Migration of Jats

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Author: Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Jat habitations vedic period

The Indo-Aryan origin of Jats has been advocated on the basis of ethnological, physical and linguistic standards by many historians like E.B.Havell,[1] Qanungo,[2] C.V.Vaidya,[3] Sir Herbert Risley,[4] Thakur Deshraj,[5], Dr Natthan Singh [6], Mangal Sen Jindal[7]etc.

Original abode of Jats

Migration of Jats

On the basis of historical facts the Jats are reported to be present in India from 3102 BCE. [8] [9]

Dr Natthan Singh writes that Jats were the Aryans and their original homeland was 'Saptasindhu'. They had to migrate from India on economic, social and political reasons after Mahabharata War for some period but they returned back to India. In the migration also they did not leave their language and cultural traditions. [10] This view is also supported by Thakur Deshraj who writes that on the basis of ethnological, physical, cultural and linguistic characters Jats Aryans who inhabited the areas on the banks of Ganga-Yamuna or Sarswati-Sindhu during Vedic civilization. [11] Thakur Deshraj also tells that after the great Mahabharata war Krishna formed a democratic federation or sangha of clans known as Jñātisangha (ज्ञाति-संघ). Initially Vrishni and Andhaka clans were included in this sangha and later many clans joined it. [12][13] . [14] Due to political situations Jats had to migrate from India. They went up to Iran, Afghanistan, Arab, Turkistan . Chandravanshi Kshatriyas known as Yadavas spread to Iran Sindh, Punjab, Saurashtra, Central India and Rajasthan. In north-east the went upto Kashmir, Nepal, Bihar etc.. Even they went to Mongolia and Siberia. Greeks call themselves descendants of Krishna and Baladeva. China vanshi also consider themselves descendants of Aryans. The same people return to India in later periods with the names Shaka, Pahllava, Kushan, Yuezhi, Huna, Gujar [15]

Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45

Kartikeya (कार्तिकेय) was son of Shiva and the brother of Ganesha. He is also known as Skanda. Skanda is believed to give name to Scandinavia. Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45 describes about all the gods and combatants who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. This list includes not only Jat god but also number of combatants of various Jat clans. [16] This has been illustrated in following shlokas in the online edition of Mahabharata in Sanskrit alongwith Devanagari as under:

अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत akṣasaṃtarjano rājan kunadīkas tamo 'bhrakṛt [17]
एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaś ca tathaivaika jaṭaḥ prabhuḥ [18]

Translation- O Rajan! Akshaḥ, santarjana, kundīka, tamonnakrata, ekāksha, dwādashāksha and a 'Jat' the chief lord offered to Swami Kartikeya.

Migration of Jats from Aryavrata to Scandinavia

Migration of Jats to Scandinavia

Map of Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in northern Europe that includes Denmark, Norway and Sweden, though Finland is often considered a Scandinavian country in common English usage, with Iceland and the Faroe Islands sometimes also included. It is named after the province of Scania in southern Sweden. Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region in Northern Europe consisting of the Scandinavian and Jutland peninsulas and the islands in-between.Scandinavia and Jutland were founded by Asiagh Jats and they were known as Asii at that time.

Migration of Jats

Asia's Jats Become Europe's Jutes and Goths

Source - Israel's Tribes Today, Book Excerpt the last of a four-part book series by Steven M. Collins

As the Saxons migrated into Europe and the British Isles, they were closely allied to the "Jutes." History records that after their entry into the British Isles, they settled in Kent, the Isle of Wight and parts of Hampshire.[19] The Jutes left their name (Jute-land) on the Danish peninsula of "Jutland." Where did they come from? Is there evidence of their name in Asia? There certainly is, and even then we find them closely identified with the Sacae, who became the Saxons.


When describing the Sacae Scythian tribes who migrated from the Caspian Sea region in the second century, B.C., to settle within the Parthian Empire, historian George Rawlinson notes that the greatest tribe, the Massagetae, was also named the "great Jits, or Jats."[20] These migrating Sacae or Saka gave their name to the Parthian province of Sacastan and to the Saka kingdoms of Northwest India. The term "Jat" has survived as a caste-name in northwest India into modern times, attesting to the ancient dominance of the Jats in that region. The Encyclopedia Britannica states the following about the ancient "Jats:"

"The early Mohammedans wrote of the Jats country as lying between Kirman and Mansura...Speculation has identified them with the Getae of Herodotus ...[or] Scythians or Indo-Scythians."[21]


The Asian Jats lived near the land of Kirman (i.e. the Kerman or German region of Parthia). If they were Asian "Getae," their later European name was the "Getes" or "Goths." If they were Scythians (Sacae), they became known as Germans or Saxons as they entered Europe. Collier's Encyclopedia states of the Jats:

"They are believed to be descended from the Saka or Scythians, who moved into India in a series of migrations between the second century B.C. and the fifth century A.D."[22]


Since the Jats were a branch of the "Sacae," called "Saxones" by Ptolemy, it is not surprising that they were still allied to the "Saxons" and called "Jutes" by the time they reached Europe and the British Isles. Note that the consonants of the words “Jats” and “Jutes” are identical.


Many Sacae moved into Parthia in the second century B.C., but some did stay in Asia centuries after the fall of Parthia as we will document in the next chapter. In Asia, the Sacae and Jats lived next to the Kermans (Germanii); in Europe they were called the Saxons and Jutes, and were part of the migrating Germans. Their names changed very little as they moved from Parthian Asia into Europe as part of the great Caucasian migrations. The names "Kerman" and "Jats" also remained in the regions of Asia where they once lived.

Some Jats stayed in India and intermarried with other tribes in the region. Today, the Indian Jats "in general have a fair complexion,"(Ibid., p. 357) supporting the conclusion that they had Saka ancestors. As discussed in books two and three of this series, the Massagetae, a leading tribe of the Sacae were most likely the descendants of the Israelite tribe of Manasseh, and the suffix "-getae" indicates a common origin with the "Getae" ("Goths") of the Black Sea region.

Historian Herbert Hannay wrote about this connection:

"The Goths, too, it will be remembered, when in Asia as the Massagetae, had been worshippers of the Sun..." [23]

History of Migration of Jats to Scandinavia

Thakur Deshraj has mentioned in his book on History of Jats "Jat Itihas" (Hindi) (1934) that the country Assyria gets its name from Asiagh gotra Jats. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word 'Asi' meaning sword. According to Kautilya the people who depended on 'Asi' (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. The Asiaghs moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Europe. Those who settled in Jangladeshwere called Asiagh and those who moved to Scandinavia were known as Asi.

