,

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op.cit. p. 8). Woodword, A. Smith; "Antiquity of Man" in Nature, Nov. 6, 1919, p. 213-5. "Ind. is birth place of humanity", (H.H. Johnston, Opening up of Egypt, p. 10). H.F. Blanford, Proceedings of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, 1967, pp. 144-45. H. Nesturkh, The origin of Man, Prog. Pub Irs. Moscow, 1967, pp. 351-52.
  • 222. Kephart, op.cit., pp. 222, 228f.
  • 223. Ibid.
  • 224. Ibid.
  • 225. Ibid., p. 239.
  • 226. Shashi Asthana, op.cit., p. 71.
  • 227. Shashi Asthana, op.cit. Now the archaeologists generally agree on this issue. S.P. Gupta, 'Ind. and C. Asia in the Old Stone Age' in Cen. Asia, ed. by Amalendu Guha, pp.15-18, Burnesand Noble Inc., New York, 1971 (Discusses movements of people and ideas in times prehistoric).
  • 228. Allchin, op.cit., pp. 21-23 (For details see L. Dupree, op.eit.).
  • 229. Allchin, Ibid., p. 24. Cf. G.S. Ghurye, Vedic Ind., p. II. (Intima:e connection between old Indic people and the cuI. of C. Asian proto Scythians and the Indic people migrated from South of Arab Sea to Syr Darya. B.K. Chattopadhyaya, op.cit., pp. 81-90 for similarity with Asian domestic cattle with Ihose of Ind. origin.
  • 230. Ibid.
  • 231. Ibid. Cf. Carlton, S. Coon, Seven Cave, 1957, p. 203 and Carlton, S. Coon, Cave Explo. in Iran, Philadelphia, 1951; V. Gordon Childe,New light on the Most Anc. East., 4th edn., 1952. K.P. Chatopadhyaya, op.cit. pp. 32,82-89. Cultivators were Tahias of Gordon and Vratyas of Chattopadhyaya; R. Pumpelly, Explorations in Turkistan, Washington, 1908, supports reverse migrations of Rigvedic herders.
  • 232. Ibid., p. 58,
  • 233. Ibid., p. 171,
  • 234. Ibid., p. 28, Kephart, op.cit., pp. 242, 248.
  • 235. Kephart, op.cit., p. 248. Kemal Balkan, op.cit., p. 84. B.K. Thapar, "Cen. Asia and Ind. during Neoli. and Chalco. Prds." In Cen. Asia, ed. by Amalendu Guha, p. 81, and H.D. Sankalia in Ibid., p. 73. Graham Clark, World Pre-history, Camb. Unl. Press, 1969, p. 95. Khazanchi, Ind. Archae., A Review, 1960-61, 1963-64 for Burzahom. H.D. Sankalia, Pre-history and Proto-history of Ind. and Pak., 1974, p.418. Heinz-Geldern, "Coming of Aryas and en<1 of Harappan Civilization," in Man, Vol. 56, London, 1956, p. 137. A.H. Dan;, "Timargarh and Gandhara Grave Cul.", .,Anc. Pak., Vol. III, Peshawar, 1'169, p. 52 (he considers them Rigvedic' Aryans). Shashi Asthana, op.cit., p. 44.
  • 236. Ghurye, G.S.; Vedic Ind., Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1979, p. 362. P.L. Bhargava, locates Iksvakus' original home in Swat valley (JRA ::, No.1, 1976, pp. 64-66). G. Tucci, (E.W. Vol. XIV, Nos, 1-2, March-June, 1963, Rome, pp. 27-28) and G. Genna, (1st. Anthro. invest. of the Skeleton Rrmains of the Necropolis of Butkara II (Swat Vall), E.W. (New Series) Vol. XV, Nos. 3-4,