Jats entered Scandinavia around 500 BCE and their leader was Odin. James Tod considers Odin to be derived from Buddha or Bodan. The Asi Jats founded Jutland as their homeland in Scandinavia. The religious book of Scandinavia 'Edda' mentions that the ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jats or Jits who were Aryans known as Asi people and came to this land from Asirgarh. Asirgarh is a site of an ancient fort situated in Burhanpur district of Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh, India. Thakur Deshraj further quotes Scandinavian writer Mr Count Johnsturn who says that Scandinavians came from India. According to James Tod Scandinavia is derived from Sanskrit word 'Skandhanabha' which was the name of a Rishi. The above view is further supported by Mangal Sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), (ISBN 81-85431-08-6) that the people of Scandinavia were Jats and they founded Jutland as their homeland. Mangal sen Jindal quotes Professor Cothburn Oneal in his work "Conquests of Tamerlane" published by Avon Publications Inc. 575 Madison Avenue - New York 22. This book mentions following cities as 'Jat Strongholds' in Russia and near about:

Jats who were residing there in strongholds in large numbers and were a source of permanent trouble to Timur-lung settled Uzbekistan. According to Jat historian Ram Swarup Joon, The name Scandanavia has been derived from Skandh Nabh, Todd, while quoting Triner, writes that the Angle Saxons were Shah Nagavanshi Jattias or Uties. After invading Scandanavia they founded Jutland. James Tod writes that the greatest community of Scandinavia was Shiva Vanshi Jats. The customs of Sati and Johar were common amongst them and they had brought these with them from India. The non-Jat Population of Jutland used to call these customs barbarous. On the death of Baldeer, a Jat leader, his elder wife Nanna was allowed the right to perform Sati but his younger wife Udan was not allowed the honour. Quoting Herodotus Todd writes that these people 'worshipped according to Indian customs and swore on their weapons. They named their capital Asigarh. It is of interest that the ancient name of Hansi in Hissar district of Haryana was also Asigarh or in short Asika.

They considered the sight of certain birds as a good omen. Herodotus and Strabo agree that in about 2000 BC, the Jat community lived in Jutland. They built a temple there dedicated to their Goddess Ahilya. Her abode was in the garden and a cow drew her chariot. They also built the temple Apsala. The name of their God was Oven, which meant Budha the forefather of Chandravansh.

According to Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria), It may not be out of place to mention here, as confirmed by N.S. Chaudhary on the authority of Shiva-Stotra, one of the generals of Kartikeya (Skanda) carried name "Jata". It is well known fact that in the Deva-Asura war Kartikeya (Skanda) commanded the forces of the former, and it is quite plausible to believe that the warriors (later known to Panini as Ayuddhajivi ganas), led by general called Jata, became famous as Jat in history. We have also reason to believe that Panini, when used the phrase 'Jata jhata sanghate' (denoting union or federation or confederation or binding together, etc.), took his clue from the Jata general's role in fomenting unity in the warriors against Asuras. Jata general is also believed to give name Jutland.

Gotland

There is one more region named Gotland. The region is considered by some historians to be the original homeland of the Goths. The island is the home of the Gutar (the Gotlanders) and sites such as Ajvide show that it has been occupied since prehistory. The Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Şieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutar, the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gotlanders voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that it is based on mutual agreements, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. It is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland, but also an effort to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden.

Jämtland

There is one more region in Scandinavia which appears to be connected with Jats It is known as Jämtland. Jämtland or Jamtland in Jamtlandic, is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. Jämtland was originally an autonomous farmer's republic, an own nation with its own law, currency and parliament. 'Jämtland has gotten its name from its inhabitants - the Jamts. The name can be traced back to the world's northernmost runestone, the Frösö Runestone from the 11th century, where it's found as ea(m)talant (Jamtaland). The root of Jamt (Old West Norse: 'jamti), and thus Jämtland, derives from the Proto-Germanic word stem emat- meaning persistent, efficient, enduring and hardworking. The Proto-Norse prefix ea(m)ta (jamta) is genitive plural of the Jamtish people

Sanskrit and Scandinavia

Dr.Keshava Deva Shastri from Benares, India, president for International Congress of Religious Philosophies (San Francisco, California, 1915) stated that the forefathers of the Scandinavian people came directly from India under the leadership of Óğinn (Odinn) about 5500 BC - He says between Ramayan (as its influence shows) and Mahabharata (of which no trace is found here in the North).

Here below are listed some of his quoted Sanskrit words directly to be found in Icelandic and in the myths, culture and sacred texts of ásatrú (asatru): Veda (Edda); Skand nabia (Scandinavia); Asigarh (Ásgarğur); Jyotirheim (Jötunheimar); Gurudham (Goğheimar); Uttragard (Útgarğar); Medhgard (Miğgarğur); vala, bala (vala); Gargya (Grágás); Lokreta (Lögrétta); Baut-sthan (bautasteinn); etc.,etc.,

The following Icelandic words are claimed to have come directly from Sanskrit: Óğinn (Odinn), Huginn, Muninn, Ásgarğur (Asgardur), Miğgarğur (Midgardur), Grágás (Gragas), Útgarğur (Utgardur), Jötunheimar (jotunheimar), Rígur (í Rígsşulu; Rigur), vala (völva; volva), Alfağir (alfadir, Ymir, Gautur, hlautbolli, Lögrétta (Logretta), Æsir (aesir), Auğumbla (Audumbla), Ægir (Aegir), Baldur, brynja, Edda, fağir (fadir) , bróğir (brodir), móğir (modir); these last ones to be found in most Indo-European languages), kvæği (kvaedi), bautasteinn, Skaği (Skadi), Skandinavía (Skandinavia), Ymir, Vani. Óğsmál (Odsmal) is meant to promote research in etymology, as we know there is a lot of Sanskrit words in Icelandic, and this tells us a lot. Óğinn (Odinn) is from Sanskrit yodhin (conqueror, warrior), Huginn and Muninn (Odin's two ravens) from Sanskrit yogin and muni, Edda from Veda, asman is hammer, Thor's hammer, Sanskrit asigarh is Ásgarğur (Asgardur).

Dr. C.A.Holboe, wrote extraordinary articles in 1846-1852 on etymology and on the striking resemblance between Sanskrit and Icelandic grammar. For some reason or other this aspect of the cultural inheritance - the Eddas and the northern myths - is always left out when it comes to the educational system in Iceland. That we must remedy. Det norske Sprogs væsentligste Ordforraad, sammenlignet med Sanskrit og andre Sprog af samme Æt : bidrag til en norsk etymologisk Ordbog, Holmboe, C.A., Wien, 1852, Det odlnorske Verbum, oplyst ved Sammenligning med Sanskrit og andre Sprog af samme Æt., Holmeboe. C.A., Christiania 1848, Sanskrit og oldnorsk : en sprogsammenlignende afhandling / af C.A. Holboe, Christiania: Fabritius, 1846. And there are other thesises too on the corresponding concepts in Sanskrit and Iclandic.

Óğsmál (Odsmal) is meant to promote research in ethnology, as Grıla (Gryla) might be Gerğur (Gerdur) from Skírnismál (Skirnismal in the Edda), jólasveinar (jolasveinar, yule-boys; julenisse) might be our ancestors in disguise, as they are said to steal food in Iceland. But that actually might have been prohibited food-giving to reverent ancestors .

Return of Jats back to India

Expand this section The same people return to India in later periods with the names Shaka, Pahllava, Kushan, Yuezhi, Huna, Gujar [24]

Qanungo[25] tells us that a great blunder committed by the enthusiastic exponents of the Indo-Scythian theory was to overlook the the line of migration of the people who who call themselves Jat today. The tradition[5] of almost all the Jat clans of the Punjab (even including an apparently extra-Indian people, the Babbar Jats of Dera Ghazi Khan), points to the east or south-east -Oudh, Rajasthan and the Central Provinces-as their original home. If popular tradition counts for anything, it points to the view that they are an essentially Indo-Aryan people who have migrated from the east to the west and Indo-Scythians who poured in from the Oxus Valley. Undoubtedly a certain section of the Jats migrated outside India along with the Bhattis and after several centuries were swept back from the borders of Persia to the east of the Indus. But they cannot be justly called foreign invaders on that account.

Jats in Sindh

Migration of Jats from Sindh

Jats and Meds have been the oldest occupants of Sind. The first Persian account of the 11th century Mujmat ut-Tawarikh (1026), originally an ancient work in Sanskrit, mentions Jats and Meds as the ancient tribe of Sind and calls them the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah.[26][27] The Ghaznavid poet, Farrukhi calls the Jats (Zatt in Arabic) as the Indian race.[28] These Arabic/Persian accounts find support from the early fifth century inscription which documented the the Indianized names of the Jat rulers, [29] such as Raja Jit-Jit Salindra-Devangi-Sumbooka-Degali-Vira Narindra- Vira Chandra and Sali Chandra. Furthermore, the Mujmat ut-Tawarikh also mentions the Indianized name of one of their chiefs of the Jats in remote ancient time as Judrat.[30][31] These textual references further strengthened the view of O'Brien, who opines that the names and traditions of certain Jat tribes seem to connect them more closely with Hindustan. [32] However, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar.[33] Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode.[34] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab.[35] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[36] Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan.[37]

In the seventh century the Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang witnessed their settlement along the flat marshy lowlands which streches to some thousand li.[38] Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran.[39] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region.[40] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[41][42]

Before the invasion of sultan Mahmud (1027), they had firmly established in the region of Multan and Bhatiya on the banks of Indus River.[43][44] Al-Biruni mentions the Mau as the abode of Jats in Punjab, situated in between the river Chenab and Beas.[45] By the 7th century, the whole of Indus basin was populated by a large population of Jats. The Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang refers that 'there are several hundreds of thousands families settled in Sind.'[46] Obviously these unnamed people were the Jats.[47] The Chachnama stratified these large population of Jats, as 'the western Jats' (Jatan-i-Gharbi) and 'the eastern Jats' (Jatan-i-Sharqi), [48] living on the eastern and western side of the Indus River. The chronicler s further classified them as 'The Jats living on the banks of the rivers (Lab-i-Daryayi) [49] and the Jats living in plain, desert (Jatan-i-Dashti); and 'the rustic Jats' (rusta'i Jat) living in villages.[50]

Professionally, they were classified on the basis of their habitats, as boatmen and maker of boats, those who were living in the riverside.[51] However Jats of country side were involved in making of swords; as the region of Deybal was famous for the manufacture of swords, and the Jats were variously called as teghzan (holder of the swords).[52] The rustic people were appointed by the Chach and the Arab commanders as spies (Jasus) and the caravan guide (rahbar). They used to guide the caravans on their way both during day time and at night.[53][54]

In political heirarchy, the early fifth century inscription refers to them as a ruler of Punjab, part of Rajasthan and Malwa.[55] It further highlights their sovereign position with high sounded epithet as Sal, Vira, and Narpati (the Lord). [56] In the military hierarchy, the Chachnama placed them high on the covetous post of Rana. During the war they were brought against enemy as soldiers. In Dahir's army, all the Jats living in the east of Indus River stood marshalled in the rear against the Arab commander Muhammad Bin Qasim.[57] They were also involved in palace management, thus Chach appointed them as his bodyguard (pasdar).[58]

The legendry reference about the Jats and Meds in Majmal-ut-Tawarikh, the first Persian account of the 11th century (1026), [59] involving the mythological figures can not be regarded as a historical fact but would imply that the people designated as Jats were present in Sind at the time of war of Mahabharata.[60]

Jats and Meds have been the oldest occupants of Sind. The first Persian account of the 11th century Mujmat ut-Tawarikh (1026), originally an ancient work in Sanskrit, mentions Jats and Meds as the ancient tribe of Sind and calls them the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. [61][62] The Ghaznavid poet, Farrukhi calls the Jats (Zatt in Arabic) as the Indian race.[63] These Arabic/Persian accounts find support from the early fifth century inscription which documented the Indianized names of the Jat rulers, [64] such as Raja Jit-Jit Salindra-Devangi-Sumbooka-Degali-Vira Narindra- Vira Chandra and Sali Chandra. Furthermore, the Mujmat ut-Tawarikh also mentions the Indianized name of one of their chiefs of the Jats in remote ancient time as Judrat.[65][62] These textual references further strengthened the view of O'Brien, who opines that the names and traditions of certain Jat tribes seem to connect them more closely with Hindustan.[66] According to Dr. Raza, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [62] Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode.[67] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab.[68] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[62] Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan.[69]

Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran.[70] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region.[71] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[62][72]

Thakur Deshraj mentions about the Buddhist Mauryan Jats rulers’ Rai Dynasty. He says that Rai was their title and their capital was at Aror which used to lie on the banks of the Indus River. Rai Meharsan II had a war with Badshah Nimroz of Iran in which he was killed. After him Rai Sahasi II became the king. When Rai Sahasi II fell ill, he called his minister to see the letters. The minister sent his munshi Chach for this purpose. The wisdom of Chach influenced the king and he appointed Chach to look after the palace. This way he got free entry into the palace. Chach developed illegal relations with the queen Suhanadi. Chach conspired with the Rani Suhanadi and killed Raja Sahsi Rai II and married with the queen and became ruler of Sindh, starting a line of Brahmin rulership.[73]

Chachnama gives us comparative detailed information about the Jats of lower Sind (especially of Brahmanabad) in relation to Rai Chach and Muhamad bin Qasim. It says that after the subjugation of the fort of Brahmanabad, Rai Chach humiliated the Jats and the Lohanas and punished their chiefs. He imposed stern and disgraceful regulations on them.[74][75]

Chachnama does not specify the causes of this unusual treatment but it is not difficult to surmise them. Resentful of loss of their state, external interference, and sensitive to autocracy the self-governing Jats have, from earliest times, mostly showed an instinctive attachment to democratic ways.[76][77][78] They were indifferent to the rigidity and exclusiveness in socio-religious structure and generally had a natural apathy to the monarchial form of the government, facts which gradually came to the forefront in the Hindu society under the hegemony of the Gupta Kings and thereafter.[79][80][81] In such a state of affairs, Chach, a high caste Brahman might have harboured a feeling of abhorrence for the defiant unorthodox Jats.[82]

We have a positive knowledge about the prevalence of Buddhism at that period in the Indus Valley, [M.Habib, “The Arab Conquest of Sind”, Islamic Culture Jan,1929], in which the Jats formed the bulk of the population. Hence it is not unlikely, that the Jats had definite leanings towards Buddhism, which was more agreeable to their ways and practices, which are reflected in the book by by Dr. Dharma Kirti, a modern Buddhist.[83][84]

It is also likely that the years long [85] stubborn resistance by Jats and others to Chach during the latter’s siege of Brahmanabad provided him the immediate provocation for adopting the repressive measures.[86]

Chachnama refers to the Jats again at the time of Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion of Sind. Following a query from the conqueror about the position of the Jats under Chach and Dahir, Sisakar, the minister of the fallen King, apprised him of the restrictions imposed upon them. The minister added that it was incumbent upon them to supply escorts and conduct parties and serve as guides. If any injury befell a person on the road they had to answer for it. The minister went on that these people have the disposition of savages and always rebelled against their sovereign....Having heard this, Qasim retained the same regulations against the Jats[87] of the eastern areas but not against those of western, who probably as mercenaries, had joined the invader against the oppressive Dahir.[88][89]

Kamil-ut-Tawarikh notices the Jats seizing upon the roads of Hajar and plundering the corn of Kaskar. They had planted posts in all directions towards the desert. At the orders of the reigning Khalifa, Alif bin Isa marched against them (219 A.H. – 834 AD). He was busy suppressing their chief Muhammad bin Usman for seven months. After killing many of the Jats, Ajif is said to have carried twenty seven thousand of them (including women and children) to Baghdad.[90][91]

Fatuh-ul-Buldan alludes to the Jats having sway over the territory of Kikan. Amran, the governor of [[Sind], (sometimes after 221 A.H. – 836 AD) attacked and subjugated them.[92][93]

Tabkai-i-Akbari writes that Mahmud of Ghazni undertook his seventeenth expedition in 417 A.H. against the Jats (of the region of the Jud hills) who had molested his army on its return from Somnath. Mahmud is said to have organized a fleet of 1400 boats, while Jats could gather 4000 boats (or 8000 according to some). A naval fight ensued between the two at Multan, in which the Jats were drowned. The rest were slain.[94]

Tarikh-us-Subuktigin describes that two or three thousand mounted Jats attacked the Ghazanvide commander Tilak (425 A.H. – 1034 AD) “chiefly for the purpose of seizing his property and money”, when he was perusing the rebel, Ahmad Nialtigin in the lower Punjab. They carried away his son and subsequently killed Ahmad also. The Jats returned his son and the head of the deceased only after getting a portion of the promised reward.[95][96]

Taj-ul-Maasir refers to the rising of the Jats of Haryana (588 A.H. 1192 AD) under their leader Jatwan, following the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Jatwan besieged the Muslim garrison at Hansi. Hearing about it, Qutb-ud-Din hurriedly moved against the Jats. Jatwan raised the siege to confront Qutb-ud-Din, but was beaten after a sanguinary fight. We are told that in samvat 1252 (1195 AD) a meeting of Sarva Khap Panchayat (Federal clan council of the Jats and other kindred people of Upper Doab, Haryana and neighbourng areas) was held in a forest between the villages of Bhoju and Banera under the chairmanship of Rao Vijay Rao of the village, Sisauli. This meeting decided among others to raise a big militia “to defend the Sarva Khap area against a suspected attack by Muhammad Ghori and to protect the area from loot and plunder."[97][98][99]

Th Jats rose again when Timur invaded India. Malfuzat-i-Timuri testifies to his satisfaction over killing 2000 Jats of village Tohna near Sarsuti. He found them “demon like”, “robust”, “marauding” and “as numerous as ants, and locusts”.[100][101] We learn that in order to hold deliberations over the problem of his invasion, a Sarva Khap Panchayat meeting was held in samvat 1455 (1338 AD) in forest of Chugama under the president ship of Dev Pal Rana. It passed the resolutions that they should “vacate the villages, sending the children and women to the forests and that the able-bodied persons should take up arms and destroy the army of Timur."[102][103] The Panchayat militia harassed the forces of Timur, while they were advancing from Meerut towards Haridwar. In the process the former lost 6000 men.[104][105]

Another invader Babar found the Jats inhabiting a tract between Mil-ab and Bhera mountains. He remarks:

“If one goes into Hindustan the Jats and Gujars always pour down in countlesss hordes from hill and plain for loot in bullock and buffalo…When we reached Sialkot, they fell in tumult on poor and needy folks who were coming out of the town to our camp, and stripped them bare. I had the silly thieves sought for, and ordered two or three of them cur to pieces.”[106][107]