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Sep. - Dec., 1965, pp, 161-66; confirm that they were Aryans (The Rigvedic of Dani) and their culture was related with Massagetae (Scyhians); Chandra, Chakraberty, op.cit., p. 109; he find. Jats in R.V. 1.28.4, cf. RV 7. 19.4 for Cumuri (Scythians) who are described as Dasyu thieves in Index of R.V. by Vishva Bandhu, Hoshiarpur, 1966. .
  • 237. Ibbetson, D; Pb. Castes, p. 97, Tod, op,cit., vol. l. p. 95; Vol. II, pp, 138,180, 279; Elliot, Memo. of Races, Vol .I, p. 135. Bomb. Gaz. Vol. I. Pt.I. p, 2. Vol. IX, pt.I, p. 46f; Qanungo, His, Ess. p. 45, Delhi, 1960. Ibbetson, Pb. Cen, Rpt . Vol.I, pp. 42, 481; JRAS, 1899, p. 534: V. Smith, Ear. His. of Ind. pp, 411. 424. 427. Baden Powell, Ind. Vill. Comm., 1892, p. 141. H.K. Trevaskis, Land of Five Rivers, 1928, p. 87; UjagarSingh Mahil, Anti. of Jat Race, 1955, pp. 9-14; R.V. Russell and Hira lal, Tribes and Castes of Cen. Pro. of Ind. Vol. 3. 226.
  • 238. Kephart, op.cit., p. 219. He uses the word Sikhs and not Jats. However Jats are Sikhs also. Chandra Chakraberty. op.cit., p. 91.
  • 239. Apte, Vaman Shivram; Sk. Eng. Die., pp. 445, 459. Monier-Williams, Skt.Eng. , Dic., pp409,428
  • 240. Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, Calcutta, Alphabet Table, p. 26 .
  • 241. Buschmann, Dr. Karl-Heinz and Sri Rajkumar Mukerji, German for Indians World Press, Cal., 1957, p. XVII. The pronunciation of g and j in borrowed words is like 'J' of Hindi; hence Got or Goth is spoken as Jot or Jut,
  • 242. Chamber's Twentieth Century Dic., Reprint 1949, p. 451
  • 243. Ibid., P 372.
  • 244. Steingass, Persian-Eng. and Eng-Persian Dictionaries.
  • 245. Cr. Twentieth Century Chambers, Oxford and Websters dictionMies.
  • 246. Pococke, E.; op.cit., p. 397.
  • 247. Chamber's Dic. op,cit., p. 66.
  • 248. Ibid. p. 1140.
  • 249. Pococke, op.cit., p. 397.
  • 250. Weber. Dr. A.; "Hindu Pronunciation of Greek Words and Gk. pronun. Hin. Words". in Ind. Ant., Vol. II, 1873, pp. 143-150.
  • 251. Chamber's Dic., op.cit., p.291.
  • 252. Ibid., p. 622.
  • 253. Taraporewala, lrach Jehangir Sorabji. Elements of the scc. of Lang,: Cal, Uni., 1978, pp. 170-77. cf. also Sukh Dev Prasad, "Research, Unified Common Script, I,II, III" in the Tribune Sunday Reading Chandigarh, dt. Oct. 14. 21 & 28,1990. He has appreciated the problem very logically.
  • 254. Ibid., pp. 152-56 (Jacob Grimm's Law).
  • 255. Supra. p. 36f.

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  • 256. Budha, Duddha. Budda, Boodha, Booddha, Boutta, Pout, Pote, Pto, Bdho, Wode,Weden, Pat, Pet, Pt, Pta, Pte, Phthi, Phtha, Phat, Phoot, Phutha, Phot, Pht, Bot. Botti, Bout, Boutti, Bhatti, Bhutti, Bd, and Pad have been the variations of the name Buddha as given by E. Pococke, (op.cit., p. 397). These variations explicitly bear out that the changes in the sounds of vowels and consonants have played similar havoc with the name Jat.
  • 257. Deshwali is reminiscent of the Madhyadesh which is simply remembered now as Desh (the Jamuna-Ganga Doab), especially the Balyan and Sulklayana Khaaps (territories) of the Jats.
  • 258. Bagri signifies the Bagar lands, the deserts of Rajasthan and Thar.
  • 259. Pacchhadai may also mean those Jats who migrated to the Yamuna-Ganga Doab from the west at a later time.
  • 260. Lamb. Harold; Tamerlane (the Shaker of the Earth).
  • 261. Sankritayana, Rahul; op.cit., p. 7.
  • 262. Sindhu = Hindu. Sapta-Sindhu = Hapta-Hindu. Maha = Masa.

The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of page 382

The End of Chapter: Jat-Its variants

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