It is said that in response of Rana Sanga’s call, a Jat militia of 5000 from the upper Doab and another from the Brij participated in the battle of Sikari against Babar.[108][109]

Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi speaks of one redoubted Jat chief named Fateh Khan who ravaged the country of Lakhi Jungle and the road from Lahore to Panipat. Haibat Khan, the governor of the Punjab, crushed Fateh Khan and his associates.[110][111]

The Jats late opposed, to their worth, Nadir shah (at Karnal) and Ahmad Shah Abdali (at Manupur). These examples suffice to show their tendency of opposing the foreign invaders. K.R. Kanungo rightly remarks:

"They (the Jats) have shown in all times – whether against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, or against Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali – the same propensity to fall upon the rear of a retreating army undeterred by the heaviest odds, or the terror-inspiring fame of great conquerors. When encountered they showed the same obstinate and steady courage unmindful of the carnage on the field or of the miseries that were in store for them after defeat."[112][113]

The traditional accounts of the Jats record that on many occasions the Sarva Khap Panchayat of the Jats and others met to express its deep resentment against the administrative oppression, unjust restrictions and humiliating exactions on ground of religious discrimination. In some cases they reportedly resolved to oppose the Muslim administration in case the oppressive measures were not withdrawn. [ Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.), 6,8-9,12,14], [114]

Migration of Jats from Sind

As for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[62]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the Nort-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[115]

By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[116] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.[62] The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.[117]

When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.[118] However, the third migration took place in early eighth century and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans.[62] Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutb-ud-din Aybak in the region of Hansi.[119]

Migration of Jats to Nagaur

The Jats appear to have proved their worth as an agricultural caste not only in fertile but desert tracts, too. This becomes evident when Rao Var Singh got Merta in Jagir . Rao Jodha, the founder of the city of Jodhpur, parceled out his kingdom among his sons. Merta was jointly bestowed upon in two sons Var Singh and Duda in vikram samvat 1515/1458 [120] He encountered the problem of its colonizatIon. After getting Merta, Rao Var Singh surveyed the area and found it desolate and barren. He faced the complete absence of cultivators in the area but it did not hamper his spirit. As soon as he assumed his authority the Rajputs followed him and got settled there at the initial stage. But later it proved unsatisfactory[121]. Till the middle of the 15th century, this area was desolate and inhospitable for cultivation. [122]

Danga Jats came from Nagaur District

Merta's surrounding areas, part of Nagaur and Jayal were well cultivated and populated by Danga/Daga/Diga, a clan of the Jats. Differences among them surfaced and, consequently, the Dangas first migrated to the village of Kathoti of Jayal and then to Harsor. Finding It difficult to reside there, they continued their search for new settlements. [123]

At Merta, Rao Var Singh was desperately in the quest of cultivators to plough the barren land of his 'fiefdom'. This news reached the caste-leader of the Dangas named Thir Raj who subsequently met the Rao. He offered his services and said that if he was invited, he would colonize all the villages. [124] The Rathor chief agreed to all the demands of the colonizer, and Thir Raj was accorded the status of the head of the pargana (desmukh chaudhari) of the entire territory. [125]His headquarter was established at Dangawas an old locality within Merta itself. [126]

The influence of Thir Raj over the area was overwhelming. He held a position of eminence amongst his caste fellows. By exercising his influence, he brought the Jats of Swalakh (an old name of Nagaur) and got settled in Merta assuring them about their welfare. Consequently, a process of settlement was heralded and village were colonized continuously. In this way the entire area of Merta was settled and populated, making the land productive. The words of Nainsi are: pachhe Merta ra sara gaon basiya, dharati awandan hui . [127] This statement of Nainsi is extremely perceptive: it hints at the expansion of agriculture with the help of irrigational methods practised by the Jats. [128]

Evidence compiled by Nainsi on the clans of the Jats and their original homes and migration there from to different places in Merta are of Immense importance. Prominent immigrant clans like Danga, Thiroda, Chandeliya, Dugsata, Didel (Didelar), Rawna (Vaniya), Kamediya, Bhadu, Kasaniya, Gwalra, Godara, Somarwal, Bohadiya, Latiyal (?), Chohila and Vat Gohilot. These titles belonged to different localities of Nagaur and need proper identification.

Jats came from Bikaner and Ajmer districts

Interestingly, the migration was confined not only to Nagaur but people from Bikaner and Ajmer reached there, too. The Godara of Bikaner and Vat Gohilot, too, headed towards their new abode in Merta. The Godaras migrated from Bikaner whose head named, Pandu exercised bhomichara over the territory of Sekhsar comprised of 360 villages. After the establishment of the Rathor rule over their territory the position of the followers of Godara Pandu might have reduced. Therefore, some of them had migrated to Merta probably for better chance. [129] The Khyat provides the list of the Jat bhomias and their territories in Bikaner. [130]

The mapping of information is illuminating which demonstrates the direction of the peasant migration.

A piece for evidence indicates the Rajput origins of the Jats. Nainsi reports that the Dangas were originally Chauhan Rajputs and had embraced the Jat caste probably in the later 14th or beginning of the 15th century. The first initiator for this change was Jagsi, son of certain Chhaju Jat. [131] Erskine mentions three divisions among the Jats : [132]

  • (1) The asli or pure Jats with no Rajput ancestry;
  • (2) The joint Jat Rajput stock; and
  • (3) The Anjana or those of inferior social rank,

His genealogy found a place in the Nainsi's Vigat. The genealogy of Jagsi goes as follows: [133]

1. Maharikh → 2. Sam → 3. Fokat → 4. Wali → 5. Chhajju → 6. Delu → 7. Jogsi → 8. Duleharo → 9. Thir Raj → 10. Dugar → 11. Viko → 12. Chhitar → 13. Hemo → 14. Jalap → 15 Khinwraj.

Incidentally, Thir Raj, the colonizer of Merta, probably was the grandson of Jagsi. We gather from the genealogy that the office of the desmkh chaudhary granted by the Rathor Chief in the beginning of the 15th century continued in his family even during the 17th century.

Nainsi reports the existence Anjana Jat in a large number of the villages of Merta. In the caste-census of 1891, they are reported to have taken their caste title or nomenclature from their home-village. This statement makes sense of the evidence of the vagat. The Jat immigrants from Nagaur presumably derived their caste title from the name of the Village.[134]

शिवी जाटों के फैलने का वर्णन

ठाकुर देशराज[135] ने लिखा है ....शिवि - यह खानदान बहुत पुराना है। वैदिक काल से लेकर किसी न किसी रूप में सिकंदर के आक्रमण के समय तक इनका जिक्र पाया जाता है। पुराणों ने शिवि लोगों को उशीनर की संतानों में से बताया है। राजा ययाति के पुत्रों में यदु, पुरू, तुर्वषु, अनु और द्रुहयु आदि थे। उशीनर ने अनु खानदान के थे। पुराणों में इनकी जो वंशावली दी है वह इस प्रकार है:- 1. चंद्र 2. बुद्ध 3. पुरुरवा 4. आयु 5. नहुष 6. ययाति* 7. (ययाति के तीसरे पुत्र) अनु 8. सभानर 9. कालनर 10. सृजय 11. जन्मेजय 12.


* कुछ लोग राजा ययाति की राजधानी शाकंभरी अर्थात सांभर झील को मानते हैं जो कि इस समय जयपुर जोधपुर की सीमा पर है।


[पृ.92]:महाशील 13. महामना 14. महामना के दूसरे पुत्र उशीनर और 15. उशीनर के पुत्र शिवि। प्रसिद्ध दानी महाराज शिवि की कथाओं से सारी हिंदू जाति परिचित है।* ईसा से 326 वर्ष पूर्व जब विश्वविजेता सिकंदर का भारत पर आक्रमण हुआ था, उस समय शिवि लोग मल्लों के पड़ोस में बसे हुए थे। उस समय के इनके वैभव के संबंध में सिकंदर के साथियों ने लिखा है:- "कि इनके पास 40,000 तो पैदल सेना थी।" कुछ लोगों ने पंजाब के वर्तमान शेरकोट को इनकी राजधानी बताया है।हम 3 स्थानों में इनके फैलने का वर्णन पाते हैं। आरंभ में तो यह जाति मानसरोवर के नीचे के हिस्से में आबाद थी। फिर यह उत्तर-पूर्व पंजाब में फैल गई। यही पंजाब के शिवि लोग राजपूताना में चित्तौड़ तक पहुंचते हैं। जहां इनकी मध्यमिका नगरी में राजधानी थी। यहां से इनके सिक्के भी प्राप्त हुए हैं जिन पर लिखा हुआ है- 'मज्झिम निकाय शिव जनपदस' दूसरा समुदाय इनका तिब्बत को पार कर जाता है जो वहां शियूची नाम से प्रसिद्ध होता है। कई इतिहासकारों का कहना है कि कुशान लोग शियूची जाति की एक शाखा थे।


* शिवि जाति के कुछ प्रसिद्ध राजाओं का हाल परिशिष्ट में पढ़िए।

यह शेरकोट पहले शिविपुर कहलाता था। कुछ लोग धवला नदी के किनारे के शिवप्रस्थ को शिवि लोगों की राजधानी मानते हैं।


[पृ.93]: महाराजा कनिष्क कुशान जाति के ही नरेश थे। तीसरा दल इनका जाटों के अन्य दलों के साथ यूरोप में बढ़ जाता है। स्केंडिनेविया और जटलैंड दोनों ही में इनका जिक्र आता है। टसीटस, टोलमी, पिंकर्टन तीनों ही का कहना है कि-" जट्टलैंड में जट लोगों की 6 जातियां थी। जिनमें सुएवी, किम्ब्री हेमेन्द्री और कट्टी भी शामिल थीं, जो एल्व और वेजर नदियों के मुहाने तक फैल गईं थीं। वहां पर इन्होंने युद्ध के देवता के नाम पर इमर्नश्यूल नाम का स्तूप खड़ा किया था।” बौद्ध लोगों का कहना है कि भगवान बुद्ध तथागत ने पहले एक बार शिवि लोगों में भी जन्म लिया था। इन लोगों में हर-गौरी और पृथ्वी की पूजा प्रचलित थी। संघ के अधिपति को गणपति व गणेश कहते थे। इनकी जितनी भी छोटी-छोटी शाखाएं थी वह जाति राष्ट्र में सम्मिलित हो गई थी।

आरंभकाल में भारत में शिवि लोगों को दक्ष लोगों से भी भयंकर युद्ध करना पड़ा था। वीरभद्र नाम का इनका सेनापति दक्षनगर को विध्वंस करने के कारण ही प्रसिद्ध हुआ था। एक बार इन में गृह कलह भी हुआ था। जिसका समझौता इस प्रकार हुआ कि हस्ति शाखा के प्रमुख को पार्लियामेंट का इनको सर्वसम्मति से प्रधान चुनना पड़ा।* मालूम ऐसा होता है


* पुराणों में यह कथा बड़े गोलमोल के साथ वर्णन की गई है। हस्ति कबीले के लोग पीछे काबुल नदी के किनारे बसे थे। उनका हस्तीनगर आजकल न्यस्तन्यस कहलाता है।


[पृ.94]:शिवि लोगों के संघ में जब कि वह जाति राष्ट्र के रूप में परिवर्तित हुआ सभी शिवि लोग शामिल हो गए थे। यह भी सही बात है कि नाग लोग भी शिव लोगों की ही शाखा के हैं। क्योंकि पूनिया जाट कहा करते हैं कि आदि जाट तो हम हैं और शिवजी की जटाओं से पैदा हुए हैं। इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं कि शिवि जाटों की संख्या एक समय बहुत थी। क्योंकि सिकंदर के समय में 40 हजार तो उनके पास पैदल सेना ही थी। यदि हम दस आदमियों पीछे भी एक सैनिक बना दे तो इस तरह वे 4 लाख होते हैं और जबकि उनके दो बड़े-बड़े समूह चीन और यूरोप की ओर चले गए थे। यदि समस्त शिवि जाटों की अंदाज से ही गिनती करें तो वह 10 लाख के करीब साबित हो सकते हैं।

शायद कुछ लोग कहें कि 'यह माना कि शिवि एक महान और संपन्न जाति भारत में थी किंतु यह कैसे माना जाए किसी भी शिवि लोग जाट थे'? इसका उत्तर प्रमाण और दंतकथा दोनों के आधार पर हम देते हैं।

(1) पहली दंतकथा तो यह है कि जाट शिव की जटाओं में से हुए हैं। अर्थात शिवि लोग जाट थे।

(2) जाट शिव के गणों में से हैं अर्थात गणतंत्री शिवि जाट थे।

(3) जाट का मुख्य शिव ने बनाया, इसके वास्तविक माने यह है कि 'जाट-राष्ट्रों' में प्रमुख शिवि हैं।

यह इन दंतकथाओं के हमारे किए अर्थ न माने जाएं, तब भी इतना तो इन दंतकथाओं के आधार पर स्वीकार करना ही पड़ेगा कि जाट और शिवि लोगों का कोई


[पृ.95]: न कोई संबंध तो है ही। हम कहते हैं कि संबंध यही है कि शिवि लोग जाट थे। इसके लिए प्रमाण भी लीजिए। "ट्राइब्स एंड कास्ट्स ऑफ द नॉर्थ वेस्टर्न प्रोविन्सेज एंड अवध" नामक पुस्तक में मिस्टर डबल्यू क्रुक साहब लिखते हैं:

The Jats of the south-eastern provinces divide them selves into two sections - Shivgotri or of the family of Shiva and Kashyapagotri.

अर्थात् - दक्षिणी पूर्वी प्रान्तों के जाट अपने को दो भागों में विभक्त करते हैं - शिवगोत्री या शिव के वंशज और कश्यप गोत्री ।

इसी तरह की बात कर्नल टॉड भी प्रसिद्ध इतिहासकार टसीटस (Tacitus) के हवाले से लिखते हैं:- "स्कंदनाभ देश में जट नामक एक महापराक्रमी जाति निवास करती थी। इस जाति के वंश की बहुत सी शाखाएं थी। उन शाखाओं में शैव और शिवि लोगों की विशेष प्रतिष्ठा थी। "

हिंदुओं के प्राचीन ग्रंथकारों ने शिवि लोगों को शैवल और शैव्य कर के भी लिखा है। इनमें कई सरदार बड़े प्रतापी हुए हैं। उनके जीवन पर परिशिष्ट भाग में थोड़ा सा प्रकाश डालेंगे।

जाटों का विदेशों में जाना

ठाकुर देशराज[136] ने लिखा है .... उत्तरोत्तर संख्या वृद्धि के साथ ही वंश (कुल) वृद्धि भी होती गई और प्राचीन जातियां मे से एक-एक के सैंकड़ों वंश हो गए। साम्राज्य की लपेट से बचने के लिए कृष्ण ने इनके सामने भी यही प्रस्ताव रखा कि कुल राज्यों की बजाए ज्ञाति राज्य कायम का डालो।

सारे यदुओं का एक राष्ट्र हो चाहे वे भोज, शूर, अंधक, वृष्णि, दशार्ण आदि कुछ भी कहलाते हों। इसी तरह सारे कुरुओं का एक जाति राष्ट्र हो; पांचाल, पौरव, गांधार, मद्र, पांडव सब मिलकर एक संघ कायम कर लें। किन्तु इसको कोई क्या कहे कि कम्बखत कुरु लोग और यादव लोग आपस में ही लड़कर नष्ट हो गए। यदि वेदो के पंचजना:, कहे जाने वाले, यदु, कुरु, पुरू, आदि संगठित हो जाते तो आज सारे संसार में वैदिक धर्मी ही दिखाई देते। किंतु ये तो लड़े, खूब लड़े। एक दो वर्ष नहीं, सदियों तक लड़े। यही कारण हुआ कि अनेकों समूहों को देश छोड़ विदेशों में भटकना पड़ा। कौनसा खानदान भारत से बाहर (उस बृहतर भारत से बाहर जिसमें काबुल, कंधार, उद्यान और मानसरोवर


[पृ.148]: आ जाते हैं) कब गया, यह तो हम 'जाट शाही' अथवा विदेशों में जाट साम्राज्य नामक पुस्तक में बताएंगे। यहां तो थोड़े से खानदानों का ही जिक्र करना है।

द्वारिका के जाट-राष्ट्र पर हम दो विपत्तियों का आक्रमण एक साथ देख कर प्रभास क्षेत्र में यादवों का आपसी महायुद्ध और द्वारिका का जल में डूब जाना। अतः स्वभावतः शेष बचे जाटों को दूसरी जगह तलाश करने के लिए बढ़ना पड़ा। वज्र को तो पांडवों ने ले जाकर मथुरा का राजा बना दिया। लेकिन स्वयं भगवान श्रीकृष्ण के आठ पटरानियों से 17 पुत्र थे। पुराण अन्य रनियों से 80800 पुत्र बताते हैं। खैर हम 17 को ही सही मान कर चलते हैं। इनमें से दो चार तो बच्चे ही होंगे। ये लोग पूर्व-दक्षिण की ओर तो बढ़ नहीं सकते थे। क्योंकि साम्राज्य का हौआ दक्षिण से ही बढ़ रहा था। दूसरे उधर आबादी भी काफी थी। अतः पश्चिम उत्तर की ओर बढ़े।

उधर पांडवों में भी परीक्षित को इंद्रप्रस्थ का राज्य देने के बाद भीम, नकुल, सहदेव के कई पुत्र शेष रह जाते हैं। स्वयं युधिष्ठिर के भी यौधेयी रानी से पैदा होने वाले यौधेय बाकी थे। अतः उन्हें भी नए देश खोजने के लिए उत्तर पश्चिम की ओर बढ़ना पड़ा। यदि हम हरिवंश, यादव दिग्विजय और महाभारत तथा पुराणों के वर्णन में से सच्चाई को छांट लेने की कोशिश करें तो हमें ज्ञात होता है कि पेशावर से ऊपर उद्यान


[पृ.149]: में जहां तख्तेवाही अथवा भीम का तख्त है वहां भीम के पुत्र आबाद कर दिए गए। और मुगलों के आने तक वे लोग वहां पर आनंद से पीढ़ी-दर-पीढ़ी आबाद रहे। भीम का गल जाना वहीं माना जाता है। कहा जाता है कि युधिष्ठिर नहीं गले थे। इस तरह युधिष्ठिर के साथी कैस्पियन सागर के किनारे तक पहुंच जाते हैं।वे यौधेय ही धेय, धे और यूनानी लेखकों की भाषा में (Dahae) ढे और ढहाये हैं। कुछ लोग ऐसे ही जेन्थोई कहने लगे। यह शब्द जाट यौधेय का अपभ्रंश है, जो केवल भाषा भेद से जेन्थोई हो गया है। इन ढे लोगों को लेकर ही स्ट्रेबो और हेरोडोटस आदि ने भारतीय जाटों को विदेशी समझा है। इस्लाम के जोर के समय इनका एक समूह है भारत में आकर फिर आबाद हो गया जो आजकल ढे नाम से प्रसिद्ध है। यौधेयों का एक समूह आरंभ में पंजाब में ही रह गया था जो आजकल जोहिया कहलाता है।

शिविओं का एक समूह उद्यान को छोड़कर चीन की पूर्वी हद पर पहुंच गया, जो वहां की भाषा में श्यूची कहलाने लगा। कुशान लोग ही श्यूची (शिविची) लोगों की एक शाखा थे जो कि तुर्क देश में बसने के कारण तुरक नाम से भी याद किए हैं। वास्तव में यह वैसे ही तुरक थे जैसे मुंबई के रहने वाले पारसी, हिंदुस्तानी हैं। अर्थात रक्त से तुरक नहीं थे हालांकि पुराणों के कथनानुसार तुरक (तुरुष्क) यदुवंशी की संतान हैं।


[पृ.150]: ईसा की पहली शताब्दी में फिर ये भारत में आ गए और पुरुषपुर अथवा पेशावर को अपनी राजधानी बनाया।

यदुवंश में एक गज हुआ है। जैन पुराणों के अनुसार गज कृष्ण का ही पुत्र था। उसके साथियों ने गजनी को आबाद किया। भाटी, गढ़वाल, कुहाड़, मान, दलाल वगैरह जाटों के कई खानदान गढ गजनी से लौटे हुए हैं।

See also

The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar

References

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  53. Chachnama, pp.33,163
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  55. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
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  57. Chachnama, p. 133
  58. ibid.,p.64
  59. Majmal-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, I, p. 104-105
  60. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 7
  61. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.6 62.7 Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "jabir" defined multiple times with different content
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  65. Mujmat ut-Tawarikh, Ed. Vol.I p. 104
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  67. Elliot, op. cit., Vol.I, p.133
  68. Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Firista, Gulsan-i-Ibrahimi, commonly known as Tarikh-i-Firishta, Nawal Kishore edition, (Kanpur, 1865), Vol.I, p.35
  69. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  70. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
  71. Encyclopedia of Islam, vol.II, p.488
  72. Chachnama, pp. 165-66; Alberuni, Qanun al-Mas'udi, in Zeki Validi Togan, Sifat al-ma'mura ala'l-Biruni; Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of India No. 53, pp.16,72; Abu Abudullah Muhammad Idrisi, Kitab Nuzhat-ul-Mustaq, Engl. translation by S.Maqbul Ahmad, entitled India and the Neighbouring Territories, (I. Eiden, 1960), pp.44,145
  73. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p.700-701
  74. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 150-151
  75. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  76. Bingley’s (Sikhs 11-12)
  77. U.N.Sharma, Jaton Ka Navin Itihas (Jaipur: 1977), 38
  78. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  79. K.P.Jayaswal, Andhakar Yugin Bharat (trans. Ram Chandra Varma), Kashi:Samvat 2014, p.391
  80. R.C.Majumdar, Corporate life in India, 165-167
  81. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  82. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8
  83. Dr. Dharma Kirti , Jat Jati prachhanna Baudh hai, 1999 ed. New Delhi
  84. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 8, f.n.
  85. Chachnama in Elliot, I, 147
  86. G.C. Dwivedi: [[The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
  87. Ibid.,187
  88. Mirza Kalich Beg’s translation of Chachnams quoted by Qanungo, Jats, 28
  89. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 9
  90. Kamil-ut-Tawarikh in Elliot, II, 247-248
  91. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  92. Fatuh-ul-Buldan in Elliot, I, 128
  93. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  94. Tabkai-i-Akbari quoted in Elliot, II, Note D 477-478
  95. Tarikh-us-Subuktigin in Elliot, II, 132-133
  96. G.C. Dwivedi The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 10
  97. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms.) in possession of Chaudhary Qabul Singh of Shoram Muzaffarnagar]
  98. Habibullah, Foundation of Muslim rule in India, 62,81 (footnote)
  99. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  100. Malfuzat-i-Timuri and following it Zafarnama in Elliot, III, 248-249, 491
  101. G.C. Dwivedi, The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  102. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms),13
  103. G.C. Dwivedi : The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  104. Ibid.
  105. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  106. Memoieres of Babar, qaoted by Qanungo, Jats,33
  107. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire]], Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  108. Kanha Ram (Hindi Ms),15
  109. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  110. Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi in Elliotr, IV, 398-399
  111. G.C. Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Delhi, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p. 11
  112. Qanungo, Jats,30
  113. G.C.Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12
  114. G.C.Dwivedi: The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12
  115. Richard F. Burton, op. cit., p.246
  116. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  117. Inscription No.II, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix, pp. 917-919 and n. 13
  118. Chachnama, p.166
  119. Hasan Nizami, Tajul-ma'asir, Fascimile translation in ED, Vol. II, p.218
  120. Cf. Munhata Nainsi, Marwar-ra-Pargana-ri Vigat (hereafter Vigat) I, ed. N.S., Bhati (Jodhpur 1968), p. 37).
  121. Ibid
  122. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.66
  123. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.66
  124. Cf. Munhata Nainsi, Marwar-ra-Pargana-ri Vigat (hereafter Vigat) I, ed. N.S., Bhati (Jodhpur 1968), p. 39).
  125. Ibid.
  126. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.66
  127. 'Rajasthan-ki jatiyan,' complied by Bajranj Lal Lohiya (Culcuta, 1954), p. 25.
  128. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.66
  129. see, Dayal Das-ri-khyat, II, ed. Dashratha Sharma, Dinanath Khatri and Jaswant Singh (Bikaner, 1948) p.7.
  130. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.67
  131. Vigat, II p, 41
  132. see Rajpuiana Gazetters- The Western Rajputan States Residencies and Bikaner, Delhi, reprint (1992) p. 83.
  133. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.67
  134. Prof. B.L. Bhadani (AMU) : "The Role of Jats in the Economic Development of Marwar", The Jats, Vol.I, Originals, 2004, p.67
  135. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Pancham Parichhed ,pp.91-95
  136. Thakur Deshraj: at Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Navam Parichhed,pp.147-150